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Publication numberUS1854235 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 19, 1932
Filing dateJan 18, 1930
Priority dateJan 18, 1930
Publication numberUS 1854235 A, US 1854235A, US-A-1854235, US1854235 A, US1854235A
InventorsStoddard Edgar S
Original AssigneeConover Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Detergent composition
US 1854235 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 9, 1932- y E. sfsToDDARD y 1,854,235

DETERGENT COMPOS ITION Filed Jan. 18, 1930 fnoez: 1 .Idgarsmdddfd g f w Patented Apr. 19, 1.932


The present invention relates to an iinproved detergent composition and a method of utilizing the same, and it particularl relates to an improved detergent composition which is adapted to wash dishes.

Although the present invention is adapted to be utilized in connection with the washing and cleansing of man articles and materials, it will be specifical y and very advantageously applicable to the washing and cleansing operations as carried out in dishwashino" machines of thespray-projector type. n these machines, a fine spray of the cleansing liquid, which is usually water, containing soap and/or seine other detergent', is projected against the surface of the 'object to be cleansed at the rate of about 2,000 to 3,000 :feet per minute, thus causing a considerable impact wlien the water strikes the object. This impact in addition to the Washing action of the water, is effective to loosen and carry away the food and dirt particles adhering t0 the objects being cleansed.

Spray-projector type dishwashing machines in connection with which the process oi the present invention-may be very advantageousl utilized are more fully shown and describe in application Serial Nos. 333,841, 193,414, 262,659, 344,112 and seance filed Januar 12, 1920, May 23, 1927, March 1.9, 1928, Miirch 5, 1929, and'August 31, 1929, rcspeetively. In these machines the cleansing actions depends upon the o eration of a small unencased screw propel er-lilie impeller, with curved blades, which impellcr ref' tates at a high velocity of the order of 1,000 to-2,000 R. P. M. in the lower part of the tank of the machine. As it turns, the impeller elevates the liquid from its lower screw propeller portions to its upper concave projectors which throw the cleansing liqui( at a tremendous velocity directly upon, or into, the objects to be cleansed. Since there are no substantial bailles or deliectors to break the force of the liquid, thetotal force oi the projected mass of liquid is effective for cleansing purposes. Although the velocity of the cleansing liquid is very high, the volume of cleansing li uid is very small, and as a result a very e ective cleansing is obtained with a minimum and most eiicient use of the 4cleansing agent. Under these conditions it is desirable to utilize a detergent-water composition of special character and quality' 'and tot prov; de such a composition is one of the principal objects of the present invention.

As a specific example of the practicing of the processes ot the present invention, `the operation of'cleansing dishes and similar ob- Jeots in a spray-projector type disliwashing machine, such as those described in the above identiied applications, will be described. Dishwasliii'ig machines of the spray-projec- .tor type are provided with vertical Washing chambers, usually of polygonal or cylindrical shape. The lower part of the washin chainber is adapted to contain a pool o water, which pool may be of increased depth below the central portion of the water actuating `device. The deepest portion of such pool may b e adapted to receive all the incoming and circulating washing and rinse 1i nids before they are taken up and distribute by the impel er or Water actuating device and it also is adapted to receive all waste liquid before it is discharged from the tank. The washing chamber is adapted to be opened either on the top or side, and by means of such opening it may be filled with the ob- ]ects to be cleansed. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the dishes, lates and silverware are positioned vertica ly in the lower part of the washing chamber above the liquid pool and the impeller. In the case ot the silverware, the portions which come into contact with the food are positioned uppermost, while in the case of dishes and plates, the concave portions are caused to face the center of the machine either artly or wholl The upper part of the was iing chamber 1s adapted to contain the deep vessels such as the jlasses, cups, deep bowls, etc. These artic es are positioned so aste face the impeller or the lower center of the washing chamber. When the dishes have been put into position in the washing chamber, the washing chamber is closed. My inventionY will be specifically described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a cross section of a body of soap incorporated in an outer layer of trisodium phosphate; and

Fig. 2 is a cross section of a capsule containing a body of soap surrounded by a body of trisodium phosphate, these ingredients being separated by a water soluble layer of gelatin. y

