US 1854143 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 12, 1932. JOHN 1,854,143
DEVICE AND METHOD FOR TESTING LUBRICATING OIL Filed Feb. 20, 1931 Patented Apr. 12, 1932 UNITED \STATES PATENT OFFICE ROBERT JOHN, OF WEST END, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO LILLI AN JOHN,
r NEW YORK, N. Y.
DEVICE AND.MIETHOD FOR TESTING LUBRICATING (XIII This invention relates to improvements in a method and means for making quantitative determinations of extraneous matter in lubricating oils which may indicate the qualitative lubricating value of said oils.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a'method and means so simple, quick and reliable that any user may at any time determine within a relatively short time 1 the condition of the lubricant as it then exists irrespective of any single cause of deterioration. Further, the user may be advised either as to the need of immediately changing the lubricant or flushing the crank case and 15, changing the lubricant, or merely adding more lubricant; or if none of these steps are advisable, the user may gain an approximate idea of how soon the lubricant will require. attention.
2o When a full charge of fresh lubricating oil is placed in the crank case of a thoroughly cleaned internal combustion englne or in similar lubricant containers used with automo-v tive engines it has certain useful characteris tics which gradually deteriorate with use.
This deterioration comes about through dilution of raw gasoline from the cylinders and with water sometimes formed as a product of the combustion; through the constant pounding of the bare surfaces against the thin films of lubricant disposed between them; and,
from the addition of carbon and metallic grit which inevitably follow the breaking down i of the lubricating value of the oil from any cause.
It is apparent that while some oils are capable of a greater degree of dilution. without impairment than others, and that while certain types" of oil are more resistant to destruction by pounding than others, the general of engines utilized in conjunction with motor Application filed February 20, 1931. Serial No. 517,250.
. directed to a method and means of determining the qualitative lubricating value of the lubricating oil used in the crank case of an internal combustion engine or the like, by the quantitative determination of the foreign materials contained within the lubricating o1 7 Further objects and advantages of my invention will be apparent from the accompanying drawing and following'detail description. 1
In the. drawing, the single figure indicates a front elevational view of one means for carrying out my invention.
Referring in detail to the drawing, 10 indicates a card which may be provided with a surface 11 ofbibulous material such as blotting or filter paper or the like. The" card 10 may take any desired configuration and may be of any desired dimensions. A plurality of areas 12 may be provided upon the face 11 of the card 10, the central portions of which may be colored as will be hereinafter more 'fully described. A central area 13 may be provided adjacent the areas 12 and may be normally maintained white or colorless.
If desired the areas 12 may be disposed around the area 13 as a center and the area 1 may be colored to indicate the color of new or unused lubricating coil.- It has been found that the color of said oil when absorbed by a bibulous surface such as the face of the card 11 is more or less yellow. The next adjacent area 2 may correspond to thecolor of lubrieating oil which hasbeen slightly used and may take a deepenyellowish hue whichmay approximate a fawn or bufi' color. The next ad] acent area may indicate the color of a lubricating oil which has seen more use than that represented by the colored area '2. The color of the area 3 may be described as a drab or brownish gray. The next adjacent area 4 may indicate the color of a lubricating. oil
which contains material quantities of foreign matter such as carbon, grit, metallic particles and the like. The color of the area 4 may approximate a dark gray. The next adjacent area 5 may comprise a reproduction of the color of a lubricating oil which contains a large proportion of foreign materials which oil would become injurious to the metallic portions of the internal combustion engine such as the bearings, cylinder walls and the like. The color ofthe area 5 may approximate a dark gray, almost black. The next adjacent area 6 may represent lubricating oil used to such an extent and containing such a great proportion of impurities that the lubricating value is substantially nil and represents an oil which, if used, would prove ruinous to the moving elements of the internal combustion engine.
The area 13 may be normally colorless and may be adapted to absorb a relatively small portion of the oil to be tested.
In utilizing my invention a dab of crank case oil taken from the crank case by touching the finger to the detachable measuring rod frequently found in combustion engine crank cases or to oil extracted in any other convenient manner, may be touched to the central area 13 thereby coloring said central area. The color of the blot or dab upon the area 13 may then be readilycompared with one of the colors in the areas 1 to 6 and the percentage of foreign materials contained within the body of. oil from which the sample was extracted can be determined by such compari-' son.
The lower portion of the card may, if desired, be provided with a space 14 which may contain directions as to the use of the card '10 and the proper interpretation of the various colored areas thereon.
For instance, if the blot or sample contained within the area 13 corresponds to the color of the area 1 by reference to the directions, the user may find that the oil is in substantially perfect condition. If the color of the sample contained within area 13 corresponds to the color of the area 2 under the legend 2 in the directions, the user may find that the oil is still good. If the sample corresponds to the color of the area 3 under the legend 3 within the space 14, the user may find that the oil is still good but that the same must be changed soon. If the sample corresponds to the color of the area 4, the user may be advised to change the oilimmediately. If the color of, the sample within the area 13 corresponds tothe color of the area 5, the user may by reference to the directions be advised to change the oil immediately and flush the crank case. If the color of the sample within the area 13 corresponds to the color of the area 6, the; user may be advised that danger exists andthat the oil should be changed immediately and crank case flushed.
v It is to be understood, of course, that the directions contained within the space 14 may be varied as desired, for instance, instead of directions addressed to the lay motorist as illustrated above, the percentages of foreign materials. contained within the oil may be enumerated and may correspond to the variouscolors within the areas 1, 2, 3, 4:, 5 and 6.
