US 1857175 A
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RMATURE 4 Sheets-Sh 1 Filed March 15, 1930 May 10, 1932.
V. G. APPLE ARMATURE Filed March 15, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 M Y- M7W PPLE May 1932.
ARMATURE Filed March 15, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 6 0% \Egg .fi UIIEI'L V. G. APPLE May 10, 1932.
ARMATURE Filed March 15 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 AIR/MATURE Application filed March 15, 1930.
This invention relates to armatures and particularly to armatures having jackets of insulation molded through and about the windings.
'6 An object of the invention is to provide an armature of this character with a separate shaft upon which it may have its rotative bearing, the shaft and armature being readily separable, to the end that the shaft may beeasi-ly renewed if it becomes damaged or worn, or maybe interchangeable with shafts of different lengths as required.
Another object is to form a portion of the molded jacket to correspond to a portion of the shaft in such a manner that driving relation between the armature and the shaft will he had thereby.
Still another 'object is to provide an end protecting plate for the insulation jacket which may be anchored to and held in place by the insulation itself and which is so formed as to provide a recess for a nut which is to hold the armature on the shaft.
Other objects will be apparent from a consideration of the following description, when taken in conjunction with the drawings, -wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a mandrel upon which I assemble the core of my armature.
Fig. 2-shows a core assembled on the mandrel Fig. '1 and with the slots lined with sheet insulation preparatory to placing the winding thereon.
Fig. 3 shows asleeve adapted to surround the shank of the mandrel Fig. 2 to keep the winding away from the shank.
Fig. 1 shows the winding in place with extending leads formed of the ends of the 0 wire composing the coils.
Fig. 5 shows a bar of stock from which the commutator segments are made.
Fig. '6 shows a single commutator segment made from bar Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 shows a wound structure Fi 3 with a segment Fig. 6 electrically joined to each lead.
Fig. 8 is a vertical axial section through a tool used to arrange the segments of the structure Fig. 7 in proper spaced relation.
I) STATES PATENT OFFKIE VINCENT G. APPLE, OF DAYTON, OHIO Serial No. 43 6,149.
Fig. 9 shows the tool Fig. 8 in perspec- Fig. 10 is a ring for holding the segments to the tool Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 is an axial sectional view taken at 11-11 of Fig. 12 through an envelope within which the armature is placed to bring the winding to a definite shape.
Fig. 12 is a transverse section taken at 1212 of Fig. 11.
Fig. 13 shows the tools Figs. 1, 3, 9, 10 and 11 assembled with an armature.
Fig. 14 is a transverse section taken at 1414. of Fig. 13.
Fig. 15 is a vertical section through a mold into which the armature is being placed.
Fig. 15a is a view of a wrench used with Fig. 16 shows the armature in place ready Fig. 16a is a view of a metal cap for the end of the commutator.
Fig. 17 is a transverse section taken at 1717 of Fig. 16.
Fig. 18 shows the armature in the mold after the jacket of insulation has been molded Fig. 19 shows the shaft with which the armature is to be assembled.
Fig. 20 shows the armature with the mandrel Fig. 1 removed and the shaft Fig. 19 substituted.
Fig. 21 is a section on the line 2121 of Similar numerals refer to similar parts throughout the several views.
In the drawings the mandrel 21, Fig. 1, comprises a stem 22 having a diameter equal to the central opening in'the core laminae and a shank 23 of larger diameter. 23 is flattened on three sides producing clutch-like projections 24.
A core 26, Fig. 2, having winding slots 27 separated by teeth 28 is placed on the stem 22. and a single strip 32 of sheet insulation is fitted around the core to extend .into and line all of the slots 27. The sleeve 29 is then placed over the shank 23 of the lnandrel at one end of the core and a bushing 31 of insulation over the stem 22 at the other end.
The shank of the core, after which the winding may be placed as shown in Fig. 4. The bushing 31 is intended to become a permanent part of the armature, but the sleeve 29 is adapted to be later withdrawn in order to make space between the winding head 30 and the shank 23 into which plastic insulation may be pressed.