It is desirable in washing dishes to dissolve an alkaline and/or non-suds-producing detergent in the water first and then after this detergent has dissolved, to dissolve a collodial or other suds-producing detergent therein. Trisodium phosphate has been found to be one of the most satisfactory detergents to use in the first instance, while soap has been found to be one of the most satisfactory detergents to use in the second instance. These detergents may be added separately, or simultaneously, to the liquid which forms the cleansing medium, but in all cases.. provision should be made that the former detergent or substance be dissolved in the water before the latter. This is most readily done in the preferred method of the present invention, in which the soap is added in such a manner that it is coated by, or encapsulated in, trisodium phosphate. One method of accomplishing this is by preparing a soap mixture in a relatively fine state of division which is coated with a substantial layer of trisodium phosphate. This may be accomplished by spray-drying a suspension of soap in a concentrated solution of trisodium phosphate, or comminuted soap particles or iiakes may be coated or sprayed with trisodium phosphate. This external layer of trisodium phosphate may be caused to dissolve more slowly and may be caused to form a more coherent coating around the soap particles by the addition of oily, waxy or mucilaginous or other suitable binding materials, such for example, as a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium phosphate. This embodiment of my invention is illustrated in Fig. 1, in which 1 represents an inner body of soap and 2 is an external layer of trisodium phosphate.

In another embodiment of the invention, shown in Fig. 2, a double capsule is provided,

the interior of which may consist of soap indicated by the numeral 10 or a material having a similar action, while the exterior may contain trisodium phosphate, indicated by the numeral 20 or a similar material. Both 'the exterior and interior portions of these capsules should preferably be surrounded by a skin or shell of material which will either disintegrate or dissolve when placed in the cleansing or rinsing liquid. In the drawings, 11 represents a water soluble gelatin layer surrounding the body of the soap, and l2 designates a water soluble gelatin skin which surrounds the outer layer of trisodium phosphate. When the capsules are constructed in this manner, they may be readily prepared and sold to dishwater users,

and they may be proportioned so that putting one or a certain number of the capsules in the cleansing liquid, either before or after its addition to the machine, will sufce to give it the desirable detergent properties. In this last mentioned embodiment of the invention, it has been found most satisfactory to use gelatin shells or coatings which may be insolubilized. Other materials than gelatin may also be utilized, depending upon said solubility in water. Preferably the outer shell should be more readilysolublethan the inner shell, so that the trisodium phosphate will have an opportunity to dissolve yin the cleansing and rinsing liquid completely before the soap is attacked by the liquid. Gelatin is quite satisfactory,`when Water is used as the cleansing fluid, because it may be insolubilized inl various degrees so that shells of varying solubility may be obtained. In additiomfthe gelatin whenl dissolved affects in desirable manner the'detergent properties of .the liquid. Among other things, it increases the viscosity, the flotation powers of the liquid and the emulsifying qualities thereof. Of course it is obvious that other materials may be used to form the surrounding walls or shells of the capsules, but for reasons which clearly appear, the gelatin has been found to be very satisfactory. When gelatin is used as a separating material, it is preferably used in'thickness varying between 1/64t-h on an inch and 3/64ths of an inch. In' other wo-rds, it has been found quite satisfactoryto use gelatin walls as the separating and casing material approximately 1/32nd of 'an inch in thickness. A satisfactoiycapsule may be approximately symmetrical in shape with round ends and have a diameter of one inch and a .length of 2% inches. These proportions, of course, may be widely varied, according to the use, fluid characteristics and volume and temperature of fluid.

To give an example of the proportioning, in one embodiment-of the invention, which .is by no means restrictive, it has been found very satisfactory to utilize about one to five tablespoonfuls of a water soluble soap or an alkali metal salt of a high molecular weight fatty acid to every five quarts of cleansing or rinsing liquid. The trisodium phosphate may also be proportioned so that there will be one-half to three tablespoo'nfuls of this material or a similar alkaline reagent in the external portion of the capsule. The proportions of both soap and phosphate may be varied and are preferably adjusted to the requirements of the local water supply and the amount of water placed in the washing chamber. The figures set forth above are merely to set forth the relative proportions which have been found satisfactory in several instances.

Although as mentioned above, the capsulel may be added in various ways to the cleansing liquid, it has been found 'satisfactory to add it to the lower partof the washing cham ber of the machin-'e "so that it will position itself in the cleansing pool which forms in in the bottom of the Washing chamber and gradually dissolve in such pool. The capsule may also be placed in the entrance'pipe in such a position that thefliquid will Wash over it and gradually dissolve the phosphate and then dissolve the soap. The charge of Water or other liquid added to the machine should preferably be too hot to touch. The temperature may be materially over 140 F. It usually is not over 21001?. A normal charge for a dishWa-shing machine Will vary between two to'lifteen quarts of liquid, depending upon thesize of the machine and the actuating device. Although as stated abovethe amount of suds-forming detergent utilized will vary between one to five tablespoonfuls of soap flakes for every Jivequartsof Water, it has been preferred for many purposes to utilize only about one to one and one-half. The concentration of soap should be such that the cleansing liquid has sufficient viscosity and froth to emulsify and/or support the grease and food particles removed from the dishes and to carry them out of the machine. The washing and cleansing liqvuid in the machine may have the consistency of Whipped cream. Soapsuds of this con`- sistency reduce the slight noise of the circulating Water in the machine.

