US 1853013 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1932' c. v. BRADY 1,853,013
' I FASTENING Filed Feb. 8, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet l April 5, 1932- c. v. BRADY 1,853,013
FASTENING Filed Feb. 8, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Apr. 5, 1932 UNITED STATES PA ENroFFIcE.
GHARLES V. BRADY, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, ASSIGNOR T0 ZBEMIS BRO. BAG comm, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, A. CORPORATION OF MISSOURI FASTEUITG This invention relates to fastenings for fabric, and with regard to certain more specific features, to seams for fastening woven fabric adapted to be used more particularly in connection with the manufacture of bags.
Among the several objects of the invention -may be noted the provision of a seam for woven fabric bags and the like which is made without sewing in a binder strand, whereby av stron air-tight and liquid-tight fastening is aifor ed; the provision of a fastening seam of the class described which has a higher efiiciency with less thickness and bulk than was after.
The invention accordingly comprisles the elements and combinations of elements, features of construction, and arrangements 'of parts which will be exemplified in the structure'hereinafter described, .and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which is illustrated several of various possible embodiments of the invention,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a partially folded bag showing the application of the in-. vention thereto, with parts laid open for purposes-of description;
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the bag shown in Fig. 1, the dotted'lines showing a means of final closure; 1
Fig.3 is a diagrammatic cross section taken on line 3-3 ofFig. 2', the thickness of ,cer;
tain layers being exaggerated, for clarity;
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic cross section similar to Fig. 3, but taken on line 44 of Fig. 2;
Fig, 5 is a diagrammatic cross section cor responding to Fig. 3, but showing a modified form of the invention;
Fig. 6 is a cross section of a butt seam or fastening showing the general application of the-invention; an
Fig. 7 is a view similar toFigr 6 showing of moisture to and from the mterior of the w a modification comprising a lap seam or fastening.
Similar reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
The conventional mode of fastening or seamin edges of woven fabric comprises overlaylng two or more layers of fabric and sewing therethrough a strand of some nature such as a thread, cord, twine or the like. This method of fastening or seaming has certain disadvantages, which arise from several causes. For example, a bag seam should be quite strong, but, with a prior type of bag having a double or greater thickness at each seam, and stitching therethrough, the efliciency of the connection is only of the order of to per cent; that is, the seam per se hasbut 60 to 70 per cent of the strength of the goods in which the seam exists. The ef- 70 ficiency depends in part upon the number of layers of cloth included in the seam, but, because of the increase in bulk, the number of layers of cloth cannot be increased indefinite- 1 1y. Even the conventional four-thickness seam is bulky.
The reason for the low efliciency above. referred to is found in the fact that stresses applied to the sewed seam are concentrated at the points through which the thread passes. so Thus the strain is greater in the regions around the threads and separation is likely to occur in such regions. a
The described separation also leads to leakage or sifting through the openings-of finely comminuted materials. Bags for holding such finely-comminuted materials, powdered pigments for instance, have been lined with paper, an adhesive being usedbetween the paper and the fabric in some constructions. When such a bag is sewed at its scam,
the stitching goes through the paper, as well as throughthe fabric, and the local concentration of the stresses not only weakens the seam but stretches the openings through which the thread passes and causes sifting therethrough, thus; preventin the procurement of optimum sealing e ect from the liner. The openings further permit passage bag. It will be understood that openings are resent, not alone because of the stresses but Because the needle punctures themselves rom openings without subsequent stretching.
The weakness of this prior sewed seam is also due to some extent to the fact that the threads beyond the sewed seam do not pull in the same line with the continuation of these threads running around the girth of the bag. The threads beyond the seam stand out almost at right angles to the body of the bag and when stressed, these threads running art-found the girth of the bag tend to be broken Another disadvantage of using thread or cord or the like for sewing or binding is that it necessarily passes through the fabric and/ or paper liner from inside to outside and vice versa and functions as a capillary wick for moisture and the like which is transferred along the thread and into the bag, or vice versa. Furthermore, if the substance in the bag contains any free acid or other substance injuriqus to the threads, the threads themselves maybe attacked and weakened or destroyed.