A winding of cotton or other fibrous covered wire is next placed on the core. the front head 33 around bushing 31 and the back head 30 around sleeve 29. Leads 34 extend from the winding for connection to commutator bars as in common practice. But before the winding is placed on the core the covering of the wire is preferably saturated and coated with a liquid insulation and partly dri ed, in order that the pressure incident to the subsequent molding operation will not break down the insulation between adjacent turns, although if desired the winding may be impregnated with liquid insulation and baked after the winding is on the core.
In Fig. 6 I show one of the segments 36 which I use to compose a commutator for my armature. To make these segments I provide wire of trapeziform cross section (see Fig. 5) and cut it into lengths by cutting through the wire at an angle as at 37. Thus for each out there is produced a segment 36 having one end beveled as at 38 and the other as at 39. A lead slot 41 is then eas ly cut through the corner of each segment as shown.
Fig. 7 shows the structure after a segment 36 has been joined to each of the leads 34. The leads are pressed into the lead slots 41 whereupon they may be welded. brazed, soldered or otherwise electrically joined to the segments. After they are so' joined the segments are arranged in proper formation and bound together to compose a commutator.
Fig. 8 is a vertical axial section through a tool 42 around which the segments are temporarily assembled in order that they may be more easily entered into the mold. The tool consists of a cyl ndrical body 43 bored at 44 and counterbored at 46. with annular grooves 47 and 48 encircling it. The counterbored portion 46 is divided by a. series of longitudinal cuts into prongs 49 and each prong is further milled at the outer diameter from the free end to the groove 47 to provide an integral key 51 extending outwardly therefrom. A plug 52, bored at 53 is fitted into opening 44 and secured by pin 54. Tool 42 is also shown in perspective in 9.
When an armature has been wound and has its commutator segments connected to its leads as shown in Fig. 7, the tool 42 is placed over stem 22 of the mandrel 21 and the seg ments 36 are laid around the tool with keys 51 of the tool extending outwardly between the segments (see Figs. 13 and 15). Ring 56, Fig. 10 is now forced over the outside of segments 36, the prongs 49 springing slightly inward to permit the ring to go over.
Inasmuch as the insulation saturated winding is preferably baked to harden it before the jacket of plastic insulation is molded thereabout, a number of advantages may be gained by holding the winding in a definite shape while it is being hardened, first, because, by drawing the coils and coil heads into circular form concentric with the axis of rotation and hardening them in this shape, a better mechanical balance may be had and the jacket over them will be of more uniform thickness, and second, because, if the jacket is to be molded around both coil heads at a single operation, passages through which the plastic insulation may pass from one end of the core to the other must be provided. Such passages are readily provided by keeping vacant a portion 65 of each winding slot 27 at its outer edge.
The envelope 57 Figs. 11 and 12 is made in two halves 58 and 59, held together by nut 61 and has cupped ends 62 and 63, an opening 64 for sleeve 29 to extend through, an opening 66 to clear the cylindrical row of segments 36, and a series of inwardly extending keys 67 to enter the outer portions 65 of slots 27 to press the coils inwardly and compact them more closely into the bottoms of the slots and thereby leave spaces 65 at the outer ends of the slots after the coils are hardened.
Fig. 13 shows the armature structure assembled with the tools shown in Figs. 1, 3, 9, 10 and 11, ready to be baked to harden the winding, and it will be observed that the coil heads are closely surrounded and held in definite shape by the envelope 57. By also referring to Fig. 14 it will be seen that the keys 67 keep the coils pressed inward, so that when the coils are hardened and the envelope is removed the outer portions 65 of the slots will be vacant.
After baking the assembly Fig. 13 for a sufficient length of time to harden the windings the envelope 57 is removed, but the remaining tools are left on until after the structure is entered in the mold 68 within which the core for the commutator and the jacket for the windings is formed.