2. A detergent composition comprising sqlap surrounded by avshell of trisodium phosp, ate. v

3. A detergent composition, comprising .a water soluble capsule containing` a body of soap surrounded by a body of trisodium phosphate, the soap and trisodium phosphate being separated by a layer of Water soluble gelatin.

4. A detergent composition, comprising a water soluble gelatin capsule containing a body of soap surrounded by a. body of trisodium phosphate, the, soap and trisodium phosphate being separated by .a layer of water soluble gelatin which is less readily soluble than said capsule.

lIn testimony whereof I have subscribed my name to the foregoing specification and claims.


A particularadvantage of the present invention resides in the fact that dishes may be much more satisfactorily cleansed initially with a water treated with an alkaline alkali metal salt such assodium phosphate before being subjected to a soap cleansing. vWhen the soap becomes dissolved in the liquid, it has a tendency to cushion the cleansing-action of the Water in certain respects, and for this reason it is very desirable to have an initial cleansing action which is not cushioned by the soa-psuds.

Although trisodium phosphate is the preferred non-colloidal alkaline reagent and soap is the preferred foaming detergent because of their availability in most households, it is'obvious that many equivalent detergents may be utilized. For example, itis possible to utilize other alkaline-reacting salts in place of or in addition to trisodium phosphate. It is also possible-to utilize other suds-forming detergents in place of or in addition to soap.

lVhat is claimed is:

1. A detergent composition comprising a capsule containing .soap interiorly and trisodium phosphate enteri'orly, the entire capsule being surrounded'by a shell of material being disintegrable in Water, and the soap and phosphate being separated by an inner shell of similar character.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2423451 *Sep 28, 1943Jul 8, 1947Colgate Palmolive Peet CoSoap product and method of making same
US2509003 *Jan 8, 1942May 23, 1950Lathrop Paulson CompanyProcess for washing containers
US2571690 *Jan 20, 1948Oct 16, 1951Dobbelman N VDetergent composition
US2644185 *Apr 11, 1949Jul 7, 1953Leonard WeilMop with detergent supply
US3042621 *Nov 1, 1957Jul 3, 1962Colgate Palmolive CoDetergent composition
US3042622 *Nov 1, 1957Jul 3, 1962Colgate Palmolive CoAbrasive cleaning composition
US3099625 *Jun 23, 1960Jul 30, 1963Argus ChemBleaching and detergent composition and process of using same
US3154494 *Aug 7, 1961Oct 27, 1964United States Borax ChemFabric laundry compositions
US3172415 *Jul 19, 1962Mar 9, 1965Maushund Thomas ESubmerged surface cleaning apparatus
US3185649 *Jul 21, 1961May 25, 1965Lever Brothers LtdBleaching compositions
US3306858 *Jun 17, 1965Feb 28, 1967Economics LabProcess for the preparation of storage stable detergent composition
US3407144 *Dec 2, 1964Oct 22, 1968Procter & GambleDetergent composition
US3528925 *Dec 1, 1966Sep 15, 1970Chapuis JacquesEncapsulated synthetic liquid detergent and process for preparing the same
US4776455 *Mar 6, 1987Oct 11, 1988Lever Brothers CompanyCompartmented product for dispensing treatment agents in a washing or dishwashing machine
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US6455484Sep 22, 2000Sep 24, 2002Ecolab Inc.Two part chemical concentrate
US6589925 *Mar 20, 1998Jul 8, 2003Colgate-Palmolive CompanyAutomatic dishwashing detergent tablets
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US7517846Oct 20, 2005Apr 14, 2009Ecolab Inc.Solid, two part chemical concentrate
US8834934 *Feb 11, 2004Sep 16, 2014Haviland Products CompanyMaterial encapsulation system
US20040259757 *Jul 12, 2004Dec 23, 2004Ecolab Inc.Two part chemical concentrate
US20060040845 *Oct 20, 2005Feb 23, 2006Ecolab Inc.Two part chemical concentrate
US20060110464 *Feb 11, 2004May 25, 2006Walls John EMaterial encapsulation system
WO1992020774A1 *May 11, 1992Nov 26, 1992Ecolab Inc.Two part chemical concentrate
U.S. Classification510/439, 510/231, 510/441, 510/224, 510/442
International ClassificationC11D9/14, C11D17/00, C11D9/04, C11D17/04
Cooperative ClassificationC11D17/04, C11D9/14, C11D17/0039
European ClassificationC11D17/00D, C11D17/04, C11D9/14