In another embodiment of my invention, I may prepare a series of color gradations and mount them side by side. I may preferably provide a transparent cover, for instance, glass or celluloid through which the color gradations may be seen. I 'may preferably mount the transparent cover in such a manner that a relatively thinair space is provided between the actual color card and the transparent cover, and at the same time I may leave one or more sides of the device open so that a card or strip of paper may be freely inserted therebetween. In using this embodiment of my invention, the dab or sample of oil may be placed upon a separate relatively small piece of bibulous material which may then be inserted in the space between the color card and the transparent cover, and may be moved adjacent each of the color gradations to more readily effect an accurate comparison. .This construction is not shown in the drawing but is believed will be readily apparent to any one skilled in the art.
It is to be understood, of course, that I do not wish to be limited to any one specific means for carrying out my invention inasmuch as my invention broadly contemplates the quantitative determination of the lubricating value of a lubricating oil by ascertaining the quantity of foreign solid material entrained in said oil.
In the preparation of color gradations 1, 2,
3, 4, 5 and 6, actual dabs or samples of lubricating oil at various stages of disintegration may be used, said stages of disintegration having been previously determined by microscopic examination and the viscosity, fluidity and tenacity may be ascertained. By taking averages of lubricants run under varying conditions and by extracting samples at different periods during the runs, it has been found possible to prepare a relatively great number of distinguishable colors, each representing a different degree of deterioration of the lubricating oil, but for practical purposes a relatively smaller number of color gradations from the pure, unused oil to that which has reached the danger point is sufficient.
Having made the color gradations by the method hereinbefore described, the same may be reproduced by means of half tone process in one or more colors or by using varied tints of blended inks. The actual color gradations appearing upon the test card may be printed by letter press, lithograph or gravure.
Many modifications of my invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art and various means for carrying out said invention may be devised without departing from the spirit of the invention. I donot wish to be limited to the particular embodiments chosen for the purpose of illustration inasmuch as the invention broadly contemplates a method and means for the determination of extraneout material in lubricating oil by the use of color gradations to ascertain the proper degree of deterioration of the lubricant.
I claim as my invention:
. 1.- A method of determining the approximate lubricating value of used lubricating oil which comprises the steps of depositin a quantity of used lubricating oil upon a bi uloussurface, in an amount substantially. coextensive with the absorptive capacity! of said bibulous surface, separating the solid non-lubricating constituents of the used oil, and then comparing the color of the bibulous surface, as thus .afi'ected by the separated non-lubricating constituents, with a color indicating the degree of deterioration of the lubricating oil deposited.
2. A method of determining the lubricating qualities" of used lubricating oils which comprises the steps of subjecting a quantity of the used oil to a zone, separating the solid constituents, of the oil thus deposited, from the liquid, constituents thereof, and comparing the color of the thus separated solid constituents of the used oil with.
a color for indicating the degree of deterioration of the oil subjected to the separating zone.
3. A lubricating oil testing device comprising a series of colored areas representing reproduced colors corresponding to the colors of separated non-lubricating constituents of lubricating oils at difierent degrees of deterioration, separating means provided by said device'for receiving a quantity of used lubricating oil deposited thereon and adapted to separate the solid non-lubricating constituents thereof from the lubricating constituents whereby the separated constituents may be comparedias to color with said series of areas to determine the lubricating value of the deposited oil. r 4. A testing device for used lubricating oils of internal combustion e'n ines which.
comprises,'in combination, a sur ace, a series of colored areas uporrsaid surface, a bibulous portion provided by said surface adapted to absorb a predetermined quantity of used lu bricating oil deposited thereonand to sepa-' rate the solid constituents from the non-solid constituents thereof, thereby changing the color presented by said bibulous portion in accordance with the quantity of solid constituents separated, which color may be compared with said colored areas to determine 'the lubricating qualities of the oil thus tested.
cating constituents thereof from the lubriposited oil.
5. A method of determining the lubricating qualities of used lubricating oils which comprises depositing a quantity of used lubricating oil upon a surface and separating the solid constituents of the used oil from the liquid lubricating constituents thereof and comparing the color of said surface, as' thus effected by the separatedsolid constituents, with colors indicating the extent of the deterioration of the oil tested.
6. A method of determining the lubricating qualities of used lubricating oils which comprises the steps of depositing a quantity of used lubricating ,oil upon a bibulous surface, and separating the non-lubricating constituents of the used oil from the lubricating constituents thereof, and comparing the color produced by the separated non-lubricating constituents upon said bibulous surface with a color for indicating the degree of 5 deterioration of the oil thus deposited.
7. -A lubricating oil testing device comprising a card provided with a series of colored areas corresponding to colors produced by the separated non-lubricating constituents of oils of diflerent degrees of deterioration, means provided by said card for receiving a quantity of used lubricating oil deposited thereon and for separating the non-lubricating constituents which maybe compared as to color with said series of colored areas to determine the lubricating value of the de- 8. A lubricating oil testing device comprising a card having a colored area corresponding to the color possessed by the separated non-lubricatin constituents of a lubricating oil at a 'ven egree of deterioration, means provide by said card for receiving a quantity of used lubricating oil deposited thereon and for separating the non-lubricating constituents thereof rom the lubricatin C011? stituents which may then be compar as to color with said colored area to determine the lubricating value of the deposited oil.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
. ROBERT J OHN,