|Publication number||US1845947 A|
|Publication date||Feb 16, 1932|
|Filing date||Feb 14, 1929|
|Priority date||Feb 14, 1929|
|Publication number||US 1845947 A, US 1845947A, US-A-1845947, US1845947 A, US1845947A|
|Inventors||Hill Lester S, Louis Weisner|
|Original Assignee||Hill Lester S, Louis Weisner|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 16, 1932. 1.; WEISNER ET AL ,8
MESSAGE PROTECTOR Filed Feb. 14, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet l A? 586. flea 26% 192?. F! RS1 NATIONAL BANK fl b $7 PAY TO 'THE ORDER CF IbuisM/isnerm SJiZlL WITNESSES vENToRs MIM BY 4,.
ATTORNEY Feb. 16, 1932. L. WEISNER ET AL MESSAGE PROTECTOR Filed Feb. .14, 4'Sheets-Sheet 2 WITNESSES 7 /1. M
Feb. 16, 1
L. WEISNER ET AL MESSAGE PROTECTOR Filed Feb. 14, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 ATTORN EY" Feb. 16, 1932. WEISNER ET AL 1,845,947
" MESSAGE PROTECTOR Filed Feb. 14, 19 29 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 I, 1 as a; $5 w 27.
,IIIII IIII iiiiiflillllllllllll 'lmiiii I In if 27A louisWeisner and ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 1 6, 1932 UNITED sTATEs PATENT oFFlcs LOUIS WEISNER AND LESTER S. HILL, NEW YORK, N. Y.
iaEssAen rnorrzoron Application filed February l'i, 1929. Serial No. 339,929.
This invention relates to what may be termed a message protector, and has for an object to provide a mechanism for grouping symbols to be usedon bat k checks, code messages or other messages or on any communi cation to indicate its authenticity and accuracy. 7
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved machine to be used in conl0 nection with checks or other messages, the
7 machine presenting a mechanism wherein an almost indefinite number of combinations maybe' used to group symbols or numbers to be printed on the check or other message. A further object is to provide a message protector capable of computing jsimulta'neously the. numerical .values or equivalent symbols of one or more linear functions of a proposed sequence of numbers, the evaluation being effected with respect to a modulus. v An additional object, more specifically, is to provide a machine to be operated by the hand, the arrangement beingsuch thatprinting members are provided and positioned so that they may be shifted according to a great number of combinations and thereby I present an indication or code message or symbol to be applied to checks or other messages to indicate their accuracy and authen "ticity, or to translate a proposed message into cipher and back again. 1
A further additional, object is to provide an improved machine for converting a mes; sage into a ciphermessage and for re-converting the cipher message into the original form of message. I
In the accompanying drawings,' Figure 1 is a perspective view of a message protector disclosing an embodiment of the invention; a V Figure 2 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view through Figure3 approximately on line 2-2;
as Figure 3 is ahorizontal sectional view through Figure 2 on line 3 8, thesame dis- Figure 5 is a' transverse sectional view through Figure 2 on line 5-5;
Figure 6 is a sectional view similar to the right-hand part of'Figure 5 but showing the parts in a shifted position;
Figure 7 is an enlarged detail fragmentary perspective view of part of one ofthe chains shown in Figure 3;
Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional view through gigure 2 approximately on the line 69 s -s; an
Fig. 9 is an illustration of a check,
Referring to the accompanying drawings by numerals 1 indicates a casing enclosing the I various mechanism shown in Figures 3 to 8 inclusive. This casing is provided with openings 2, 3, 4:, 5, 6 and 7, which openings act as windows through which certain parts of the mechanism shown in Figure 3 may be viewed.