It will thus be seen that the present invention provides a leak proof, lighter, stronger, more durable, and more flexible seam by eliminating both holding strands and the punctures inherent in the application of said strands. Q
The invention therefore provides a seam particularly adapted to bags which are to contain materials which readily absorb or give up moisture, oil and the like and/or those materials which are wholly or in part finely comminuted and/or those of substantial density requirin strong bags, although the above "is not to taken as a limitatlonof the use of the bags.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1, there is illustrated at numeral 1 a bag comprising, for example, an outer layer 3 of woven fabric such as burlap; For use with finely comminuted material, this outer layer 3 of woven fabric has fastened thereto an inner layer 5 comprising, for instance, papier mach or other paper which will yield without cracking when the bag is folded or otherwise strained. Theinner layer 5 is ordinarily held to theouter layer 3 by means of a waterproof binder such as an asphaltic material. It will be appreciated that when the fabric 3 has been rendered leak proof by application of the liner 5, it is desirable to have the seam which cooperates therewith as tight as the remainder of the bag, or the leak proof effect will be lost.
The material 3, 5 (in one form of bag) is folded over at one edge 7, thereby leaving an opposite edge and a bottom edge to be seamed, an upper edgebeing left unfastened to form a mouth of the bag. The side walls of the bag are between the edge 7 and strip 9.
processed rubber, gum, latex, as halt or a like waterproof material. It is urther desirable that this material be impervious to attack b that which is to be contained in the ba s, or instance, acid proof.
fter or before application of the cement 11 to the strip 9, but in either case before the cement dries, the strip 9 is folded u on itself. The cement is interiorly located an the strip is applied with its concave side over the juxtaposed edges 13 and 15 of the material comprising the remainder of the bag, thus formmg a waterproof binder. Fig. 1 clearly shows the arrangement of parts at the laid open portions 9, 11, 13, 15. It is preferable that after or at the time of a plying the folded strip 9 tothe juxtapose bag edges (13, 15, for example) that the strip 9 be compressed and creased, either by r0 lers or otherwise, so that the cement 11 is forced into the fibers of the woven fabric 3 and the seam made thin.
The stri 9 may be made of the same kind of woven abric as comprises the outer layer 3 of the bag. It is ordinarily not necessary to use a paper liner such as the liner 5 on the strip 9, because the cement or adhesive functions as a seal for the binding strip 9. After the joint has dried, it is almost as strong as the original fabric. This is because the strip 9.is just as stron as the fabric 3 and thus the creased or turne over region 17 will not tear any easier than the unseamed region 7 at the other ed of the bag. Furthermore, the widths-o the strip 9 may be made as great as is desirable to obtain a proper strength with the adhesive qualities available in the cement 11. If the area of cementing is increased, the strength is increased. It is conceivable that the joint ma be made stronger than the remainder of t e bag b using a stronger strip 9 and an ample widt for providing a great adhesive area. The adhesion is particularly effective, because the cement surrounds and imbeds the upstanding fibers of the woven material 3 and passes into the interstices thereof. Thus, as is illustrated in Fig. 3,
there is effected a substantially homogeneous material at the juncture between fabric and cement.
Referring to said Fig. 3, it will be seen to show the inner aper layer 5 held to the outer woven-fabric 3 ymeans of an asphalting or other binder 19. The edges 13 and 15 of the materials are joined by the strip 9 in the manner described. It is to be understood that the right hand edge of Fig. 3 shows the various layers .of materials diagrammatically and that actually they are flattened out con- I siderably by the compressing process through i will be seen the manner of formin which the materials. go, in assembling the saIIn: see Fig. 1).
ig. 4, taken m connection with Fig. 2, a corner of the bag. The stri 9 is first app ed to the edges 13, at the si e of the ba and thereafter the bottom is closed by app ying a similar strip along the lower edges of the material 3. At the corner 21 the lower strip 1s applied over the side strip with the result shown in Figs. 1., 2 and 4. Fig. 4 also emphasizes the homogeneity of the joii1t effected. This. figure, like Fig. 3, magnlfies sake of clarity.
