US 1863232 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jun I4, 1932.
L. M. WOOLSON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Sept. 26, 1929 LIONEL M NED-LEON.
Patented June 14, 1932 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE LIONEL M. WOOLSON, OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNOR TO PACKARD MOTOR CAR COMPANY, OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, A CORPORATION OF MICHIGAN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Application filed September 26, 1929. Serial No. 395,423.
& erate a plunger within a predetermined range of effective injection movement.
A further object of my invention is to provide a novel form of fuel injecting device in which a pump and actuating mechanism therefor are associated and related so that they can be readily assembled or disconnected.
A still further object of my invention is to provide a pump,-for injecting fuel in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine,
having an injecting plunger and an actuator guide portion which can be readily assoc1ated or disconnected.
These and other objects of the invent-ion will appear from the following description taken in connection with the drawing, which forms a part of this specification, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a Diesel type of aninternal combustion engine showing a fuel injection device incorporating my invention associated with one cylinder thereof;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of a portion of the fuel injecting device illustrated in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a sectional View of the fuel injecting device taken on line 33 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevation of the fuel injecting device illustrating the manner of observing the effective stroke of the pump plunger, from the exterior of its casing.
Referring now to the drawing by characters of reference, represents the annular crankcase of an internal combustion engine having a compartment 11 for the reception .of the connecting rods 12 and a compartment 13 in which the fuel pump actuating mechanism and the valve actuating mechanism are arranged. The compartments l1 and 13 are separatedby a wall 14, and a closure member 15 is secured to one end of the crankcase. The crankshaft 16 extends axially through the crankcase, and is connected to rotate the cam 17 which actuates the fuel injection device indicated generally at 18. A similar cam (not shown) is operated from the crankshaft to actuate the valve mechanism.
Cylinders such as illustrated at 19 are disposed radially around the crankcase,and include the portion 20 which extends into the connecting rod housing, and a shoulder 21 whichis formed to bear against the surface of the crankcase surrounding the opening through which the portion 20 extends. A pair of tie rods 22 encircle the shoulders 21 and are arranged to exert compression around the crankcase and tomaintain the cylinders securely in position with the crankcase. A piston 23 is arranged in each of the cylinders 19, and is secured to the connecting rod 12 in a conventional manner. The cylinder is provided with an integral head 24 upon which an auxiliary head 25 is secured by a plurality of studs 26'. The auxiliary head is provided with a neck portion 27 which carries the bearing 28 in which the stem of the valve.
29 reciprocates. The head of the cylinder is provided with a passage 30 through which air is drawn into the cylinder on the suction stroke of the piston and through which exhaust is moved out of the cylinder.
The engine which I have illustrated is of the four cycle type, and the valve actuating mechanism is timed to maintain the valve in open position so that the passage 30 is in open communication with the interior of the cylinder during the air intake and exhaust cycles and is closed during the compression and explosion cycles. The piston is formedwith a recess to permit its approach to a point adjacent the cylinder head when the valve 29 is opened, and also to permit the injection of fuel into the combustion chamber, at the upper end of the cylinder, when the piston is at top dead center positio trative of one type of engine with which my invention can be associated. The fuel 11n-' jection device is comprised of a pump section and a nozzle section which are united and assembled with the cylinder as an integral structure, the nozzle portion of the device being illustrated at 31. Actuating means is interposed intermediate the pump section and the cam 17 for moving the plunger 32 in its injection stroke, the spring 33 being arranged to retract the plungerafter the injection stroke. The plunger is arranged to operate ina sleeve 34 which is carried within a casing 35, and a housing 36 surrounds a portion of the casing and serves as a portion of the conduit through which liquid fuel passes into the pump barrel. The casing and the barrel 34 are provided with a plurality of ports 37 through which liquid fuel passes from the housing into the interior of the barrel, and suitable low pressure circulating means is associated with the fuel feed line to force fuel into the pump barrel when the plunger 32 is retracted and has uncovered the ports 37. It will be seen that as the plunger 32 is moving in its injection stroke, the ports 37 will be closed thereby, whereupon the liquid fuel so trapped in the barrel beyond the piston-will be compressed so that it is injected under a high pressure through the check valve 38 and the nozzle structure 31, into the cylinder.
