US 1839767 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. M. LOPEZ 1,839,767
DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 18, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet l Jan. 5, 1932.
y u ATTORNEYS.
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@gf/ff@ Jan. 5, E, M, LOPEZ DRILLING APPRATUS Filed Feb. 18, 1950 2 SheQtS-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
ATTORNEYS' Patented Jan. 5, 1932 PATENT y of-FFll-cs: f i
ERNESTM. LoPEz,= F VENTURA, CALIFonNiA nnirmne APPARATUS Application med rebraarylla 1930. serial No. 42.9",287.v
rl`his invention relates to improvements in drilling apparatus.
The primary object of this invention 1s the provision of an improved drill and reamer' bit yof the rotary expanding blade type, having a relatively simple and improved ar-` rangement to permit'the efficient extension of the blades into an operative relation by hydraulic means, and improvedmeans to per- .0 mit the retraction'of'the cutters and blades'. A further object of thi'sinvention is the provision lof an improved combination drill and reamer bit structure which includes a two-part casing, with all oftheblades-and operating parts carried by the lower portion Oflthe casing orbody structure. y
Other objects and l advantages-1' ofl this'invention will be apparent during the course of the following detailed description.
In the accompanying drawings,-for1nin`g a part of'thisspecification, and wherein similar reference characters designate corresponding parts throughout-,the several-views,
Figure l is a longitudinal sectional view of the improved drilling apparatus.
Figure 2 isa viewy showing the improved drilling apparatus, partly in section, in an op'- erative relation in awellcasing; the 'same being lowered -in the casing just prior to any v operative extension of the cutting meansy Figure 3 is a bottom plan view of the structure as arranged in Figurel. A
Figure 4 is a sectional. viewftakenthrough details of the drilling apparatus ata different angle than that shown in Figure l', to fdisclose the relation of the blade expansion piston means' with respect to drain ducts. l
Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectionalview of the lower portion ofthe Vbit structure, show-l ingj the blades extended, with the means which causes their expansion in adj acentoperative relation.
Figures and 7are sectional5views taken substantially on their respective lines in Figure 5 of thedrawings.
FigureS is a sectional view taken substantially on its respective Vline in Figure 2 vof the-drawings.y Y
Figure 9 v.isa fragmentarycsectional view showing the partsof the apparatus of i 4, with -ythepiston in a'difl'erent relation with respect todrain and washing ducts.
T Figure l0 is a sectional view taken substantially'on the line 10-10 of Figure 9.
Inf-the drawings-wherein for the purpose of illustration yis shown`V only va preferred embodimentof the invention, the letterAl may Y generally designate the improved hydraulically operated rotary expanding drill and reamerbit, which may include `a body structure'or ca'sing'B, having,` supporting at the lower-end thereof radially expansble blades C in anloperative` relation with respect' to piston means D to cause their expansion.- i
Thestock' or body structure B 4'preferably comprises an upper section l5, anda lower section-16; the latter being'providedwitha screw threadedsocket 17 in its upper end, which receives the tapered externally screw threaded reduced shankl9 onthelower end of the ystock seetionv l5. The upper; section l5 of the body structure or stock Bis tubular, having a passageway 20 therethrough,` 0f uniform diameter, and the upper end; 21 thereof is reduced and provided with an ex-Y ternally'polygonal VWrench engaging 'head or shown in Figure l, and the' extreme lower f end. 26 thereofy is convexly-taperedin'a convergent relation to a pointaxially thereof, as shown in the various-viewsjofthe drawings. The lower end of 'theflower'section l5 is pref'- erably-provided with radial sl0ts-27 therein, which vmay be provided in" any approved number, preferablythree, as shown in the drawings. The saidfslots 27 Iopen both along the side walls of fthe section 16 and'extend downwardly and`- open at they bottom thereof through' the reduced portion y26, as well shown inA F igurel of the drawings. The up,-` per endsofthe slots 27 areenlarged` laterallyrat 28, at both sides of the plane of each slot 27 to provide a sort of T-slot, for re- -ceiving a blade C in the relation which per- 'nuits ythenn dropping downwardly through the slots axially of the stock, as can readily be understood.
The stock section 16 is furthermore provid- Ved with a passageway 30 therethrough,
.portion 32 of the piston means D abuts to limit the lowered movement o f the piston means. The passageway 30 at the lower end thereof is concavely restricted at 33 and terminates in a reduced passageway 34 which outlets directly atk the meeting point of the various slots 27 which lcommunicate axially in the stock section 16 immediately below the reduced passageway 34, as is quite apparent from Figure 1. It is tobe noted that the shank 17 of the section 15 when screw threaded in the section 16 provides a shoulder 36 facing downwardly in the passageway 30, which provides an abutment against which the top surface of the piston head 32 may enhe blades C are of novel construction, each including the preferablyl flat body portion 40, fof uniform thickness, which at the lower end thereof is provided with a laterally extending downwardly inclined cutting portion 41, although the cutting edge may be of other design, if desired. The blades C are provided with convex outer edges 42; the uppery body portion having the convex edge 42 noticeably sloped at an angle to the axis of the stock B. The opposite edge 43 of the blade is concaved, and the blade in width generally tapers from intermediate its ends downwardly in a wider iiaring relation, as shown in Figure l. lThe upper `end of the body portion 40 of each blade is provided with a T-head 47, mounted on the body40 in a T-shaped relation, that is, it projects at opposite sides from the plane of the bodyrportin 40, as well shown in Figure 4 of the drawings, and which head 47 `is for sliding in the enlarged portion 28 of the T-slot 27, to permit a radial movement of the blade in its respective'slot 27against any `other movement except radial sliding movement with respect thereto. As is shown more particularlyv in Figures 1, 7 and 8 of the drawings, the upper portion of the blade C along the head 47 thereof and partially along the upper body 40, where the same faces the axial bore of the stock section 16, is provided with either a convex edge, or convergent surfaces sloping to a chisel or blunt edge facing parallel with the axis of the stock B, and which edge receives thevmandrel or stem 51 of the piston means C thereagainst, to permit of the extension of the blade, in a relation which is perfectly apparent from the drawings. It is to be noted that the lower flaring cutting portion of the blade C depends below the stock section 16, and when the said blades are retracted fully in their slots 27, the edges 42 thereof lie entirely within the outer circumference of the stock section 16, extended.
