US 1841487 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. `19, 1932. wf'fLEwlS A TELEVISION APPARATUS AND METHOD OF TELEVISING Filed July l, 1929 ,lala/292,5
Cllbtomg single figure is a diagrammatic view show- Patented Jan. 19k,` 1932 Para cria f WILLIAM 'runnen Lew-rs, or asoma, wisconsin TELEVISION' .APPARATUS AND METHOD 0F TELEVISING The invention relates totelevision apparatus and to the method of televising. *A
rl`his invention is designed-to provide atelevisionapparatus and a method of televising "5 in which a binocular eiect is produced.
In its broadest aspects, this invention contemplates the transmission of images by electrical means and the reproduction of the image at the receiving end or station in such a manner as to produce theeiiect of binocular vision for the observen Y Further objects of this invention are to provide a television apparatus and a method of televising in which spaced light responsive means are employed at the transmitting station and in which spaced light producing or light controlling means are employed at the receiving end or station, the later. means bemeans. x
Further objects of this invention are to provide a method of producing a binocular eect byl means of televisionwhich is applicable to wireless transmission or to wire transmission.
Further objects are to provide a television apparatus for producing a binocular e'ect in which two spaced light responsive means are associatedwith scanning means land control modulating means whereby electrical energy is modulated rand in`which a receiving apparatus is provided tolselectivelyreceive the modulated electrical energ thel receiving apparatus having spaced light controlling controlled, associated with means whereby separate images are formed for the two eyes of the observer. l
An embodiment of the invention is shown in the accompanying drawing in which' the ing a sending and receiving apparatus.
The sending or transmitting station is provided with a pair of separate light responsive means l and 2, which may take the form of photo-electric cells, for instance, and which are spaced apart. Eachfcell. may be associated with some form of scanning means, such, for example, as thescanning discs 3 and 4l which cooperate with the apertured plates 5 ing selectively controlled by theV formerv or producing means, themselves electrically AApplication led July 1, r19%9. Serial No. 375,284.
and 6, the discs being driven inany suitable manner either separately, as by means of the motors 7 and 8, or by a single drive mechanically or electrically coupled. These photoelectric cells are adapted to receive light from any object such ,as indicated yby the reference character 9; This object may be a moving object, a still object, a picture, or any other article.` 'n
ln'the form shown, a source of light 10 has been indicated. Gbviously anynumber of light sources could be employed,"and, if de'- sired, sources of radiant `energy outside of the visible spectrum could be employed for energizing the object. v Y
vlt isto be ,distinctly understood that, if desired, the object fand the photo-electric cells or other light responsive means could beenclosed in a dark room and a scanning spot of light could traverse the object. The illustration in the form used in the drawing is merely a means employed to illustrate one of the many'forms that the apparatus may take, and itis to be definitely understood that this illustration and the accompanying description is not intended as limiting in any sense, Vbutmerely as one specific method in which the invention may be embodied.
It is also to be understood that the light responsive means referred to and indicated by the reference characters l and 2 may be means responsive to light in thevisible spectrum or means responsive to radiant energy outside of the visible spectrum.-
rlhe photo-electric cells l and 2`control amplifiers ll yand l2 which in turncontrol modulators 13 and la. rlhese modulators, in the form of the invention shown, are adapted `to sent out wireless waves of difterentwave upon the particular wireless system utilized. Y
y From the description thus far given,'it is apparent that the value ofthe `wireless wave radiated from the antenna 15 is controlled by the light falling upon the photo-electric cell 1, and the energy radiated by the antenna 16 is controlled by the light falling upon the photo-electric cell 2.
In the for-m of the invent-ion shown, it is intended that the cells l and 2 be spaced apart a distance approximately equal to the distance between the eyes oi' a person. It is obvious that the same result could be secured by optical means, and the spacing ot the photo-electric cells could be varied, pro-vided that the points et entrance of the two beams oli light into the optical means be spaced apart a distance corresponding to the average spacing of a persons eyes.
In the following description and in the claims it is intended, therefore, that the eX- pression light responsive means be interpreted as covering either the arrangement illustrated in the drawings in which the photo-electric cells are actually spaced apart the distance noted above, or in which the optical nieans associated with the light responsive means are spaced apart such distance that the two rays of light entering the apparatus actually enter such apparatus at points corresponding to the spacing oi the eyes of a person.
The receiving apparatus or receiving station employs the pair of antennae indicated at 17 and 18 which are connected to the wireless receiving devices or apparatus 19 and 20, such devices being either grounded or connected to' a counterpoise.
It is obvious that loops could he employed for either the sending or the receiving apparatus, or for both such apparatus.
The receiving apparatus 19 is connected to a light' producing or light controlling device 21, and similarly the receiving apparatus 2O is connected to a light producing or light controlling device 22. These devices may take the form of the usual television lamps, it desired.
In the form of the invention shown, scanning discs 23 and 2-/l are associated with the light producing devices 21 and 22 respectively, and the usual apertured screens 25 and 26 are employed with the scanning discs.
The scanning discs may be driven in any suitable manner, either from a single drive or from separate drives, as, for instance, the electric motors 27 and 28.
The scanning disc 23 is synchronized with the scanning` disc 4 and the scanning disc 2-1; is synchronized with the scanning disc in any suitable manner, not shown. Any of the usual means employed for this purpose could be used.
