US 1859831 A
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May 24, 1932- A. A. G. LAND Filed April 11. 1929 3 Sheets-Sheet l Patented May 24, 1932 PATENT @FFICE ARTHUR A. G. LAND, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS MESH-SECTIONED WIRE FABRIC Application filed April 11,
I am aware of prior wire fabrics in which all constituent strands extend longitudinally of the fabric, which fabrics include straight strands around which other (and usually lighter) strands are twisted for one more turn; so that the heavier strands take the tensioning strain when such a fabric is erected in a fence, and also support the lighter wires.
However, these prior fabrics cannot be rolled up for shipment when made in long lengths, unless the straight strands are of such flexibility as to make them unsuited for forming a rigid fence, and cannot be cut 15 into lengths or spliced without using cutting tools or without leaving unsightly joints.
So also, the straight wires in these prior fabrics would be horizontal in an erected fence, thereby increasing the toe-hold (for 110 any one wishing to climb the fence) over that which would otherwise be afforded by the meshes which they apparently intersect.
In the'presented fabric, the mesh-sectioning wires greatly reduce the toe-hold in the meshes bisected by them, so that these meshes can be much wider than would otherwise be permissible in a fence. So also, since my upright mesh-sectioning wires interlock with consecutive vertically spaced pairs of do bights in the fabric, these sectioning wires prevent a vertical contraction of the meshes bisected by them; consequently, they greatly increase the longitudinal strength of the fabric, since meshes cannot be spread longitudi nally of the fabric without correspondingly contracting them vertically.
It will also be noted that the term bight is used in the appended claims to denote sub- I stantially U-shaped bends each of which extends only for a fraction of a turn around another strand, as distinguished from socalled twists made by wrapping one wire around another wire for one or more complete turns. Moreover, with my fabric, the zigzag strands which form the bisected meshes need not be changed in any manner, since the bisecting wires loop around them; so that the only special equipment required is that for 50 forming these bisecting wires with the need- 1928. Serial No. 354,224.
ed bends, two types of which bends are shown respectively in Fig. 2 and in Fig. 10.
My invention relates to chain link wire fabrics, and in its general objects aims to provide an inexpensive wire fabric of this class which will afford unusually small mesh openlngs in proportion to the amount of wire in the fabric and the cost of the fabric.
As heretofore manufactured, chain link wire fabrics are commonly composed of wires preformed into flattened spirals or socalled zigzag strands having parallel axes, the consecutive strands in the fabric being intertwisted for relatively interlocking the ad] acent bights in the strand, thereby formlng parallel rows of meshes. The resulting meshes are usually four-sides and each substantially of the shape of a square of diamond which in an erected fence or grille has two opposite corners respectively at the top and the bottom of the mesh.
When employed for fences, grilles or the like, the utility of such a fabric depends both on its rigidity and on the size of the mesh openings, since the effective size of each mesh opening determines the size of object which can pass through the mesh and also determines the extent to which any one could secure a foothold in the mesh when attempting to climb upon it. Owing to this determining effect of the size of the mesh openmgs, chain link wire fabrics intended for many purposes have heretofore required a far greater number of intertwisted strands for a given length of the fabric than would be needed to afford the desired rigidity. This increased number of the constituent strands involves an undesirably high cost both for the required amount of wire, the cost of intertwisting so many wires, and the transportation expenses.
My present invention aims to reduce these costs by providing wire fabrics in which the effective mesh openings are greatly reduced in size in proportion to that of the zigzag formations in the main strands of the fabric, and accomplishes this purpose by subdividing or sectioning the usual meshes in such fabrics. Moreover, my invention provides a mesh-sectioned chain link wire fabric in rolled up in the usual manner for compact shipment, and which can be. manufactured with the greater portion of the sane constituted by flattened spiral. (or socalled zig zag) strands of the ordinary type which is cominoiily employed "for" chain link wire fences. My invention alsoprovides 'annesh sectioned fabric'iof this class in which both ornamentale'ffectsand a still further red'uc- .i
"mesh s'e'ctioning wires eifectivelybisect cer tain'rows of the resulting ineshesl tion'in the eife'ct'ive size of the mesh openings can be secured by merely preforming au'ziilizn ry bends in part or all of the constituent wire portions. Moreover my invention aims to provide a mes'h-secti-oiied fabric-of this class,
in whicht'li'e connection of the inesh section ing wires to the zigza niain strands forming the sectioned meshes is independent of the connection' of these strands to each other and in which these mesh-sectioning wiresare so interlocked with the mainstrands that the portion of each such wire which section mesh forms a strutto pi'eventan expanding of that mesh in a direction transverse" of that wire and longitudinally of the fab "ici' Furtherinore, my invention aims'to pro vide a mesh-sectioned wire fabricin which he sectioning'of the meshes ise'ffected by areformed Wires attached to themainHneslr" forming strands "of the fabr-"ic' so that these wires do notitake up any space between. the zigzag niainstrands, ther'ebyperinitting the sectioning-to be done-only in selected por tions of the fabric'whendesired, and also permitting 'the selective use of nies'h-sectioii'-' mg wires presentinopartsofvarying sl'ia'pe within the SEClSlODGdDlGSllQS.
