US 1860737 A
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M y 1932- M. HANDSCHIEGL 1,360,737
DOUBLE EXPOSURE PROCESS I V I Filed Sept. 30 1925 green scr'e en a ljfql. a/
wd-aw ,4 T TOE/YE Y Patented May 31, 1932 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MAX HANDSCHIEGL, or LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOR TO BESSIE em- SCHIEGL, or LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA DOUBLE EXPOSURE PROCESS This invention relates particularly to a double exposure process adaptable for use in the production of motion picture films; and it is a primary object of this invention to enable overlapping components of pictures to be taken, with satisfactory results, at different times and places.
As mentioned in my' Patent No. 1,840,669 issued January 12, 1932, (in which I disclosed the best method which I had perfected previously to the filing. thereof,the process of the present application being a substantial improvement) it is often desirable, in
the production of motion pictures,'to com- -16 bine several actions on one film; in other words, it is often desirable to photograph a figure or subject which constitutes one action, and then to photograph, upon the same film, a second scene or action, taken at an 2 other time or place,making it appear, in the final production, that both actions occurred simultaneousl or that the first mentioned action was ta en with certain scenery or a background appropriate to the desired general effect.
As 'mentioned,it is an object of this present invention to provide improved methods whereby a figure or an object may be photographed in one location and under conditions which leave part of an original sensitized film unexposed the partially exposed film being afterward taken to another location, a second scene or other action may be there photographed so executed as to make the twolight impressions which the film has received cooperative.
upon the same negative, all operations being in connection with the appended claims and the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view showing a preferred manner in which a first figure or action may be photographed upon a pair of negative films, the image on one of these being reversed in a right-to-left sense.
Figs. 2 and 3 are enlarged views of cooperating frames from the two films, only the latter being shown as developed.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view showing one manner in which a second scene may be photographed upon the sensitized film of Fig. 2,
carrying an undeveloped image, the developed image of Fig. 3 (or a special positive hereinafter mentioned) being used as a mat during this operation.
Fig. 5 is a View of a positive print from the film shown' in Fig. 2, after this film has received the photographic image of the second1 scene, and has been developed as an origma a Figure 6 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the manner-of enlarging, diminish ing, or shifting the position of the image on a rint made from the developed film.
eferring to the details of that specific embodiment of my invention chosen for purposes of illustration, I may employ a pair of negative films A and 13, these being so exposed in a suitable camera that the photographic image of a figure, such as that of a dancing nymph 11, in action before a colored curtain 12, as for instance a red curtain, or another special background, is simultaneously light-impressed upon both films.
In the present embodiment of my invention, the construction of the camera G is such that photographic images exhibiting exact right-to-left or mirror symmetry of the figure 11 are simultaneously impressed upon the two films A and B, the inner faces a and b thereof being provided with usual or special sensitizing emulsions, adapting the same to be subsequently used face to face in a manner favorable to the avoidance of parallax, and the two films being advanced, at exactly the same rate, in such manner that the latent images occupy exactly corresponding but symmetrical positions.
Although analogous results, less perfect than those achieved by the consti'uctionherein described, may conceivably be accomplished by the use of double camera arrangements of known types, I consider it highly advantageous to employ a camera having a single opening for the admission of light, the interior organization of said camera being such as to provide exactly equivalent light paths and such as to enable me to run the mentioned films .parallel, one placed at right angles to the other, substantially as 'shown,-said films respectively receiving a direct image through a substantially identical lens or system 15 and is received by film A; an exact but counterpart or symmetrical duplication of the light impressions being thereby obtained It being assumed that in a certain motion picture production the representation of a an'cing wood nymph is desired, it will'be appreciated that it is not always practicable to take such an action directly upon the location of a suitable woodland scene; or that it may be desirable to reduce the proportions of the dancing figure to fairylike dimensions, or to exag erate the same to gigantic proportions relatively to such a scene; and, accordingly, the nymph 11 being first photographed upon the respective films in the general manner described, the desired scene or background may be subsequently photogrgphed, by the practice of my invention, at a di erent location. One of the mentioned films, as the film A, having latent images produced by reflection from the semi-mirror 13, is then developed, or over developed, to produce a mat suitable to be applied for the protection of the latent direct image produced, as described, upon the film B.