The mold 68 shown at three stages of its operation in Figs. 15, 16 and 18 comprises a cylindrical body in two parts 69 and 71. The upper surface of part 71 has a plurality of radial slots in which are radially movable jaws 72 equal in number to the number of commutator segments. Each jaw has a spacing tang 73 equal in thickness to the space between adjacent bars of the commutator.
Screws 74 hold part 69 to the upper surface of part 71 which closes the tops of the radial slots to keep the jaws 72 from upward movement.
The lower end of the body 69 is reduced in outside diameter at 75 and the ring 76 is rotatable thereabout. Ring 76 has a scroll 77 :cut in its .lowersurface and corresponding teeth 78 are carried on the upper surface of the jaws 72, so that rotation of ring '7 6 in one direction moves aws 72 radially inward and rotation in the other direction moves them radially outward.
On the upper surface of ring 76, are bevel .gear teeth 79, and corresponding teeth 81 cut on the end of wrench 82 are adapted to engage the teeth of the ring to revolve it.
The inner dimensions and contour of the mold of course corresponds to the finished armature. The inner diameter of the opening at 83 is such as to permit the passage and removal of the ring 56. At 84 the mold is fitted to the diameter of the core, and the shape and size of the opening at 86 and 87 corresponds to the front and back heads of the winding respectively. Openings 8 1 and 86 .are formed in part 69 of the body while opening 83 is formed in part 71 and opening 87 in the lower end of the vertically movable plunger 88 which is in turn slidably fitted to opening 89 in body part 69.
At the bottom end of the mold a plug 91 is slidably mounted in a ring 90 fitted to opening 83. The upper end of plug 91 is shaped to suit the end of the finished armature. A small opening 92 in the top of plug 91 receives the end of stem 22 of mandrel 21. A larger opening 93 in plunger 88 is slidably fitted over shank 23 of the mandrel. The ring 90 permits the removal of the ring 56 and allows the plug 91 to be pressed upward to remove the armature from the mold.
In operation the ring 90. the plug 91, and the plunger 88 are removed, and, by manipu lation of wrench 82, the jaws 7 2 are moved radially outward from their normal position. The armature structure, substantially as shown in Fig. 13. but with the envelope 57 removed, is placed in the mold as in Fig. 15, th wrench 82 is manipulated to move jaws 7 radially inward until spacing tan-gs ei 1e beti een adjacent segments 36 (see 17 and until the segments are clamped by th. jaws. This clamping action springs tl e prongs 49 radially inward and loosens ring 56. Tool 42 and ring 56 are now withdrawn. ant. replaced with ring 90 and plug 91 (see 16). But before plug 91 is put in place a sheet metal cap 9 is put over the upper end of the plug as shown. A cup shaped depression 95 of the cap is of sutlicient depth to receive a nut which is afterward put on the end of the armature shaft to hold the armature in place. The cap has outwardly tapering openings 96 through which the insulation may extend to hold the cap in place on the end of the armature.
The sleeve 29 is now withdrawn from shank 23 to make space between the back winding head 30 and the shank into which insulation may extend to cover the winding and fill the space around the lugs :24 of the mandrel 21. A proper quantity of uimiolded insulation 97 is now put into the opening 89 and the plunger 88 is slightly entered in the top of the opening as shown.
The assembly Fig. 16 is now put in a suitable press, and the plunger 88 is forced downward pressing the insulation about the back head 30, around projections 24 of mandrel 21,
downward through the spaces 65, about the front head 33 and further downward between and about the segments 36 through the tapered openings 96 of the protecting cap 9 1-, to make a jacket for the winding, driving means adapted to engage the armature shaft, a core for the commutator, and holding means to secure the protecting cap in position. While the mold is closed as in Fig. 18 the insulation is hardened.
