US 1852137 A
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UNITED. STATES PATENT [OFFICE f WILLIAM WHITEHEAD, OFOUMDERLAND, MARYLAND, ASSIGNOR TO COB- POB A TIO N OF AMERICA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE TTNTING LIQUID AND METHOD OF APPLYING THE SAME 7 Ho Drawing.
This invention relates to a tinting fluid for the purpose of identification of the same.
A further object of my invention is to tint yarns in a more distinctive manner than has heretofore been possible, and at the same time to produce tintings that may be scoured off more readily and rapidly.
A further object of my invention is to provide a tinting fluid for textile yarns that acts both as a fugitive dyeing agency and as a lubricant for the yarns. Further objects of my invention will appear from the following detailed description.
It is a common practice in the textile art to color yarns with an easily removable dye for the purpose for identifying them as to denier, count or size, twist, number of filaments, etc. during textile operations. After a finished product is produced, the color is removed by washing or scouring. Ordinar ily aqueous solutions of acid dyes (sodium salts of sulphonic acids) are used for this purpose. The fugitive dyes are usually applied either by causing the yarn to pass across a wick or pad that dips into, or a roller that rotates in, an aqueous solution of the fugitive dye. Or else, the yarn is hanked and immersed in an aqueous bath of the dye. However, all of these methods have serious drawbacks. In the case where wicks or pads are used, these have a disadvantage of short life of but a few hours, because of the ready evaporation of the water and the depositing of the undissolved dyestufi' thereon. This causes irregular application of the dye and necessitates frequent changing of the pads or wicks. Where rollers are used, it is exceedingly difficult to supply the small amounts of tinting fluid required for the finer types of yarns. The dyeing or hanking process involves the added expense of hanking and swift Winding and the waste produced thereby.
By the process of my invention all of these objections are obviated. In accordance with my invention, I prepare a tinting fluid which Application filed March 17, 1928. Serial No. 262,597.
contains as solvent for the fugitive dye, a
boiling polyhydric alcohol or a high boillng ether of such alcohol. The tinting fluid may contain some water, but such' water is not absolutely necessary.
Of the high boiling polyhydric alcohols that may be used in the tinting fluid, the fol-' lowing may be mentioned: glycerol (boiling point 290 C.) ethylene glycol (boiling point 197 .5 0.); diethylene glycol (boiling point 250 C.) propylene glycol, etc. Of the ethers of polyhydric alcohols, the monoethers such asthe monoethyl ether of ethylene glycol (boiling point 135.5 G.) or the monoethyl ether of diethylene glycol (boiling point 187.5 0.), and the diethers, such as the diethyl ether of diethylene glycol, may be mentioned. Obviously instead of using only one of the above polyhydric alcohols or their;
ethers, a mixture of two or more of these may be used. In general a solvent whose boiling point is above 100 C. should be used.
While glycerol may be used in the fugitive tinting liquid, the glycols or their ethers are preferred, since glycerol has the objection.- able property of leaving sticky deposits on the apparatus, with which the treated yarn comes in contact, such as cap-edges, fliers, travellers, etc, whereas the glycols or their ethers do not behave in this manner.
Since many of the polyhydric alcohols and their ethers are hydroscopic, I prefer to add suflicient water to the fluid to bring the aqueous concentration to at least that of the maximum amount of water these alcohols or ethers tend to absorb from the atmosphere, in order to prevent change of volume, viscosity and concentration of the tilting fluid. Thus lycerol absorbs water to the extent of 33% 0 its original weight from the air, ethylene glycol absorbs 3 to 4% and diethylene glycol 30% of water, and therefore when either of these liquids are used, I prefer to add water corresponding to the respective percentages set forth.
The 'dyestuff that is used may be any suitable dye that is used for fugitive tinting. The amount of dyestuffs used willvary with the nature of the dyestuffs and the purpose for which it is used. For example 0.5% to 1.0%
of dye in the tinting fluid is suitable for the urpose of identifying .arn in the bobbrn iiank or other package w en the tinting fluld is applied in amounts of 0.5 to 2.0% of the weight of the yarn being tinted. For identifying individual ends in warping, weaving and similar processes, a concentration of about 4% or over of the dye in the tinting flu1d m: is required, when the tinting fluid is applied in amounts of 0.5 to 2.0% of the yarn being treated. Obviously these proportions are given merely by way of example and are not limitative of the scope of this invention.
The tintin fluid is appliedby any of the usual metho s for applying tinting fluids to yarns, but I prefer to apply the same by causing the yarn'that is being wound, spun, etc. to pass across a wick or pad that is dipping in or otherwise contacting with, the tinting fluid, since this method is most economical and Involves the use of a very compact tinting fluid apparatus that may be applied to all textile machines without difliculty. Because of the high boiling point of the solvents used in the tintin fluid and because of the other properties 0 these solvents, th'e wicks or pads have a very'long life, running into several hundred hours, since the rate of evaporation of the solvents at normal temperature is prac tically nil, so that no dyestufl' is thrown out of solution, and thus the wicks or ads do not become clogged with solid dyestu The solvents used in the tinting fluids possess excellent lubrication properties because of their comparatively high viscosity and oiliness. Therefore, I have found that when the tinting fluids herein described are applied to yarns, further lubrication with oils, etc. is unnecessary in such cases as for example, banking, back-winding, ring-twisting, etc. of yarns of rayon or silk. In this connection it is pointed out that the lubricating value of ethylene glycel and diethylene glycol: is
greater than that of glycerol.