In Fig. 5 is illustrated a' joint, which instead of being of the butt type with a cover piece such as shown in Figs. 1 to 4, comprises one in which a liner 5 is used in connection with a woven fabric exterior 3. It will be noted however, that the cement 23 which holds the layers 3 and 5 may be carried over on a flap 25 which, atthe time of cutting the bag and applying the liner may be folded over as indicated at the right ofsard Fig. 5,
so that the cement 23 is efi'ective on the exterior of the sheet 3' to close the edge. Or, the flap 25 may be left without cement during the operat on of cutting assembling and folding the'sheets 3 and 5 and later have cement applied thereto and folded over and compressed as shown. In Fig. 6 is illustrated the point that the joint need not be made at the edge of the bag or other device to which it is applied, but may be located upon a fiat surface thereof. In Fig. 6 the covervpiece 27 is flat and lays over the butt pieces 29 and 31, which latter are also flat. A cementing material; 33 is applied to strips 27 and the whole applied to the butt edges 29 and 31. Fig. 6 also brings out the point that it is not necessary that the bag to which the present invention is applied be a lined bag. As indicated at nu meral 35, the woven fabric is unlined in this case. The advantage of the invention under these conditions is that a' stronger joint is obtained, although there is no advantage in having it leak proof when the woven fabric would leak at the region 35.' However, the advantage of the increase in strength over .the strength of a sewed iece or fastening is of such a degree as to e ect a substantial improvement over prior art seams. It will be seen from Fig. '6 that any stresses which are engendered are evenly distributed over the surfaces which are juxtaposed between the elements 27, 29 and 31.
In Fig. 7 isshown a lap form of joint on the sides of a bag or the like. i This is also a type of joint whose efliciency may be greater than 100 per cent,-that is, the strength of the joint may be greater than the strength of the material which forms it (see also Fig. 5)
It will be seen from Figs. 3 to 7 that the cementin or adhesive material not only embeds the ally goes into the ores thereof and forms keys., Thus there IS efi'ected an advantage oveg any similar paper joint which might be use By means of the present invention, the seam strength can be increased for a. given material beyond what it could be with prior methods. Previously, adding layers of cloth did 'not entirel eliminate the weaknesses because, the strains were nevertheless localized at the threads. If the number of threads were increased, then the number of openings for permitting leakage were also increased. he increased number of openings also tended to weaken the seam. Inasmuch as the seam is theweakest part of a sewed bag, a heavier material is necessary to produce a bag of given strength than is the case with the cemented seam bag. Also, the thickness ofvthe material at the seam is less with the cemented seam bag. This 'makes it easier to close after filling, whether it is closed by cementing,
sewing or tymg.
The present invention also eliminates the necessity of turning the ba Prior bags were sewed while turned insi e-out and then turned so that the rough seam was positioned internally. The seam of the present invention is applied externally of the bag and the bag is never thereafter turned. There is no rough hem and the seam consequently presents an even appearance without turning. The elimination of the rough hem interiorly of the bag is also of advantage in preventing clinging of material when the bag is emptied.
It will also be appreciated that the elimination of the sewing itself is important in saving cost. The operation r uired for making the present fastening is one which does not require as high a degree of .skill as the operation required for making the prior fastenings. Thus the present method has advantages over those in which a sewing operation is performed and the sewed joints either cemented or not cemented. A cemented, sewed joint of course has the further disadvantages, above indicated, that the threads act as capillary members between the outside and the inside of the bag. In this connection it may be noted that the oil from certain substances such as sweeping compounds is absorbed by the cotton sewing thread in sewed bags and transmitted to the outside of the bag, thus staining the cloth. The oil is not thus transferred by the binding strip of the cemented seam bag, wherein no thread is used. Furthermore, substances containing a certain amount of free acid attack the sewing thread in the sewed bag. The coated binding strip of the fully cemented seam bag is not so attacked.
Referring again to, Fig. 1 it will be seen that after the seams are completed, that there bers of the woven fabric but actubefore described. This closure will be anal- February, 1930.
is formed a-bag with an open 11 per mouth through at least some of the interstices which should be closed after the ag is filled thereof. I
It is to be understood that closure of this ogous to the closin seam at the bottom of the bag, so far as its cooperation with the side seams is concerned. As illustrated in Fig. 2, said seam or fastening to be made at and provided with side seams and an upper seam, or it may be otherwise formed.
In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
As many changes could be made in carrying out the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accomanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. A butt-joint seam comprising abutted areas of woven material, a woven cover strip covering the abutment therebetween and a cementing material between the strip and the one pair on the bottom of the bag, onepair on the side, and the other pair on the top of the bag, folded woven binder strips covering pairs of juxtaposed edges on the bottom, the side and the top, and adhesive between the strips and said edges.
4. A filled bag comprising oppositely disosed and connected areas of woven material iaving three pairs of juxtaposed edges, onev pair on the bottom of the bag, one pair on the side, and the other pair on the top of the bag, and seams formed at the bottom, side and top of the bag, each seam comprising adjacent areas of woven material, a woven cover strip covering the adja-cent areas and a cementing material between the strip and the said areas, said material enveloping at least some fibres of the material and extending In testimony whereof, I have signed my seam may be eifectedin the manner herein name to this specification this 3r day of loo I no