So also, my invention provides a simple and expeditious method for assembling suc'h Moreover, my invention provides a mesh-sectioning applicablemesli-sectioned' fabrics.
in connection with ordinary chain link wire fabrics and adapted to affOrU'sectio'ned meshes in selected parts 'of the fabric", so that" the resulting fabric will. only have tne effec tively smaller "lIiQSliS in the portions where the smaller meshes are needed.
Still further and also more detailedobj'ect's will appear from the following specification and fronrthe accon'ipanying drawings, in which my invention.
2 is an enlargement of a portion'of Fig. 1, showing the intertwisting of bent por "fabric in which mesh sectioning wires tions of a mesh-sectioning wire with the usual bights in two adjacent flattened spiral or socalled zigzag strands.
Fig. 8 is an elevation of a portion of a meshsectioned fabric in which the mesh-sectioning wire is crinkled to eifect a further reduction in the size-of each half of each sectioned mesh.
Fig. 4 is an elevation of a portion of a mesh-sectioned fabric in which all of the zigzag strands have auxiliary formations for augmenting the effective mesh-aperture reduction, while the mesh-sectioning wires have no suchauxiliary formations.
F ig. 5 is an elevation of a portion of a wire fabric in which pairs of zigzag strands iary'formations for reducing theopenin s in the'--'n'ieslies hoi'wlerrxl' by them; and ii which" Fig. 6 is an elevation of a portion of awire fabridin which'botli"tlie zigzag strands'and the meslrsectioning strands have auxiliary "formations for 'reduciiw the effective 'anert'ures of the'r'esulting inesh' sections.
' Fig. 'Fis afragmentaryelevation of a wire other form' are employed.
FigQS is an enlarged and fragmentarytransverse section taken along the line88 "of Fig? showing how each bend in this wire overhangs bight portions or" themigzag strands.
ric allied to that of Fig.
mately in the general plane of the-fabric.
'upper'portion of Fig. 9
of an Fig. 11 is'an enlarged and fragmentary sectiont'aken-along the'lnie 1111 of Fig. 9'. Fig. 12 is a'diagraminatic view'sho iiig a Fig. 9 is a fragmentaryelevationof a fab- I 7, but having the bends of the mesh 'sectioning'wires approxiportion of a fabric in whichoiily the'lowei" inesh'es are sectionedafter the manner of the" meshes of Fi l or Fig. 7, and in which each mesh-sectioning wire is" hookednt its upperend-over a'juncture of two zigza V Fig/13 is an eleva'tion of a portion of a wire fabric-formed of embodiment of my "invention in which only the lowerpa'rtof eac'h'f vertical row of the ineshos'formed by the zag-strands is sectioned,
into such a mesh.
Fig. 14 is a" fragmentary elevation of a I and'in which'each mesl'i' sectionln'g strand 'prO ects'*upwar'dly fabricin whic'lreach mesh-sectioning strand consistsof 'twowir'es which 'haveportions within each mesh bent apart.
In accomplishing the purposes ofiny' 111- venti'orr afterthemanner'oi Fig; 1 and'of the laterally-medial portion of l employ as the-main stran'dsA and of the fabiicthe usua'l" fiattenedtspirals or s'o-calied' zigzagstran'dsused for maki'i'ig 'oruinary chain li'nl:
wire fences or the like. Then I also employ auxiliary or mesh-sectioningstrands C which are straight except for S-shaped portions 1 formed in them, each of these 8- shaped portions desirably having its parts so spaced that the intertwisted bights of the two adjacent main strands can extend respectively through its two bends.
These S-shaped portions have their middle points spaced by the uniform mesh height 2 of the zigzag strands, namely the distance longitudinally of each zigzag strand between the centers of two consecutive bights at the same edge of the strand, and all of the S formations may lie approximately in the same plane.