In Fig. 2 the dancing figure 11, which has been light-impressed upon the sensitized film B, is indicated by dotted lines 11a, whereas the film A, shown in Fig. 3, after receiving an exactly symmetrical light impression, has been developed in contrast, as shown at 11?). By contrast is here meant the development of an image by a so-called reversing process so that it will receive a comparatively heavy deposit of silver and will stand out from the surrounding area 16 and will be of pronounced opacity, interfering greatly with the passing of light, rays through those areas upon which the image of the dancing figure 11, or its equivalent, was produced, but permitting the free passage of light through said surrounding area 16.
It should be understood that the film B,.up to the moment here referred to, has remained undeveloped; and that the entire emulsion surface b thereof is stillin a sensitized condition; and the next step in my process is to place the developed reversed film A, with its face downward or inward, upon the undeveloped film B, (those surfaces, 41 and b, which were originally provided with sensitizing emulsion being now preferably in actual contact) so that the light im ressed image, indicated by dotted lines in ig. 2,
will be practically covered and protected by.
image substantially prevents the passage of light therethrough and since the two films A and B were simultaneously light impressed with the image of the figure 11, the image 11?) will exactly register with the undevelo ed image 11a and therefore prevent any urther exposure of the latter image at this time. As indicated in Figure 4, the scene or action which is subsequently to be employed as a background for the first action typified by the wood nymph or other object 11, may be an" actual scene taken on location in a forest or it may be a picture such as an oil painting or a print. In Fig. 4 for the purpose ofsimplicity in illustrating the invention I show the selected background '17 as having a scene 18 painted or sketched thereon; and I assume that the camera used is focused upon the mentioned picture, without further regard to the original focusing than-may be required in order to obtain a desired relative scale; and the scene 18 is light-impressed upon the area 19 of the undeveloped film B, which area surrounds the latent image indicated by the dotted lineslla thereon.
Any desired tests may be made," at the beginning of the described second run, as by cutting ofi, and dc-veloping'a few frames, to be sure the light directions and intensities and also the durations of exposure are correct.
The films A and B are then removed from the camera; and the-film B is developed. The resultant film, which is an original and not a dup negative, will contain the image of the first action, indicated in Figs. '1 and 2; and it will also contain the ima e of the scene 18 depicted on the picture 17 in ig. 4. Therefore, a positive-film 19' printed from the developed negative (prepared from film B, will show, as suggeste in Fig.5, a positive image 11c illustrating an action as occurring in the setting or before the background 180 implied by the scene 18,with the result that when this positive object is projected, the figure 11, whether upon a natural or a reduced or an enlarged scale, will appear as having been in action before the background or in the environment indicated by the said scene 18.
I have suggested that the background or scene which is employed in the second and conjointjuse of the films A and B may be a picture or an actual scene; but it shouldbe understood that I may alternatively employ, instead of such a background or actual scene, a previously taken positive of a scene or action, the impression thereof being accomplished in any preferred known way involving a transmission of light through the mat a film A onto the second film B.
Instead of using the developed film A directly as a mat to protect the originally exposed portion of film B, during the second running thereof, "I may follow an alternative course (see Fig. 6) including an intermediate production of a positive, A. This course permits of not only limited readjustment of the positions of the mat images relative to the lateral side and the sprocket holes of the mat film but also any desired slight enlargement or diminution of the mat images, as by means of suitable spacing and positioning or by means of a suitable lens or lens system L, to make them exactly suitable to their intended purpose.
B employing a colored background 12 as distinguished from a white or a black background, and by further employing appropriate screens or color filters, the background is photographed in on one of the sensitized films, and is photographed out on the other sensitized film. In Figure 1 of the drawings there has been shown a red background 12, and a red screen or filter in front of the film A, so that the actinic reflected rays from the red background 12 will photograph in the background on film A, while the green screen or filter placed before the film B will absorb the actinic rays from the red background 12 and resultin photographing out the background on the film B. Having photographed out the background 12 on the film B, it is the image or object 11 only which is photographed or light impressed upon the 7 on the film A. Then film B, thereby leaving the remaining sensitized portions of the film unchan ed and therefore capable of subsequently being light impressed or photographed upon. By photographing in the background on film A, both the background 12and the image or object 11 are photogra hed or light im ressed by developing tie film A, having the figure and the background photographed thereon, a silhouette print may be made therefrom so as to obtain a clear transparent background around the image,
making the second exposure, as illustrated in Figure 4, before any suitable background so as to photograph said background through the clearly transparent portion of the silhouette and upon the undeveloped film B.