After the insulation is hardened the armature is removed by applying upward pressure te plug 91 to raise the armature and plunger 88 together out of the body of the mold, then by holding plunger 88 and forcing shank downward and out of the plunger, then by holding the armature itself and forcing the mandrel 23 upwardly out of the armature. I
in 19 I show the shaft 98 which is to support the armature and be rotated thereby. The cellar 99 is permanently secured to the shaft and is adapted to limit'endwise movement of the armature in one direction, the nut 101 threaded on the end of the shaft limiting its movement in the other direction. Collar 99 also acts as an end thrust bearing collar for the armature. In order to estab lish driving relation between the shaft and the armature, collar 99 is flattened on three sides to correspond to the mandrel 21, thus producing integral driving tangs 102 adapted to enter driving pockets 103 in the molded insulation which are left when the projections 2 1 of the mandrel 21 are withdrawn.
Fig. 20 shows the shaft 98 in place in the armature the tangs 102 being in place in the pockets 103, the nut 101 holding the armature against axial movement. It will be observed that because the coil head 30 does not lie close to the shaft 98 there is a space 101 for an armature shaft bearing between the winding and the shaft and within the length of the armature proper. Also because of the depression 95 in the cap the nut 101 is permitted to come flush with the outer edge of the commutator. Both of these features conserve end room, making a shorter motor possible when my improved armature 'is used.
Having shown and described an embodi ment of r y invention in which the objects hereinhefore forth are attained, I claim- 1. a dynamo electric machine armature, a removable shaft, a winding, a mass of insulation extending into said winding, shaft set driving means formed of a part :of said mass,
and means on said shaft adapted to be engaged by or disengaged from said shaft driving means at will.
2. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a winding, a removable shaft, driving tangs 011 said shaft, and a mass of insulation penetrating and covering said winding, said mass having pockets into which said driving tangs may be entered or from which they may be removed at will.
3. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a Winding, a removable shaft, a collar on said shaft, driving tangs extending from said collar, and a mass of insulation penetrating and covering said winding, said mass having pockets in the end into which said driving tangs may be entered or from which they may be removed at will.
4:. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a removable shaft, a winding, a commutator comprising a plurality of separate segments attached to leads extending from said winding, a single mass of insulation penetrating and covering said winding and having driving means formed therein, and means on said shaft adapted to be engaged by said driving means or disengaged from said driving means at will.
5. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a removable shaft, a winding, a commutator comprising a plurality of separate segments attached to leads extending from said winding, a single mass of insulation penetrating and covering said winding and having driving pockets formed therein, and driving tangs extending from said shaft adapted to be entered into said pockets or to be removed therefrom at will.
6. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a shaft, a Winding, acommutator comprising a plurality of separate segments attached to leads emanating from said winding, an end protecting cap, having a cup at its middle portion, spaced apart from the outer ends of the segments, a mass of insulation between said segments and said cap, and a nut on said shaft within said cup.
7. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a shaft, a winding, a commutator comprising a plurality of separate segments attached to leads emanating from said winding, a cupshaped cap having outwardly tapering openings therethrough near the outer ends of the segments, a core of insulation extending between said segments and said cap and through the outwardly tapering openings in said cap, and a nut on the end of said shaft within said cup.
8. As a tool for forming driving pockets in a mass of insulation penetrating and covering the winding of an armature, a mandrel adapted to fit into the core of said armature While the winding is being placed thereon, said mandrel having lugs adapted to be surrounded by said insulation when said insulation is being placed, and a sleeve adapted to surround the shank of said mandrel to keep the windin away from said shank while the winding is being placed.
9. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a winding, a removable shaft, driving tangs on said shaft, a mass of insulation penetrating and covering said winding, said mass having pockets in one end into which said driving tangs are removably entered and removable means on the other end of said shaft to keep said tangs drawn tightly into said pockets.
10. In a dynamo electric machine armature, a winding, a removable shaft, driving tangs on said shaft, a mass of insulation penetrating and covering said winding, said mass having pockets in one end into which said driving tangs are removably entered, and a nut on the opposite end of said shaft drawing the said tangs into the said pockets.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature.
VINCENT G. APPLE.