|Publication number||US1839496 A|
|Publication date||Jan 5, 1932|
|Filing date||Sep 30, 1927|
|Priority date||Sep 30, 1927|
|Publication number||US 1839496 A, US 1839496A, US-A-1839496, US1839496 A, US1839496A|
|Inventors||Pawling George F|
|Original Assignee||Sarah Bellevue Pawling|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 5, 1932. G. F. PAWLING 6 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 30. 1927 4 Sheets-She et 1 INVE OR 2%1 g i l Jan. 5, 1932. PAWUNG 1,839,496
BUILDINGXDONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 50. 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 2E ATTORNEY Jan. 5, 1932. G. F. PAWLING 1,839,496
BEIILDING CONSTRUCTION ed Sept. 30. 1927' 4 Sheets-Sheet s mm,"- ......,,.,.,.......7 "w"... I
I l H -J j fi Jan. 5, 1932. G. F. PAWLING ,3
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. so. 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATTORNEYS IX mv/woR 3 0 Z6 24 25 jay? Patented Jan. 5, 1932 GEORGE E. PAVTLEIJG, F PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOB, BY MESNE AS- SIGNB'IENTS,
snnnn snnnnvnn rawnrnte, or ennnsrnn, PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING CONSTRUCTION i'lpplieationfilcd September 30, 1927.
This invention relates to building. construction, and is particularly applicable for use in applying plastic coatings to girders, joists, or columns, and it has especial reference to a system of fireproofing with gypsum. V
A is now pretty generally recognized in the art, gypsum is an excellent fireproofing material, but it has not come into. as extensive use as its merit in this respect warrants, primarily for the reason that it lacks somewhat in structural strength and is liable to be melted off under the action of the heat or washed off under the high pressure'streams of water commonly used in fighting fires.
With the foregoing in mind, my invention contemplates for one of its principal objects the provision of a system of building construction in which it is possible to use to the fullest extent the undoubted merit of psum as a fireproofing. In carrying out my invention 1 provide means for applying what I have termed armored gypsum to girders, ceilings and columns.
More specifically stated, my invention has for an object the provision of an improved self centering form which acts as reinforcement as well as form, and which can be applied with equal readiness to joists, girders or columns, and by my improvements I entirely do away with the necessity for supplementary wooden forms or supporting shoring.
it is also an object of the invention to provide an improved form plate which can be assembled in one plane preferably horizontal on the floor or upon some suitable table, and then subsequently raised and secured directly in the position which it will ulti-,
mately occupy in the finished construction. ll There fiat ceilings are concerned, my 1mpraved form will, of course, be applied in its fiat condition, just as it was assembled, but
where it is to'be applied to a girder or a column or some other characteristically formed structural member, it is first bent after assembly to the shape desired and then secured in position adjacent the member which is to be coated or fireproofed.
A further object of the invention is to Serial No. seams.
provide a system of the character described which is exceedingly simple,inexpensive to manufacture, and economical. to use, and one in which the various steps can be performed by unskilled labor.
Other objects and advantages will be pointed out hereinafter in connection with the followingdescription of the accompanying drawings which illustrate preferred embodiments of the invention, and in which Fig. 1 is a cross sectionthrough a floor and ceiling construction illustrating most of the features of the invention.
Fig. 2is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1. V 4
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 33 of Fig. 1. Fig. 4: is a'plan View on an enlarged scale "of a section of my improved form illustrating the formation of the metal lath or form plate and the manner inwhich adjacent lengths of the metal lath or form plates and furring strips are joined together and the manner, in which the plates and the furring are secured together. i Fig. 5 is a section'on the line 55 of Fig. 4 which shows, in addition, the means which I prefer to use in supporting the form where it occupies'a generally horizontal position and the manner in which the plastic material incorporates itself with the form structure. Fig. 6- is a vertical sectionon an-enlarged scale taken longitudinally of the furring strips and showing in greater detail the manner in which the metal lath or form plate'is secured to the furring.
