US 1843032 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. KOCH RESPIRATOR Jan. 26, 1932.
Filed Oct. 7, 1950 In ven tor Patented Jan. 26, 1932 uNiTEn STATES PATENT OFFICE EDMUND noon, or nssniv, GERMANY Application filed. October 7, 1930, Serial No. 487,051, and. in Germany April 10, 1929.
In the use of closed respiration apparatuses, accidents having serious consequences are from time to time caused by the fact that on fitting on the apparatus, which mostly takes '5 place under a certain amount of excitement, the wearer forgets to open the valve of the oxygen flask. In breathing with the apparatus, this oversight can easily remain unnoticed. The capacity of the air path of such a respiration apparatus amounts to about 8-10 litres. For respiration, however, only the variable contents of the respiration sack come into consideration. Vi l1en the apparatus with the oxygen flask unopened is used by thewearer thereof, after a short time, not exceeding approximately about two minutes, nitrogen narcosis takes place. If the oversight is then noticed, unconsciousness has, under certain circumstances, progressed to such an extent that the wearer of the apparatus is no longer capable of opening the valveof the oxygen flask. v
The same danger is present with respiration apparatuses with'the chemical production of oxygen. Several minutes elapse before'the bursting of the chemical cartridge, that is, before there is sufficient chemical oxygen production. In order to provide the wearer until such time with suitlcient oxygen, a small auxiliary-flask of oxygenis fitted in the apparatus, the contents of which suffice until the bursting of the cartridge. Capsules 0r flasks witha chemical starting medium, as for example with a filling of carhome acid, are provided which on opening effect an immediate production of oxygen by the chemical combination oi thecarbonic acid with the oxygen producing chemical of the cartridge. There are also chemical cartridges fort-he operation of which a movement by the wearer of the apparatus is necessary. If the wearer forgets to start the action of such cartridges or of the auxiliary or starting medium, this is not. at first noticeable in breathing. Ditficulty in breathing does not take place, but only the remainder of the oxygen contained in the apparatus is used, so that the wearer of the apparatus is subject to the danger of nitrogen narcosis until the burstingof the chemical cartridge.
To avoid this defect, with the closed respiration apparatus with oxygen storage container according to the invention, a blocking means for the respiration circuit is provided which is so controlled either by the pressure of the oxygen contained in the storage container, or by a member effecting the opening of the blocking valve of the oxygen container, that the respiration circuit is open with opened oxygen container and is closed with closed oxygen container. For this purpose, 7 for example the blocking means for the respiration circuit can be connected with a tube spring connected on the oxygen container behind its closing valve, which spring straightens owing to the pressure of the entering oxygen and thus moves the blocking means into the open position. With closed respiration apparatuses with chemical cartridges producing oxygen, the blocking means provided for the respiration circuit is connected with member moved on the actuation of the auxiliary or starter means for the chemical cartridges, for example with the cut ofl valve of an oxygen auxiliary flask, in such manner positively that on the operation of the auxiliary or starter means, the respiration circuit opens.
Owing to this cut-ofi' means, on putting on the apparatus the respiration circuit is temporarily blocked. Impossibility of breathing compels the wearer of the apparatus to at once open the oxygen flask or start the chemical cartridge developing oxygen, the auxiliary or the starter medium whereby there then takes place simultaneously the opening of the respiration circuit.
The invention is shown on the annexed drawings in several examples of execution.
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view partly in section of an embodiment of an oxygen respiration apparatus with pneumatically opening cut-off valve in the respiration circuit.
I Figure 2 is a section of this cut-off valve on a larger scale,
Figure 3 is a section of another embodiment of the cut-off valve opening pneumatically, and
Figure 4 shows diagrammatically and partially in section the construction of a part of i the oxygen respiration apparatus with mechanically actuated cut-off valve. The inhaling pipe I) and the exhaling pipe 0 open into the face mask a. From the ex- I haling' pipe, the exhaled air flows through the air purifying cartridge cl partly into the respiration sack e, and partly into the channel leading to the spray nozzle f and to the inlialing pipe I). The spray nozzle f connectedto the oxygen flask 9 draws the respiration air from behind the nozzle andblowsit mixed with fresh oxygen, into the pipe I). a p v, If
oxygen flask closed impossible, thecuteofl means In order to make breathing with the h is provided for the inhaling pipe, and this is so related and arranged with reference to the oxygen flask that on the opening of the by the pressure of the oxygen or starter medium, that is, by pneumatic means, or by mechanical means, as for example by a positive connection of the cut-off means it with the cut-off valve of the oxygen flask. The method of'obtaining this interdependence can, be carried out in numerous ways. With the respiration apparatuses with chemicals giving up oxygen, there can be used in addition to, or in place of, an oxygen auxiliary flask, any other starting means, whenby the actuation of the starter apparatus, the cut-off valve in the'respiration circuit of the apparatus is moved by a corresponding device.