In manufacturing such a fabric, the meshsectioning Wire C can first be slid endwise through the consecutive bights 3 shown at tthe right-hand edge of the first or left-hand zigzag strand of Fig. l, with the wire G extending in the same direction through the consecutive bi ht in the wire of the strand A. IVhen the mesh-sectioning wire has been inf serted for a sufficient distance so that each of its S-shaped portions is opposite one of the right-hand bights 3 of the zigzag strand A l, the next zigzag strand B is intertwisted with the strand A by the usual spirally advancing movement of the strand B. in doing which each bight 3 of the strand B twists also around a part of an S-shaped portion 1 of the mesh-sectioning wire C.
When the zigzag strand B has thus been intertwisted with both the adjacent strand A and the mesh-sectioning wire C, the free ends of the strands A and B are secured to each other, as for example by intertwisting them, and each free end of the wire C also secured to at least one of the two zigzag strands with which it is intertwisted. For this securing, I desirably intertwist the alternate m eshsectioning wires C with the upper ends of the zigzag strands A and B which border the vertical row of meshes sectioned by the wire C to form twists 5, while each free end of the interposed mesh-sectioning wires C may simply be hooked over the uppermost interlocked bie'hts of the strand B and the next strand A, as shown at 6 in Fig. 1. The twists 5 and the hooks 6 then cooperate with the joint intertwlsting of the strands and wire forming a vertical row of sectioned meshes, which. intertwisting is shown on a larger scale in Fig. 2.
for retaining the sectioning wires in their proper position while the fabric is rolled up and shipped.
These mesh-sectioning wires C can also be inserted between the zigzag strands A and B after they are spirally assembled in the usual manner and before ends 5 are twisted together.
Then when the fabric is tensioned longitudinally (or laterally in Fig. 1) during its erection for a fence or the like, the bights of each two adjacent zigzag strands A and B interlock with a spiral portion of the associated mesh-sectioning wire C, as shown in Fig. 2. What is more, a part 7 of each S-shaped portion of the wire C seats on an inclined portion of the strand B, while a lower parts seats on an inclined portion of the strand A, so that the mesh-sectioning wire is also supported by bight portions of both of the zigzag strands associated with it. Consequently, each mesh-sectioning wire is rigidly and securely held in the erected fabric, the fastening of its ends being merely required for retaining this wire in position before the fabric is erected. Moreover, it will be seen from Figs. 1 and 2 that the bights of the adjacent zigzag strands interlock directly with each other and that the mesh-sectioning wires do not take up any room between these P bights of adjacent strands. This not only an ables me to employ the ordinary zigzag stands as commonly manufactured for chain link wire fabrics, but also permits me to meshsection any desired part of a chain link wire fabric of the ordinary type without requiring any change in the formation of the zigzag wlres.
When the fabric is in use, it will be seen from Fig. 1 that each ordinary square mesh formed by the zigzag strands is bisected by a mesh-sectioning wire G, thereby greatly reducing the resulting mesh openings. For example, the maximum diameter of a. ball 8 which would pass through one of the resulting triangular meshes is only about half of that of the ball 12 which would pass through the meshes formed by the same zigzag strands if the mesh sectioning wire had not been added.
To exclude balls of the same diameter as the ball 8 with an ordinary chain link wire fabric would require much more wire than that needed for the mesh-sectioned fabric of Fig. 1, and also would require more labor in the assembling of the fabric, since it takes less time to insert a mesh-sectioning wire than it does to intertwist one zigzag strand with another one. Consequently, my fabric requires less wire for a given object-excluding effect, and also costs less for labor per running foot.
Moreover, while I have heretofore de to the wig? meslrwill be producedby providing s sha-ped r or byprovidingthe -:legs (or parts connectingsthe :consecutlve bights of the zigzag strands) with auxiliary formations 10, as shown in Figsxi leandxli; Or, I may provide suchvauxiliary formations in all three of the strands or wires constituting each row 'of sectioned meshes as shown in Fi 6. lhese auxiliary formations preferably are formed to extend in the general plane of the fabric andcanreasily be designed-so as to afford an ornamental- :appearan'ce' to the fabric, as shown in Figs. s and 6.
Howrer, while I have illustrated my-invention'in connection with-fabrics having formations of desirable shapes formed in the constiti'ient vstrands or wires, and" h min S-sha ped port-ions of each mesh-sectioning wire'intertwisted with the-bights of adjacent zigza-g strands, I do not wish to be limited in this respechnorwas to other details of the construction and arrangement above disclosed. Neither'd-o I wish to be l mited to the employment of myamesh-sectioning wires in every portion of a fabric, since these mig it be used only-for selected fabric portions.