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatical perspective of a section of a form in its flat condition preparatory to being bent into the shape necessary to fit a supporting beam or girder.
Fig. 8 shows the form of Fig. 7 in its bent position. i
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration of the manner in which a flat form is prepared and bent for application to a rectangular supportsired.
-most clearly. in Figs. 4c and 6. Atintervals along these overlapping portions I slit the material ofthe lath to form opposed tongues 4, the tongues on one section of the lath overlapping the tongues on the other section. By bending the overlapping tongues backward- ;ly on themselves as. shown in Figs. 1 and 6,
adjacent sections of theplates 1 are secured together. Thls is shown 1n greater detail 1n m y Patent No. 1,574,304, issued'February 23,
1926, to which reference may behad,if de The furring strips 2 are U-shaped cross section as clearly indicated in Fig. 5, the base portion of the Ubeing provided with a plurality of downwardly and horizontally extending clips 5 which are formed by slittingthe metal. of the furring strip on all but one end of such a clip, and then bending. the
-. material. first downwardly and then horizontally, as most clearly shown in Fig.6. These clips are adapted to be engaged beneath the upstanding loops 6 formedin the body of the metal lath. This appears most clearly in .Figs..4, 5 and 6.
In order to provide for continuous, lengths of furring from one endof a ceiling to another, for example, I provide each section of furring with a socket portion 7 at one end and a tongue 8 at theother, which sockets ,andtongues can beveasily provided for by simply deforming the metal of the furring strip. The furring strip as described is disclosed and claimed in my Patent No..1,625,-
; 865, issued April 26, 1927, to which reference maybe had if desired.
7 Itwill be noted that the loops 6 in the metal lath or form plates 1 are arrangedin rowsbetween which are ribs or corrugations 6a with the. concave side downwardly, as appears very clearly in Fig. 6. This provides for an alternation of loops and corrugations all the way across a ceiling. Furthermore, theoverlapping edges 3 of adjacent sections of the form plates are likewise provided with the. corrugations 6a.
In preparing a form for a section of ceiling as shown in Figs. 1, 3 and 5, the metal lathis first laid out fiat in a horizontal posi .tion, either on the floor below,-or upon some suitable table with the loops 6 uppermost. The furring'strips arethen applied by slid ing;them longitudinally so asto engage the clips beneath the loops 6. A form so prepared isthen raised in any suitable manner t th pes en whi it .i t o upy ben ath the joists 9 and is then supported from the joists by means of hangers 10, each of which has a hook-like portion 11 at the top adapted to embrace the upper T-shaped cord 12 of the joist in the manner indicated in Figs. 1 and 3. At the bottom each hanger is additionally provided with a similar but smaller hook 13 adapted to pass under and around the 'furring strips 2-, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and i5,but most clearly in Fig. 5. In this way it is easy to maintain the ceiling form at its proper elevation throughout the length of the joists because at each point of support, the hanger extends downwardly from the top cord ofthe joist and the top cord is, of course, fixed as toits location.
After the ceiling form has been put in place as described, the plastic gypsum 1a is poured thereon from above. The gypsum hows under and around the loops 6 and over and around the furring strips and the lower ends of the hangers 10, so that such parts of the structure become intimately bound up or incorporated in the gypsum, the metal lath constituting a reinforcement 'or armor for the gypsum, as well as a form during the pouring operation. The customary coat of plaster 15 may be applied to the under surface of the form.
Inthis wa it will be seen that I have provided fireproofing material which I have called armored gypsum because the metal lath is formed and incorporated in the gypsum in such a way as to protect the gypsum from the action of heat or water. As is well understood in this art, gypsum becomes fluid at high temperatures, so that it will gradually drip off under the action of the fire aided by the washing action ofthe high pressure streams of water which may be applied against it. Lhis has constituted one of the difiiculties heretofore encountered in the use of gypsum as a fireprooling, but by my improvements these difiiculties are entirely overcome, since the metal lath prevents the gypsum from dripping or sloughing off in case OI fire.