Screens 29 and 3() are adapted to receive the rays of light from the devices 21 and 22. These screens may be ground glass, for instance, or may taire other forms. An optical apparatus indicated generally by the reference character 31 is associated with the screens and is adapted to conduct light from the screens to the two eye pieces 32 and 33, as shown in the drawing. It desired, total reflecting prisms 3a and 35 may be employed in the optical apparatus, so that the screens 29 and 30 may be spaced apart a greater distance than the average spacing of a persons eyes. However, in the form chosen for illustration, the eye pieces 32 and 33 are spaced apart the average distance of a persons eyes, in accordance with a well known practice in optica-l devices. Either one or both of the pieces may be made adjustable either as to focus or as to position, although this old eX- pedient has not been shown in the drawing.
The purpose of spacing the screens 29 and 30 apart a greater distance than the spacing of a persons eyes is to facilitate the positionin g of the lamps or light producing devices and the scanning apparatus. Obviously the lamps may be spaced apart the average distance of the spacing of a persons eyes, and under these conditions it would not bc necessary to employ the total reflecting prisms.
It is within the province of this invention to vary the spacing between the light responsive devices 1 and 2 and correspondingly vary the position of the light producing ori cont-rolling parts and the optical apparatus in the receiving station` providedv the eitect produced at the eyes of the observer gives binocular vision.
The transmitting apparatus may send out two diiiierent waves which may be only slightly diiierent or may be widely different., and the receiving apparatus is accordingly tuned to these two waves in order to secure the selective control.
The desired result could be secured in other ways not shown in the drawing. For eX- ample, a single wave could be employed and the separate halves or loops of this wave could be separately controlled and separately utilized at the receiving end.
It is, of course, within the'province of this invent-ion, to transmit the electricall impulses by wire as well as by wireless, without departing from the spirit of this invention. In fact, a carrier wave could be employed or other electrical impulses could be used.
In the operation of the apparatus in the particular form chosen for illustration, the object is illuminated, and as the scanning devices operate at the sending end, the intensity of the light falling upon the two light sensitive devices 1 and 2 varies in accordance with the lighting of the object. It will be seen that the light falling upon the two light sensitive devices 1 and 2 corresponds to the iight that would tall upon the eyes ot an observer stationed at this position.
The modulated wireless waves are received at the receiving station by the devices 19 and 2O which, in turn', control the lamps 21 and 22, such lamps increasing or decreasing in brilliancy in proportion to the intensity of light falling upon the light sensitive devices 2 and 1 respectively. Obviously the lamps,
ythe scanning apparatus, and the associated optical device produces a picture for each side of the receiving apparatus. These pictures are transmitted to the eyes of the observer. Thus binocular'vision is obtained. The effect of this is the same as if the observer at the receiving end were at the transmitting end and looking at the object with both eyes. In other words, a perfect binocular result r eiect is obtained.
It will be seen that a novel form of television apparatus has been provided by this invention which not only transmits the picture of the object, but this transmitted picture, or pictures, results through the medium of the apparatus described in detail above in the production of a binocular effect at the receiving` end. In other words, the observer experiences the eiiect of depth or thickness in the transmitted images and a more realistic result is obtained than has heretofore been possible. To express this in other words, it may be stated that they picture transmitted to the observer produces the effect of a three dimensional object.
It is, of course, possible with this apparatus to transmit a flat picture when a liat picture is substituted for a physical object having thickness at the transmitting end. However, when a physical object having thickness or depth is scanned at the transmitting end,
it is obvious that an identically similar effect is produced at the receiving end.
Although the invention has been described in considerable detail, it is to be understood that such descriptionis intended as illustrative rather than limiting7 as the invention may be variously embodied and is to be interpreted as claimed.
l. A television apparatus comprising a pair of spaced photo-electric cells adapted to receiveradiant energy yfrom an object, scanning meansiassociated with said cells, separate wireless transmitting means separately controlled from said cells, a pair of vwireless receiving means respectively controlled by said transmitting means, a pair of spaced light producing means respectively controlled by said receiving means, scanning means associated with said light producing 1 means, said light producing means being spaced apart a greater distance than the average distance between the eyes of the observer, and optical means for bringing the light from the two light producing means to two points spaced apart the average distance between the eyes of an observer.
2.V The method of televising an object and producing a binocularfeect comprising controlling electrical energy by light from an linto separate and distinct electrical impulses,
translating said electrical impulses into light at points, spaced apart a greater distance than the distance between the eyes of an observer, and optically bringing the light from the last mentioned two spaced points to positions spaced apart approximately the distance between the eyes of an observer. y
4. A television apparatus forproducing binocular eects comprising transmitting and receiving devices, each of said devices having a pair of elements, scanning means associated with the elements of the transmitting device, a scanning means being associated with each element of the receiving device, an element of one pair being electrically controlled by an element of the other pair respectively, the elements of the transmitting device being light responsive elements, and the elements of the receiving device being adapted to control light, the elements of the receiving means being spaced apart a greater distance than the distance between the eyes of an observer, and optical means for bringing the light from the last mentioned elements to two positions spaced apart the average distance between the eyes WILLIAM TURNOR LEWIS.