The piston means D, as above mentioned, includes the head 32 slidably mounted in a reciprocating relation in the passageway 30 Vbetween the shoulders 31 and 36, and in such a relation that pressure supplied upon the top thereof may not leak therepast. To this end, it may be provided with piston rings, if found necessary. The head 32 is provided with a reduced stem or mandrel A51, the lower end of which is conically pointed 1 at 56, and adapted to extend into the passageway 34 of the stock section 16, into the small opening between the meeting ends of the blades C when the latter are fully retracted; said small opening being shown at 60 in Figure 8 of the drawings. Vater pressure is preferably applied upon the top of the piston 32, through the passageways 20 and 30, forcing the piston means D downwardly so that the pointed end of the mandrel extends into a wedging relation between the meeting ends of the blades C; forcing the same outwardly in their guide slots 27, into radial cutting extension at their lower ends with respect to the stock section 16. The tapered end 56 enables as gradual an extension of the blades C to their cutting position, as desired, and the final rest position of the piston means D enables the mandrel 51 to assume a position where the facing edges of the blades C engage against the vertical sides of the cylindrical portion of the mandrel, so that there cannot be a retraction of the blade C with respect to the stock B.
The stock section 16 is provided with vertical ducts 48 therein, in parallelism with the passageway 30; the upper ends 50 thereof being laterally inclined Y and communicatet with the passageway 30 at a point between the shoulders 31 and 36 and in relation to the head 32 of the piston means D so that as soon as the piston means D has been moved downwardly to fully move the blades C to their expanded cutting positionfthe head 32 will ride to a position below the ends 50 of the ducts 48 and permit the water to pass into-the ducts 48 and downwardly therethrough, outletting on-the lower surface of the stock B, into detritus washing relation with respect to the cutting ends of the blades'C, in a 'relation which is apparent from the drawings.
`Means is provided to enable va retraction of the blades C when the drill pipe or stem is withdrawn, by movementA of the piston means D to an inoperative position. This means consists in the provision of lever-like dogs 60 and 61 pivoted upon pins 62 within slots 63 cut through the walls of the stock section 16, at opposite sides of the passageway 30. The dogs have inner piston engaging ends 66 which extend into the passageway 30 of the stock section 16, and at the opposite sides of the pivots are provided with ends 67 which may be retracted entirely within the slots 63, or extended transversely beyond the outer surfaces of the cylindrical portion of the stock section 16, in the position shown in Figure 5 of the drawings, when the piston means D is held in a pressure relation in the stoel; section 16 for expanding the blade C to a cutting` position. They are in their retracted position as shown in Figure 2. Their function will be well understood. With the drilling tool in its operating condition,. with the blades C expanded as shown in Figure 5, the piston means D moves down and the dogs at theirends 67 extended beyond the outer surface of the stock section 16. When the drill stem is to be withdrawn it will of course be necessary to retract. the blades C. rThis is accomplished upon upward withdrawal of the drill stem, inasmuch as the projecting ends 67 will then engage against the preferably inclined lower edge 70 of the well casing structure K, moving the ends 67 of the levers 60 downwardly and inwardly into their slots 63 and moving the ends 66 upwardly within the passageway 30 of the stock section 16 where they engage the lower surface of the piston head 32, at opposite sides of the mandrel 51, and lifts the entire piston means D upwardly to position the cone end 56 at a point where the blades C are not engaged thereby. Then, as the drill stem is elevated further the convex edges 42 ride into engagement with the lower end of the casing K, and are slid into collapsed relation in the slots 27, since there is no force nor means holding them positively expanded. The collapsed relation is shown in Figure 1 of the drawings. It is to be particularly noted that r when the blades are held in their expanded condition by the piston means D, the ends 7 of the dogs or levers 60 at their eXtreme edges do not project radially for as great a distance as the effective cutting radius of the blades C, so that the dogs at their projecting ends will not interfere with nor contact the walls of the bore, as is Vsho-wn in the relation of parts designated in Figure 6.
It is to be particularly well noted that all of the operating parts are carried by the lowerV section 16 of the stock structure B.
Various changes in the shape, size, and arrangement o-f parts may be made to the form of invention herein shown and described, without departing from the spirit of the invention 0r the scope of the claim.
In a drill construction the combination of a stock having transverse guide slots intermediate its ends and an axial bore, blades slidably mounted in said slots, a mandrel slidably mounted in said bore and movable into expanding relation between the blades, said stock above the mandrel having a portion sliding in piston-like engagement within said bore, said bore above the piston-like portion being unobstructed for admission of a pressure liquid thereto for moving the mandrel into its expanding relation with the blades, and lever means carried by the stock extensible therefrom when the mandrel is in blade expanding position so that the same may engage a well casing upon withdrawal of the stock therefrom to ymove the mandrel out of blade expanding relation.
ERNEST M. LOPEZ.