9 For example. in the embodiment of Figs. 7
and 8, the fabric of my invention comprises z gzag strands A and B'having tl e big'hts the-consecutive strands interlocked in the usual manner," and the" mesh-section; wires D do not :intertwist with these big'his of the 'zigzag strands.- lnsteadpeach meshsectioning wire D has substantially U-shaped bends =11 looping'over-the interlocked bights of the z-igzag strands form ng the meshes avhich are bisected by that wire I). The consecutiye-hends 1-1 extendrespectively in o positedirectionsbnt may'all lie in a common plane, and'the main parts of the wire l) pass consecutively "forward and rearward 'of the 'mesh strandportions. Inmaking; this fabric the-mesh sectioning :wire l) is place'd'adiacent to the s-piral'stran'd A in Fig. 7 and the strand :B is intertwisted in the usual manner- --with the strand A and inside the U-shaned-portions -11 of the mesh-sectionine. wire D, afterwhich the ends of QZZClT'WilQ l) are secured to adjacent z gzagstrands as by an inter-twist or hook 6.
Then when the wire :1) has its ends secured strands; the resiliency of the wirestraisghMns it and presses each bend 11 against the interlocked bights adjacent to that ben d9 so that a port on of each bend can hook aronnda zigzag strand portion s shown in Fig. -8)to aid in supportiir; th
-"- ri ght: angles to the. general plane of the fabric. HoWeve-n'my fabric may also be constructed wi h the bends-11 of the mesh-sec-- tioning wires all lying approximately in the general plane of the fabric, as show-n in Figs. 9, l0 and 11.
Yi ith both the types of Figs. 1 to 6 and those of 7, the zigzag strands have their bights directly interlocked in the ordinary :er of chain link fabrics and these alone would form larger meshed fabrics if the nesh-scctioning wires were omitted. Consequently, such sectioned in any selected part-or parts of the meshes maybe left unfabric. lhus, Figs. 12 and 13 show portions of fabrics in which the mesh-sectioning wires terminate below the upper meshes, so that only the lower meshes are sectioned, for
wh ch purpose the mesh-sectioning; wires of both 1 Such partially mesh-sectioned fabrics are particnla. sni :d for fences where effectively small meshes are needed only in the lower pertionas for example, in order to and 7 and 9 are. suitable.-
keep out small chieks-and my invention provides a single fabric for be stead of the heretofore customary use of two tely formed fabrics having meshes of t sizes.
each of the illustrated. embodiments, the directly 1 )Clilllg bights of he zigzag strands iCC-Oi e the strain when the fabric is tig'luened by The mesh-sectioning wires do not interfere with this tightening, but increasethe stifle ness of he fabric at right angles to its general plane, even if 'hese wires are of smaller diameter .han the Zigzag strands.
ch fences instretching it longitudinally. v
i l l -f th the illustrated embodiments, and.
the fabric (or horizontally in llOi iy permitting thinner and fines to be employed for With- 7 a Q'LVZ. degree of tensioning with en meshes.
. J Lee the intertwined bights strands but re partially or loop-ed bigrhts (namely through arcs-of not over 360 es), as shown in 2 and 10, this riddition meshza meshform' g strands does not interfere w affording of a hinging connection the intertwining of these main strands. Co- ,zequentl -q, when both the main strands and the mesh-sectioning Wires extend transned fabric is ten'sioned longiinc-s), these mesh-sect-ioning "lZOZltill spreading of the he mesh-sectioning; wires around these intertwined.
ectioning wires to the Zig.--
versely of the fabric, my fabric can be manufactured in any desired lengths (as for example, lengths of several hundred feet) and rolled up for compact storage and shipment even when both the main zigzag strands and the meshsecticning wires are so stiff that they could not easily be bent, which could not be done if the constituent strands extended longitudinally of the fabric.
Furthermore, it should be understood that I have used the term mesh-sectioning wire in a generic sense in which it is not limited to a single wire, as a strand or group of Wires may be employed for the same purpose. For example, Fig. 14 diagrammatically shows an embodiment of 1 1y invention in which each mesh-sectioning strand consists of two Wires E which are adj ointcd adjacent to the bights of the zigzag strands A and B but spread apart in the middle portion of each sectioned mesh. By forming these wires E so that their bent portions bow away from each other and assembling the fabric so that these bent portions all lie in the general plane of the fabric, l. effectively trisect each mesh, there by greatly reducing the effective mesh-section apertures.