In using the abovedescribed solvents in the tinting fluid, it is found that for a given ,amount of dyestufi on the yarn more distinct color effects are obtained. Thus when acid blue (Schultz No. 5430) is applied in aqueous solution, the color imparted .to the yarn is decidedly grayish, whereas when the same dye is applied in solution in the solvents herein described, the color imparted to the yarn is distinctly blue. Moreover, I have found that the color is more readily and quickly removed by scouring the yarns that have been tinted by a tinting fluid made in accordance with my invention, than from those which have been tinted by aqueous tinting fluids.
An important ap lication of my invention is the fugitive tinting of artificial yarns or filaments during the process of their manufacture and prior to their beingwound. For instance, in the manufacture of cellulose acetate yarn by the dry spinning process, a solutile solvents such as acetone, is passed through theorifices of a spinneret in a mtier or dry spinning machine into a heated atmosphere, and the filaments thus formed are drawn and wound and/or twisted onto an appropriate bobbin'or cap spinning machine.
When my invention is used in connection with a dry spinning process, the tinting solution is applied to the filaments or yarns on the mtier or spinning machine. In one aplication of my invention, the tinting li u1d is applied by means of a wick, which is ipping in a trough containing the tinting fluid,- to the filaments just after their exit from the mt-ier casing, both the wick and the trough being mounted on the mtier or dry spinning machine.
Because of the elevated temperature prevailing within the mtier, the use of the high boiling solvents mentioned above in the tinting fluid is particularly advantageous in reducing the amount of clogging of the wicks. Since glycerol tends to leave sticky deposits, the glycols or their ethers which do not behave in this manner are preferred. Thus by the use of a tinting fluid containing diethylene glycol, I have found it possible to tint cellulose (rayon) lax or composite yarns contain-.
ing mixtures of these.
It is to be understood that the foregoing tion of cellulose acetate in appropriate voladetails are given merely by way of illustration and that many variations may be made therein without departing'from the spirit of this invention.
Having described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1s:
1. A tinting fluid for the identification of yarns comprising a solvent medium having a boiling point about 100 C. comprising a compound of the glycol class and adyestuflr' dissolved therein. I
2. A tinting fluid for the identification of yarns comprising a solvent medium having a boiling point above 100C. comprising a glycol and a dyestufl dissolved therein.
' 3. A tinting fluid for the identification of yarns comprising diethylene glycol and a dyestufi dissolved therein.
5. A tinting fluid comprising a polyhydric alcohol, water in amount at least equal to that which'said polyhydric alcohol tends to absorb from the atmosphere and a dyestufi.
6. A tinting fluid comprising a glycol, water in amount at least equal to that which said glycol tends to absorb from the atmosphere and a dyestufi.
7 A tinting fluid comprising a compound of the glycol class and a dyestufl' dissolved therein.
8. A tinting fluid comprising a glycol and from 0.5% to 5.0% of a dyestufi dissolved therein. 1 i
' 9, Method of tinting yarns comprising applying thereto a fluid containing a dyestufi dissolved in a solvent medium having a boiling point above 100 C. and containing a compound of the glycol class.
10. Method of tinting yarns comprising applying thereto a fluid containing a dyestuff dissolvedin a solvent medium having a boiling point above 100 C. and containing a glycol.
11. Method of tinting yarns comprising applying thereto a fluid containing a glycol and a dyestufi.
12. Method of tinting yarns comprising applying thereto a fluid containing a diethylene glycol and a dyestufi.
13. Method of temporarily marking yarns comprising adding thereto a fluid containing a polyhydric alcohol, water in amount substantially equal to that which said polyhydric alcohol tends to absorb from the atmosphere and 'a in "tive dyestufi, whereas the yarns are simultaneously tinted and lubricated.
* 14. Method in accordance with claim 13 wherein the polyhydric alcohol is a glycol.
15, In the dry spinning of filaments or yarns containing organic derivatives of cellulose in a mtier, the step of applying a tinting fluid to the filaments or yarns at the mtier, said tinting fluid containing a fugitive dyestufi dissolved in a solvent medium having a boiling point above 100 C. and contgining a compound of the polyhydric alcohol c ass.
16. In the dry spinning of filaments-or yarns containing organic derivatives of cellulose in a mtier, the step of applying a tinting fluid to the filaments or yarns at the mtier casing, said tinting fluid containing a fugitive dyestufi dissolved in a solvent medium having a boiling point above 100 C.
and containing a polyhydric alcohol.
18. In the dry spinnin yarns containing organic erivatives of cellulose in a-mtier, the step of applying a tinting fluid to the filaments or said tinting fluid containing mtier casing, a fugitive dyestuff yarns at the and diethylene glycol.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name.
17. In the dry spinmng of filaments or I yarns containing organic derivatives of cellulose in a fntier, the step of applying a tinting fluid to the filaments or yarns at the mtier casing, said fugitive dyestufi and a glycol.
tinting fluid containing a of filaments or