Instead of making a print silhouette from the film A, the negative film A may be made into a positive by development, and employed in the manner of the print silhouette, thereby avoiding the making of a print silhouette from the developed film A.
Inasmuch as the ordinary films are primarily sensitive to blue-violet color, by using a blue background, only one screen is necessary (a red filter) and that screen will be employed to photograph out the background on one of the films, the blue backgpound being photographed in on the other Although I have herein described alternative embodiments of my invention, it should be understood that various features thereof might be independently used, and that numerous modifications might be made, by those skilled in the art to which this case relates, without the slightest departure from the spirit and scope of my invention, as the same is indicated above and in the following claims.
I claim as my invention 1. The herein described photographic method of producing composite motion pictures, which consists in simultaneously exposingtwo sensitized films to an object before 7 a colored background and photographing the whic passes light rays from the background and out on t e other film through a filter which absorbs light rays from the background, developin the film having the background in, making an intensified print from the developed film, employing the print as a silhouette to the undeveloped film, and then photographing a background upon the undeveloped film through said silhouette.
2. The herein described photographic method of making mats for the production of composite motion pictures, which consists in simultaneously exposing two sensitized films to an object in front of a colored background and photographing the background jin on one fihn through a' filter which passes light rays from the background and out on the other film through a filter which absorbs light rays from the background, and reversing and intensifying the image on the film having the background photographed in thereon toproduce a; silhouette directly on said film.
3. The herein described photographic method of making mats for the production of. composite motion pictures, which consists in producing a negative of an object in front of a colored background and through a color screen or filter which transmitsthe colored rays from the colored background, and reversing theimage thus obtained to produce a silhouette directly on said negative.
4, The herein described photographic method of producing composite motion pictures, which comprises simultaneously protures, which comprises simultaneously producing a negative and a right-to-left reversed negative in one and the same camera of an object in front of a plain colored background through color filters which photograph the background in on the right-toleft reversed negative and out on the other negative, developing the reversed negative, making I an intensified. print from the developed reversed negative, employing the print as a silhouette to the undeveloped negative, and then photographing a scenic background upon the undeveloped negative through said silhouette.
6. The herein described photographic method of producing compositemotionipictures, which comprises simultaneously producing a negative and a right-to-left reversed negative in one and the same camera and from a single point of view of an object in .front of a plain colored background through color filters which photograph the background in on the right-to-left reversed negative and out on the other negative, developing the reversed negative, making an intensified print from the developed reversed v negative, employing the print as a silhouette to the undeveloped negative, and then photo graphing a scenic background upon the undeveloped negative through said silhouette. 7. The herein described photographic method of producing composite motion pictures, which comprises simultaneously pro ducing a negative and a right-to-left reversed negative in one and the same camera and from a single point of view of an object in front of a plain colored backgrou'nd'through color filters which photograph the background in on one negative and out? on the other nega-' tive, developin reversing, and intensifying the image on t e negative having the background in thereon to produce a mat film having a silhouette image, and then photographing a scenic background upon the other negative through said mat film.
8. In the making of composite motion pictures, the steps of simultaneously producing a negative and a right-to left reversed negative in one and the same camera of an object in front of a plain colored background and through color screens or filters, the filter "for one negative transmitting the color rays from the colored backgroundand the filter for the other negative absorbing the color rays'from the colored background.
9. In the making of composite motion pictures, the steps of simultaneously producing a negative and a right-to-left reversed negative in one and the same camera of an object in front of a plain colored background and through color screens or filters, the filters 'for the reversed negative transmitting color rays from the colored background, and the filter for the other negative absorbing the color rays from the colored background.
10. The herein described photographic method of making mats for the production of composite motion pictures, which includes the steps of simultaneously producing a negative and a right to left reversed negative in one and the same camera of an object in front of a plain colored background and through color screens or filters, the filter for one negative transmitting the color rays from the colored background and the filter for the other negative absorbing the color rays from i the colored background, and reversing and intensifying the image on the film exposed to the color rays'from the colored background to produce a silhouette directly thereon.
11. The herein described photographic method of making mats for the production of composite motion pictures, which includes the steps of simultaneously producing a negative and a right-to-left reversed negative in one and the same camera of an object in front of a plain colored background, photographing the background in on one film and out on the other film,and reversing an intensifying the image on the film having the background photographed in thereon to produce a silhouette directly on said film.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at Los Angeles, California, this 19th day of September, 1925.