I wish to direct attention to the fact that in case of fire the comparatively thin coating of plaster 15 blows off, thus exposing the metalof the form plate to the action of the heat so that considerable expansion of the formplate occurs and must be taken care of in order to maintain perfect contact with the gypsum above and prevent any loss. This is accomplished by virtue of the corrugations 6atand the loops 6 in alternation across the ceiling. I prefer to place the corrugations approximately upon centers and the loops upon l fi centers staggered in adjacent rows. The action which takes place under the expansion of the heat is somewhat as follows: The metal, of course, eXpands,.but the expansioniscompletely taken care of in one direction bythe corrugations and in the op- 1 I iii.
posite direction by the loops. Therefore, the expansion of the form plate as a whole is accommodated throughout in small localized,
- gypsum whereas, with the construction'which I employ, this is not possible and the gypsum is at all times well protected or armored By virtue of this construction the relative motion between the plate and the gypsum is, for all pracical purposes, a negligible factor.
l Vhere a supporting girder or beam 16 is encountered l first assemble a section of metal lath 1 in a horizontal position as indicated in ig. 7, then apply thereto the furring trips 2a in the manner already described and nd'cated liagrammatically in Fig. 7, which trips may be especially notched out as at '1'? that the form, as a whole, may be readily out into the position shown in Fig. 8, and hen applied to the girder 16, as shown in igs. 1 and '2.
The girder form so prepared andplaced in 1 position is then supported similarly to the manner in which the ceiling form is supported, exceptthat the hangers 18 are of an in verted rl-shape so that they. may be passed over the top of the girder 16 from which they are suspended. The end of each leg of the ll-shaped hangers 18 is provided with i- 19 which passes beneath and around h ring At each side of the girder he lath of the girder form may be bent over as 20 to meet the lath in the ceiling form,
shown in Fig. 1. In order to properly position the girder form, I prefer to use supplemental strips 21 which may be made, if desired, from a. section of a furring strip placed in inverted position (see Figs. 1 and 2) and held'in place on the lower flanges of the girder 16 by means of the bent metal pieces 22. The bent metal pieces may be secured to the strip 21 in any desired manner, and before application of the strip, the pieces 22 project vertically upward, and after application they are bent around to embrace the flanges of the girder 16 as shown in Fig. 1. The ends of the strips 21 are embraced by the furring strips as at 21a. This provides simple yetlirm positioning means for the girder form.
After the girder form is in place, the gyp sum 14: is poured from above the pouring operation, as a matter of fact taking place at the time that the ceiling is poured, as already described, it being understood, of course, that all of the forms for a given area or section of the ceiling are in place when pouring operations are being conducted.
The same idea is carried over into the fireprooiing of supporting columns, the form of Fig. 9 having been laid out in horizontal position prior to the bending operation. Here the furring strips 26 must be provided relation as at 25.
strips in the loop-s they can be positioning must t ing into with four notched out places 17a in caseof a rectangular or square column, such as illustrated in Figs-'9 to 11 mclusive.
After the form is bent to the positlon shown in Fin". 9, it is a-aplied to the column 23 of Fig. 11, and thenthe bending is completed so that the form will enclose the columnas clearly shown in Figs. 10 and 11. I
prefer to arrange the-parts so that the joint 24 will come approximately at one corner of the column, and it will be noticed, by referring to Fig. 10, that the ahuting ends of the furring strips 2?) are arranged in lapped This lopin is made possible by virtue of the clips 5 on thefurring strips is substantiah ly less than the loops 6 beneath which they are engaged, and by simply offsetting the furring made to lap past each other as described. l i
A column form is positioned around its column in much the manner already described for he girder form, except that the he place in two directions.