I claim as my invention:
1. A wire fabric comprising upright zigzag strands having the bights at the adjacent sides of two consecutive strands directly spirally intertwined so that the two strands border a row of meshes; and vertical mesh sectioning wires each extending substantially medially ofsucharow of meshes, and through the said intertwisted bights of both of the zigzag strands, each mesh-sectioning wire having bent portions consecutively interlocking with and seated upon two zigzag strands bordering the row of meshes medial of which that meshsectioning strand extends, the interlocking of each mesh-sectioning wire with the two strands forming the meshes sectioned by that wire being independent of the intertwining of the said two strands.
2. A wire fabric comprising zigzag strands spirally intertwined to form parallel rows of meshes, and mesh-sectioning wires each extendinglongitudinallyofone of the said rows across the meshes of that row for effectively sectioning these meshes, each such mesh sectioning wire passing alternately forwardly and rearwardly of one of the zigzag strands forming the row of meshes across which that mesh-sectioning strand extends and exteriorly of the intertwining of the two strands forming the said row.
3. A Wire fabric comprising zigzag strands having the bights of consecutive strands being directly intertwinec. so that every two consecutive strands border a row of meshes, and meslrsectioning wires each substantially bisectin one such row of meshes, eacl meshsectioning wire having spaced bends respec tively interlocked with portions of the two adjacent strands independent of the intertwining of these strands, and each mesh-sectioning wire having adjacent to the middle of each mesh bisected by it a substantially S-shaped bend portion for reducing the effective object-excluding size of both of the half-meshes into which ti mesh divided by the mesh-sectioning wire.
4. An upright wire fabric compris ng upright flattened spiral strands presenting consecutively diverging legs connected to one another by bights, each of which bights extends through an arc of not more than 360 degrees when viewed from end of the strand, each strand being spirally twined through an adjacent strain as directly interlock bights of these two strands, whereby each two adjacent strands form an 11 ri 'ht row of meshes; and uprightmesh-sectioning wires respectively attending medially of each such row; each mesh-sectioning wi having spaced bends adjacent to and interlocked with the interlocked strand. portions at the upper and lower ends of each mesh of that row, and each such bend being GXtQllOJ' to the interlocked strand portions to which it is adjacent.
5. An upright wire fabric comprising upright flattened spiral strands presenting consecutively diverging legs connected to one another by bights, each of which bights er:- tends through an arc of not more than degrees when viewed from an end of the strand, each strand being spirally twined through an adjacent strand so as directly to interlock bights of those two strands, whereby each two adjacent strands form an upright row of meshes; and upright mesh-sectioning wires respectively extending medially of each such row; each mesh-sectioning wire having portions thereof respectively adjacent to and twisted for not more than one full turn about and exteriorly of the directly interlocked bights at a corner of each mesh of the row with which that mesh-sectioning wire is associated.
6. An upright wire fabric comprising upright flattened spiral strands presenting consecutively diverging legs connected to one another by bights, each of which bights extends through an arc of not more than 360 degrees when viewed from an end of the strand. each strand being spirally twined thro adjacent'strand so as directly to i bights of those two strands, whereby each twoadjacent strands form an upright row of meshes; and upright mesh-sectioning wires respectively extending medially of ca h such row; each mesh-sectioning wire having bends exterior to and respectively curved around interlocked portions of the two strands forming the meshes of one row, and having sub stantially S-shaped bends disposed sulistair tially central of meshes of that row, the said "bends lying substantially in the general plane of the fabric.
7. A mesh-sectioned wire fabriccompris- 'ing axially vparallel 1 zigzag strands: consecutively intertwined so as to afford a hinging connection between. each two consecutive strands and so that each two consecutive zig- Zag strands border a row of "meshes; and mesh-sectioning Wires each-extending inedially of sucha row of meshes,-:cach suchwire having spaced'bends respectively interlocked with the intertwined junctures' of thetwo strands forming that "row of meshes soathat each sectioning wire portions forms astrut extending across ameshx; the saidbends being of such form and extent as'not to'interf ere wlth a movement ofthe row-iiorining strands about their said-hingingzconnection; thereby permitting a rolling'andi nnrolling of the fabric about an'axis' parallel to the axes of the said mesh-sectioningzwires.
Signed-at Chicago, I1linois;-April 9th, I929.
. I ARTHUR A. G LAND.