As illustrated in Figures 5 and. 6 a trans parent member'8 is provided in each window so as to permit an inspection of the wheels arranged beneath the respective windows while keeping dust and dirt from the interior of the casing. As shown in Figure 1, there are disclosed six knobs, namely, knobs 9, 10,
11, 12, 13 and 14:. These knobs are connected to suitable shafts hereinafter fully described, whereby the mechanism may be operated by the Hand from the exterior of the casing. An opening 15 is provided and acts as an entrance for a check or otherarticle. An opening 16 is provided through which the presser or impact plate 17 moves when the knob 18 is struckor forced downwardly. This action takes place when a number or symbol is to be printed on a check or other article inserted through slot 15. As illustrated particularly in Figure 51, the plate 17 is formed integral with or rigidly secured to the arm 18 pivotally mounted at. 19 on casing l and normally held in an elevated position by a spring 20. The printing mechanism will be hereinafter fully described and may he of any suitable or desired type. As shown in the drawings, a ribbon 21 (Figure 2 is provided andis adapted. to be wound onrollers 22 and 23. The roller 22 has shaft 24 extending to the exterior of the casing 1, as shown in Figure 1, and a suitable knob 25 is connectedtherewith,
whereby the roller 22 may be rotated by hand at any time. Similarly, a shaft 26 is connected with roller 23 a i d is provided with a knob 27 whereby the rib on may be moved in a reverse direction. The action of the ribbon and associated parts simulates rather closely the usual action of an ordinary type writer.
It is aimed to rotate the various printing wheels or rollers 28, 29 and and the angle of rotation of these wheels depends upon the number of the various knobs 9 to 14 and certain other parts fully described hereinafter.
The printing wheels 28, 29 and 30 carry different numbers or symbols which are adapted "to print on the check or other article. As shown in Figure 3, the printing wheel 28 is disclosed with the number 68 thereon said number facing upwardly, while printing wheels 29 and 30 are provided with numbers and 100 respectively. 1 When the presser plate 17 is actuated all of these numbers will be simultaneously printed on the check and a legend will therefore be provided upon a check which willbe, in the present instance,
upon each of the shafts 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 and '39. As one example, the actuating wheel 33 should be provided with 101 teeth, the actuating wheel 32 with 202 and the actuating wheel 31 with 303 teeth. The indicating or answer wheels 40, 41 and 42 should each be provided with 101 teeth. It is to be understood that a specific structure is being described with a specific number of teeth, but, if desired, the number of teeth could be changed, following certain mathematical principles, and the same or other desirable results secured. Also, instead of using numbers letters or other symbols could be used, but for the purpose of description numbers have been used and it will be understood that when the printing wheels 28 to 30 are meritioned, numbers, symbols or le ends of any kind may be used thereon. As s own in Figure 4, a shaft 43 is provided on which the respective tubular shafts 44,45 and 46 are mounted, said tubular shafts bein positioned to telescopically fit into each 0t er, so that the answer wheels 40 to 42 inclusive will be properly spaced, as shown in Figure 3. This arrangement will permit each of the printing wheels 28 to 30 to be independently moved in either direction. As shown in Figure 3, shaft 34 has rigidlysecured thereto respec tive actuating wheels 31 to 33 and these actuating wheels are arranged so that actuating wheel 31 is furthest from knob 9 and actuating wheel 32 is intermediate the other actuating wheels. In regard'to shaft 35, the small actuating wheel 33 is furthest fromknob 10,