[it i ale-vi are provided the posi ioning strips 26 which are secured to the flanges of the column by means of the clips 27 in the manner already described for the girder form, the ends of the fact that the width of ally along the column 23 the strips 26 being pressed or distorted 50 fit Within the legs of the ld-shaped furring may be introduced'in every third or fourth furring strip. In the other direction strips 29 maybe employed and securedwith respect to the column flanges in any similar or other desired manner, with their ends'also projectthe furring strips 26 as at 30. After the column forms are in place, the gypsum 14 is poured in plastic condition as already described in connection with the ceiling and girder construction, and the coating of plaster 15 subsequently applied to the out side. 7 I
It Will be seen that I have devised an extremely simple system for fireproofing buildings, and thatthe essential features of the invention maybe applied throughout, namely, to'the ceiling, to the girders, and to the columns. In pouring the gypsum I prefer to place all of theforms for the ceiling, girders and columns inany given section of'a floor of the building, and then pour the gypsum all atone time, the pouring, of course, taking place from above. After the fireprooiin'g has been applied, the floor 31 of concrete may be poured, the floor form 32 having been placed 1n. positlon first.
This floor form consists of metal lath similar to the form plate used in-constructing ceiling. It should be noted that the top cords of thejoists may be provided with upstanding pegs 33 adapted to puncture the lath 32 possible toerect forms without the necessity instead of the ofemploying skilled labor, the assembly of the lath and furring strips, and the subsequent bending, where necessary, and position- .ing, being extremely simple operations which can be earned out by workmen of average qualifications. Expensive uwooden forms which must only be torn down after the fire proofing has set are dispensed with, and the form which I do employ becomes an integral part of the structure and serves to protect or armor the gypsum. 7 I
tthe time of pouring the ceilin fireproofingslab and before the gypsum has obtained its set, I prefer to straighten the under side with a straight edge so that the finished slab is perfectly straight, thereby presenting a surface for applying the plaster which becomes unusually eflicient because of the straightness and because of the admirable key provided by the type of the form plate and the projection of a small amount of gypsum at each loop opening. This makes it possible to produce perfectly satisfactory results with a one or two coat finish of plaster customary two or three coat finish.
I claim l t 1. In building construction the herein described method of covering a structural mem- V ber'which consists in laying out metal lath in flat position, in securing furring thereto, in bending the assembled lath and furring into a self-centering form ofthe shape desired, in applying the form to the structural .member, and in pouring an inner fill of plastic material.
2. The herein described method of proofing the structural work of buildings which comprises laying out form plate or metal lath in flat position, in securing furrin g thereto, in bending the assembled plate and furring into a self-centering form of the shape desired, in applying said self-centering form to the work, and in pouring an inne fill of fireproofing.
8. In the fireproofing of ceilingstructures, the method which comprises laying out form plate or metal lath in flat position, in securing furring thereto, in suspending said assembly by said furring from said structure, and in pouring an inner fill of fireproofing. 4:. A fireproof coating including, in combination, an outer metallic form plate, spaced rows of inwardly projecting'loops and inwardly projecting corrugations between the rows of loops, attaching furring secured to loops transversely of the rows, and an inner fill ofgypsum. Y
-'5. Infireproof building construction, the combination of an outer metallic form plate, inwardly projecting rows of loops pressed out of the metal of the plate, inwardly projecting corrugations between the rows of loops, attaching furring secured to the loops, and an inner fill of gypsum. 1
6. The method of fireproofing the structural work of buildings, which comprises placinga self-centering metal form adjacent the structure, pouring thereon an inner fill of fireproofing material, and in straightening the exposed surface while the fill is still plastic.
7. In the fireproofing of ceiling structures, the method which comprises laying out form plate or metal lath in flat position, in securing furring thereto, in suspending said as sembly by said furring from said structure, in pouring a fill of fireproofing thereon, and in straightening the exposed surface while the fill is still plastic.
8. In building construction the method-of eoyering structural work which comprises laying out form plate or-metal lath in flat position, in fastening furring thereto, in securing said assembly to the structural work, and in pouring an inner fill of fireproofing.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name.
GEORGE F. PAIVLING.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4393636 *||Sep 24, 1980||Jul 19, 1983||Rockstead Raymond H||Box beam reinforced concrete structure|
|U.S. Classification||52/673, 52/741.41|
|International Classification||E04B5/17, E04B5/29|