" Several examples of Sco'nstruction are shown in the drawings. According to Figures 1 and 2, the cut-ofl valve h is actuated by a tube spring 2'. These tubesp'rings, known for example, with pressure gauges,
- consist of a small thinwalled bent steel tube the tube spring .z' is connected by the pipe Y with the oxygen flaskig. On the openiiigot this flask, the pressure of the oxygen is transmittedat once through the pipe Is on to the tube spring, causing the latter to assume the position shown in broken lines (Figure 2),
lift the valve it, thus opening the respiration circuit.
In Figure 3 is shown another example for the pneumatic actuation of the-cut-ofl valve h. The pipe connected with the oxygen flask circuit is opened.
9 is connected with a cylinder Zin-which is carried a piston under spring pressure which by means of a lever rod keeps the valve it closed as long as there is no pressure in the cylinder Z. By means of the pressure of the oxygen entering the cylinder through the pipe is, the piston is raised and the valve h opened. If the pressure of the oxygen ceases, the piston returns under the action of the spring to its initial position and closes the cut-off means it. v
.The pneumatic actuation of the cut-ofl' valve in the examples described necessitates and only its pressure is utilized. The dependence of the pneumatically actuated cut-oft means on the opening'and'closing oithe oxygen flask'may also be carried out inthe reverse manner by the means serving'for the closing of the valve being in acontinuous openconnection with the oxygen flask, and this connection being broken by the opening of the flask. I
As a hand wheel or lever movement is necessary for the opening and closing of the oxygen flask, the actuation of the cut-off means it may also be made mechanically dependent on this movement. In Figure 4-, an example otthis is shown. On the spindle of the cut-off valve of the flask g is fitted 'a small pinion p which follows the rotation of the hand wheel m. The pinion 79 is in engagement with a pinion 0 which is carried on a spindle carried by plates and clips on the fittings of the flask g; The spindle-n has adjacent one end suitable screwthreads engaging the body of the valve'h, so that on rotation of the spindle a the valve h is raised or lowered and thusthe valve is opened or closed.
pinions, so that the valve It opens whenthe flask is opened. 1
For this mechanicaldependence of the cutoil device hon the movementof the valve of the flaskg, many means'of transmission are also possible.
With closed respirationapparatuses with oxygen developing chemical Cartridgeathe actuation of the auxiliary or starter means, as for example the cut-ofl valve of an oxygen" auxiliary'flask, may be brought in the same or a similar manner as in the embodiments described, into'such dependence on the cutoil body of the valve provided for the respiration circuit, that on the operation of the auxiliary or starting means, the respiration The cut-ofl' device can bearranged at any desired position of the respiration circuit, if necessary witha corresponding arrangement of the respiration sack e, in this also.
The connection of the cut-off device with the 'noloss/of oxygen, since no oxygen escapes,
inhaling pipe would be most advantageous.
The position at which the cut-off device is in communication with the respiration circuit and closed when communication between said circuit and oxygen container is cut ofi.
2. In a closed circuit respiration apparatus, the combination with an oxygen storage container, of a valve normally interrupting flow through the respiration circuit of the apparatus, and means actuated by pressure from the oxygen container for automatically moving said valve to open position when said container is placed in communication with the respiration circuit of the apparatus.
3. In a closed circuit respiration apparaitus, the combination with an oxygen storage container, of a valve normally interrupting flow through the respiration circuit of the apparatus, a second valve controlling communication between the oxygen container and the respiration circuit of the apparatus, and a mechanical connection between said valves whereby they will be both simultaneously moved to open or closed position.
4. In a closed circuit respiration apparatus, the combination with an oxygen storage container, of a valve normally interrupting flow through the respiration circuit of the ap paratus, a conduit communicating with said oxygen storage container, and a tube spring having one end thereof in communication with said conduit and the other end connected tosaid valve, whereby pressure from said oxygen container will automatically move said valve to open position when said container is placed in communication with the respiration circuit of the apparatus.
5. In a closed circuit respiration apparatus, the combination with an oxygen storage container, of a valve normally interrupting flow through the respiration circuit of the apparatus, a conduit communicating with said oxygen storage container, a cylinder com municating with said conduit, a piston movable in said cylinder, and a mechanical connection between said piston and valve, whereby pressure from said oxygen container will automatically move said valve to open position whensaid container is placed in communication with the respiration circuit of the apparatus.