while' the large actuating wheel 32 is intermediate and the' medium-sized actuating wheel 31 is nearest knob 10. The actuating "wheels on the shafts 36 'to 39 inclusive are arranged in various orders as shown in Figure 3, but, if desired,-could be arranged in some other order, without departing from the spirit of the invent-ion. Associated with .each of the actuating wheels furthest from their respective knobs 9 to 14 is a lock or clutch 47. This lock or clutch may consist merely of a plate 48 having, a number of spaced pins 49 extending therefrom adapted to fit in between certain of the teeth of the actuating wheels when the knobs 9 to 14 are forced to a position against the casing 1, as shown in Figure 3. This arrangement locks the various shafts 34 to 39 inclusive, so that they cannot be rotated. In order to rotate any of these shafts the knob connected therewith must be pulled outwardly a suflicient distance. to-disengage the clutch 47 from the adjacent actuating wheel. In order that the printing wheels 28t0 30 inclusive may be caused to function properly means have been provided for looking all of the shafts 34 to 39 inclusive except the one Qwhichhas been moved longitudinally as the knob is pulled outwardly. As shown in Figures 5 and 6, the various code wheels 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and55 are provided with flanges coacti-ng with the stop or extension 56 of the respective pawls 57. There is a pawl 57 for each of the wheels 50 to 55 in-'- clusive and, all these pawls are rigidly secured to afreely rockable shaft 58 journaled in suitable bearings near -.each end of the casin 1. When the knob .9, for instance, is
pulle outwardly, as shown in Figure 6, the
outer edge of the wheel strikes the pawl 57 and swings the pawl from the position shownv in Figure 5 to-the position shown in Figure 6. Thiswill result in the movement of the abutment 56 to a position in back of the flange of wheel 50, and also will result in positioningthe abutm'ents 56 of all the other pawls to a position in front of the various flanges so that the knobs, shafts and associated parts of all the remaining mechanisms cannnot be moved outwardly. As soon as the knob 9 has been pushed back the next knob or any knob may be pulled outwardly and rotated in either direction. 1
Coacting vwith each of the answer or remainder wheels 40 to 42 inclusive are driving means, as for instance, chains 59, 60 and 61,
said chains being continually in-mesh respecwheels 31 to 33 inclusive are out of mesh with these chains and are only brought into mesh when any of the knobs 9 to 14 inclusive are' moved outwardly. It will thus be seen that when a knob is moved outwardly the parts associated therewith are disengaged from the lock 47 and at the same time engage with the respective chains 59 to 61 inclusive. Each of these chains is formed as shown, for instance, in Figures 7 and 8. From these figures it will be observed that an ordinary chain structure is provided having pins or projections 62 spaced apart a proper distance to receive the teeth of the actuating wheels 31 to 33 inclusive. If, forinstance, 'knob 9 is pulled outwardly and then rotated one revolution the actuating wheel 33 would naturally rotate one revolution and move its chain forwardly a distance equal to 101 teeth. The
actuating wheel 40 will rotate through the same angle, as it is of the same size and has the same number of teeth. Whilethis is taking place the actuating wheel 32 will perform one complete rotation, but as it has 202 teeth the chain associated therewith will be moved so that the answer wheel 41 will rotate two revolutions. \Vhile these two operations are taking place a third operation will be taking place, namely, actuating wheel 31 will rotate one revolution and as it has 303 teeth answer wheel 42 will rotate three times. i
If knob 9 is not rotated a complete revolution but only a part of a revolution a proportionate action of the various wheels will take place. After knob 9 has been rotated, as desired, it is returned to its former position, as shown in Figure 3, and then knob 10 is pulled outwardly and rotated, as desired. This action is repeated for all of the knobs and then the check or other article is moved into the casing through slot 15. The printing is then doneby merely striking the knob 18. The check is then removed and a number will be found thereon agreeing" with the combination produced by the various numbers of the knobs 9 to 14 inclusive. This number is really in effect the remainder or answer left over from the various additions, subtractions and other actions performed by the mechanism described. a I
When the device is in actual use it may be operated by persons in a bankor by persons anywhere. Where the device is used as a check or safety guard for checks drawn on banks one device is necessary for'the bank and one for the person drawing the check. Also, in addition to having identical devices, the bank and the person drawing the, check should have a code sheet giving arbitrary values to the numbers or symbols on the code wheels to 55. It will be understood that these code. wheels carry numbers similar to the numbers on printing wheels 28 to 30, said numbers being preferably from 00 to 100.
'- lVhere numbers are used they are arranged The person drawing the check will draw the same in the usual manner, giving the check anumber, date, and indicating thereon the sum of. money to be paid, and vthen operate the machine to secure a code number, which number is stamped on the check. Where the check is drawn, as shown in Fig. 9, the number of the check, the sum in dollars and the date form the means for guiding the drawer of the check in manipulating the device. After the check has been drawn the drawer takes downthe chart and finds that the number 1 indicates 56 on the code wheels50 to 55 and the numbers 28, 5, 86, 26., 28 represent on the code wheels 51 to 55 the respective numbers 99, 01, 12, 72 and 64. Having ascertained from the chart that 1 indicates 56 he disregards the 42 of the check and starts with 1 from the $128.00
indicated. Knob 9 is pulled outwardly and rotated until 56 comes opposite window 2, as shown in Figure 3. Knob 9 is then pushed in and kuoblO pulled outwardly and, rotated in posite the window. Knob 12 is returned and knob 13 pulled outwardly and rotated until the numeral 7 2 appears opposite the window. Knob 13 is returned and knob 14 pulled outwardly and rotated until the numeral 64 appears opposite the window. In the code 1 equals 56 and this 1 is taken from the $128.00 found on the check. The next two numerals, namely, 28 are used in connection with knob 10. Thenumeral 5 in the number of the check is then used for knob 11 and this is followed by knob '12, utilizing the number 86 whichforms the latter part of the number of the check. The "number 26 in the date is utilized for knob 13, while the last two numbers, 28 of the date are utilized for knob 14. It will thus be seen that the number of knobs 9 to 14 is controlled, first, by the number of dollars indicated, second, by the number of the check, and third, by the date of the check. 1 If any one of these numbers on the check were changed the particular knob involved would be rotated a greater or less number of times, and consequently, the final number or remainder on the printing wheels would not be the same. This would indicate to the bank when they use the same system as the drawer, that someone had tampered with the check. It will be understood that the drawer uses the figures on the check as mentioned, in order to secure the proper symbol or legend to 28 to 30. The bank will likewise use the same numbers on the check and if the symbol or legend secured on their printing wheels is the same as the symbol produced by the drawer the bank is satisfied that the check is authentic. The operation of the device has been described in respect to checks, as the device is particularly adapted to be used in' connection with checks, but it is to be understood that the device can be used with telegraph messages either in plain language or in code or on any papers and documents where authenticity and accuracy are necessary. It will, therefore, be understood that when the word check is used these other uses are understood.
Where the device is planned to be employed for the-purpose of converting a proposed message intoa cipher and back again,
it is planned to have as many chains and printing rollers as there are shafts, let us say for illustration, six by six. The twentysix letters of the alphabet (or agreater or smaller number if additional symbols or other alphabets are employed) will appear on the code wheels 50 to 55 inclusive (Figure 3) and on the printing wheels 28 to 30,
there now being six printing wheels instead of three. On the shafts 34 to 39 inclusive six actuating wheels appear instead of; the three actuating wheels 31, 32, 33, the
number of teeth on each actuating wheel being a multiple of 26 or any other chosen modulus, while the number of symbols on the printing apparatus is exactly 26, or the number represented by the modulus chosen.
A message to be transmitted by cipher is I first divided into sets of six symbols. Suppose the sequence WHEELS is part of this message. This sequence may, first be changed by means of some prearranged cipher, known to I the correspondents, into some sequence" suchas .AMSSPB. The
machiiie is now applied: knob 9 is pulled out and rotated until A appears, and is pushedback; knob 10 is pulled out. and rotated until M appears knob ll is pulled out'and rotated until S appears; knob 12 is pulled out and rotated until S appears and'is pushed back; knob 13 is pulled out w and rotated until P appears; and is pushed back; knob 14 is pulled out and rotated'until B appears and is pushed backr If the knob 18 (Figure 1). be struck," there will be printed on a sheet of paper inserted in the slot 15 a sequence of six symbols such as This sequence may then be converted by means of a second prearranged cipher into a sequenceof six symbols such as PTUNAT. This is the message which is transmitted. The recipient of themessage, wishing to decipher PTUNAT, first I employs ,the inverseof the second. prearranged cipher to convert this sequence into XRSMYR. Hethen'place s this sequence in hismachine, which may be but is not lt'inclusive (Figure l) in the manner already described, so that the letters X, R, S, M, Y, R, appear in the openings 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,, respectively. Because the sizes of the actuating wheel have been chosen according to' certain mathematical principles, his machine will print AMSSPB which is precisely the sequence which the sender placed in' his machine. 'By applying to this sequence the inverse of the first prearranged cipher, it is translated into WHEELS.
In the accompanying drawings a machine has been shown with six shafts and each shaft has been shown as being provided with three wheels of certain sizes, but it will be understood that the number of shafts'may be varied at will according torcertain math- ,ematical principles, and also the number of With the above recited and other objects in view, theinvention resides in the novel construction set forth in the specification, particularly pointed out in the appended claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, it-being understood that the right is reserved to'embodiments other than those actually illustrated herein, to the full extent indicated by the general meaning of the terms in which the claims are expressed What we claim is 1. A cryptographic device, including a'plu: rality of printing wheels, each wheel having a number of symbols thereon, a' shaft connected to each wheel, an 'answer wheel connected to each shaft, saidanswer wheels all having the same number of teeth,-a plurality of hand-operated shafts, a code wheel carried by each of said shafts, a plurality of actuating wheels carried by each shaft, there being an actuating wheel on each shaft for each of said answer wheels first-mentioned, and 7 means for transmitting motion from the actuating wheels on the shafts to said answer wheels, so that said answer wheels and said printing wheels will move through certain angles according to the relative size pf the wheels on the shafts and said answer wheels.
. 2. A cryptographic device including printing wheels formed with numbers thereon, an answer wheel connected with each of said .printingwheels, said printing wheels being of the same size and all of said answer wheels being of the same size, each of the answer wheels having teeth the number of which is .equal to a fixed modulus, a plurality of code wheels having numbers thereon indicatihg symbols, a shaft for eachof said code wheels, hand-operated means for each shaft, whereby each shaft may be rotated independently to secure different combinations on said printing wheels, an actuating wheel carried by each shaft for each of said answer wheels, said actuating wheels having teeth the number of which is a multiple of the teeth of said answer wheels, and means for transmitting motion from saidactuating wheels to said answer wheels when said shafts are rotated,
whereby said printing wheels will be moved through different angles in direct proportion thereon.
to the movement of each of the various shafts.
3. A cryptographic device, including a pinrality of shafts, a hand-operated knob for each shaft for rotating said shafts, a numbered code wheel carried by each shaft, a plurality of actuating wheels rigidly secured to each shaft, said actuating wheels having sizes which are equal to or multiple of the size of some one of them, the actuating wheels on one shaft being in alignment with the actuating wheels on the other shaft, the actuating wheels of the respective shafts being arranged so that actuating wheels of different diameters will be arranged adjacent each other, a driving mechanism for each row of aligned wheels, each of said shafts being slidable longitudinally so as to move the respective actuating wheels into and out of engagement with said driving mechanism, means for preventing said shafts and their respective actuating wheels from rotating until brought into engagement with said driving mechanism, said means causing only one set of actuating wheels to engage said driving mechanism at a time, an answer wheel continually meshing with each of said driving mechanisms, a printing wheel rigidly connected with each of said answer wheels, each of said printingwheelshaving symbols 4. A cryptographic device formed with means, for, computing simultaneously the numerical values of one or more linear functions of a proposed sequence of numbers, the evaluation being effected with respect to a modulus, said means including a set of answer wheels, a driving mechanism for each of said answer wheels, a plurality of sets of actuating wheels, there being one actuating wheel for each driving mechanism in each set of actuating wheels, manually actuated means for moving said sets of actuating wheels into operative engagement with said driving mechanisms independently, whereby upon the rotation of said sets ofactuating wheels said answer wheels will be moved through angles in direct proportion to the movement of said actuating wheels.
5. In a coding and decoding machine, a plurality of answer wheels, independent means for driving each of said answer wheels, a plurality ofgroups of actuating wheels, there being one actuating wheel in each group for each of said driving means, and a code wheel rigidly secured to each group of actuating wheels so that when the code wheel is actuated the actuating wheels associated therewith will function.
6. In a coding and decoding machine, a
plurality of answer wheels, independent means for driving each of said answer wheels, a plurality of groups of actuating wheels, there being one actuating wheel in each group for each of said driving means, a code wheel rigidly secured to each group of actuating wheel, and meansfor preventing the rotation of the respective groups of actuating wheels until brought intointerengagement with the driving means.
7. In a coding and decoding machine a plurality of toothed answer wheels, independent means for driving each of said answer wheels, a plurality of groups of actuating Wheels, there being oneactuating wheel in each group for each of said driving means,
thewheels in each group having teeth, the number of which is a multiple of the teeth of said answer wheels, and a code wheel rigidly said actuating wheels being capable of movement into and out of engagement with said driving means.
8. In a coding and decoding machine, a plurality of answer wheels, a driving mechanismfor each answer wheel, a plurality of groups of actuating wheels, there being one actuating wheel in each group for each of i ating wheels, means for normally locking said actuating wheels against operation, means for connecting each group of actuating wheels together and its code wheel, said last-mentioned means being movable in such a direction as to cause said actuating wheels to move into and out of engagement with said driving means, the wheels in each group of actuating wheels having teeth the number of which is a multiple of the teeth of said answer wheels. p
10. In a coding and decoding machine, a plurality oftoothed answer wheels, a plurality of groups of actuating wheels, there being one actuating wheel in each group for 95 secured to each group of actuating wheels,
each of said answer wheels,'driving means for' transmitting motion from sald actuating:
wheels to said answer wheels, a code wheel secured to each group of actuating wheels,
' the actuating wheels in each group having teeth, thenumber of which is a multiple of the teeth of said answer wheel, and the arrangement of the wheels in each group being difl'erent from the arrangement in all the other groups.
11. In a cryptographic device, means ca.-
pable of computing simultaneouslythe nu merical values of one or more linear functions of a proposed sequence of numbers in iv Q- comprising a plurality of rotatable indicating wheels having legends thereon, an independent driving mechanism connected to each of said indicating wheels, said driving mechanisms functioning to rotate each of said indicating wheels through the same angle when the, driving'mechanisms are moved to the same extent, a plurality of actuating wheels for each driving mechanism, said actuating wheelsbeing movable into and out of operative engagement with said driving mechanisms, said actuating wheels being arranged in groups, each group moving as a umt independently, there being one actuating wheel I ineach group for each of said driving mechanisms, means for preventing rotation of any 1 of said groups until the actuating wheels thereof are in operative engagement with u said driving mechanisms, and a manuallyactuated code wheel continually connected with each of said (groups, whereby when said code wheels are rotated said actuating wheels will function; a
tive' arrangements are determined by means of linear functions evaluated with respect to z a modulus of which the number of teeth of the answer wheels are a multiple, andfmeans for moving said actuating wheels into -op-" erative engagement with said driving mech-- anism. Q
145A cryptographic device including a plurality of toothed'answer wheels, each of said answer wheels, being provided with aplurality oflegends in the shape of symbols, operating'means for rotating said answer wheels for grouping said symbols in sequence to secure a cipher or code legend, said operating means including an independent driving structure for each of said answer wheels, and actuating wheels for actuating said driving structures, said actuating wheels having their sizes determined in agreement'with linear functions evaluated in respect to a modulus, said modulus being a number equal to or an exact divisor of the number of teeth on each of said answer wheels.
v 15. A cryptographic device including a plurality of indicating wheels, each indicating wheel being formed with a plurality'of legends in the shape of numbers, means rotating said indicating wheel and therefore grouping said numbers in an order representing an answer,'sa1d means includlng a driving mechanism for rotating each indicating wheel independently, a plurality of groups of actuating means for coacting with said driving mechanism, a manually actuated means for moving independently each of said groups of actuating means intoand out of operative engagement with said driving means.
LOUIS WEISNER. LESTER s. HILL.
' 13. A cryptographic deviceyincluding a i
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3355172 *||Sep 1, 1965||Nov 28, 1967||Aukens Adrian E||Word game|
|US4032931 *||Dec 22, 1975||Jun 28, 1977||Haker Floyd H||Money transfer device keyboard terminal|
|U.S. Classification||380/58, 400/89|
|International Classification||G09C1/08, G09C1/06|