Y The plunger 32 is formed with a head 39, the end of which is rounded. A guide member 40 forming a continuation of the plunger is arranged to be reciprocated in the casing 35 and is provided with a central depending bearing portion 41 with which the actuating mechanism engages to cause the injection stroke of the plunger. The guide extension is formed with a transversely extending undercut slot 42 so that the head of the piston will be retained therein when in assembled relation. It will be observed that the guide can be associated .with or removed from the head of the piston by a lateral sliding movement, and the piston and guide are preferably assembled previous to their association with the pump casing 35. The punip casing is provided with an annular groove adjacent its open end for the reception of a split spring retainer 43 which ex tends interiorly of the casing sufliciently to prevent displacement of the plunger guide extension. The end of the casing is formed with a recess 44 into which a tool can be in serted for annularly compressing the retainer 43 and removing it from the groove in the casing. The spring 33 is arranged to bear against a shoulder formed by the casing and the pump barrel at one end, and against the plunger guide extension at the other end.
It will be seen that with the arrangement v just described, the plunger and its guide can be readily assembled and disassembled from the casing, and that the relation is such that the plunger will reciprocate in the proper plane at all times.
The nozzle section of the fuel injection desecured with the cylinder by cap screws 46.\ This manner of securing the nozzle provides the sole support for the unitary fuel injecting device, so that upon the removal of the cap screws, such unitary structure can be readily removed from the cylinder.
The crankcase is provided with an aperture through which a bearing member 47 extends, a flange 48 thereof being secured to the exterior of the casing by the cap screws 49. Such bearing member is arranged to extend in an axial plane with the fuel pump plunger and to house the rod 50 which is reciprocated therein by the link 51 which is attached to an adjustable ring member 52 secured in a groove in the wall 14 of the crankcase. The link 51 is actuated through a pivoted rocker lever 53 which is mounted upon a shaft 54' secured to the crankcase walls 14 and 15. By rotating the ring member, the angular relation of the link 51 is varied so that the stroke imparted to the rod 50 can be adjusted. It will be seen that rotationof the cam 17 will cause a rocking movement of the rocker lever 53 and when the cam lobe engages the rocker lever, the link 51 and the rod 50 will be moved in a direction to cause the fuel pump to move upon a fuel injection stroke, the spring 33 returning such mechanism so that the rocker lever will always ride upon the periphery of the cam between the injection strokes. I j
The actuator rod 50 is provided in its end adjacent the piston with an' aperture into which the tappet stud 54 is threaded, and the adjustmentof such stud axially of the rod 50 determines the effective range in which the plunger will be actuated in the barrel. A lock nut 55 is arranged to maintain the bolt 54 in desired adjusted relation. An annular groove is formed adjacent one end of the bearing member 47 for the reception of a split spring retainer 56, and a recess 57 is formed in the end of the hearing so that a tool can be inserted therein to compress the retainer annularly andremove the same from the groove. .The purpose of this retainer is to prevent axial displacement of the rod 50 from the bearing member, and to thereby maintain the actuating mechanism in operative position. The retainer is required especially for this purpose in the fuel mechanisms associated with cylinders having their heads lowermost because otherwise the rod 50 would fall out when the associated pump and nozzle structure'is detached.
A sleeve 58 is arranged to enclose the space between the lower end of the pump casing and the upper end of the bearing. Such sleeve is preferably formed of spring metal, and the end engaging with the bearing is provided with slots thereby forming spring fingers which will engage the enlarged end 59 of the bearing. The end of the pump casing is formed with a semi-circular bead and the periphery of such head is of a diameter such that it will telescope within the end of the sleeve 58. It will be .seen that upon removal of the cap screws 46, the unitary structure consisting of the nozzle and pump sections can be moved laterally away from the cylinder and entirely disengaged from the actuating mechanism without disturbing the position of such associated elements, and it of course follows that the same can be assembled in a similar relation. The
' beaded end of the pump casing allows for a rocking movement of the casing out of or into the end of the sleeve 58 when the nozzle portion of the structure is tilted outwardly, or inwardly, as the case may be.
If it is desired to change the relation of the bolt 54 with the bearing portion 41 of the plunger guide extension, then the sleeve 58 can be removed from the bearing 47 into' a position further telescoping the pump casing so that a wrench can be applied to the bolt and the nut 55 to space the head of the tappet bolt a desired distance from the end of the rod 50.
Indicating mechanism is associated with the device so that the tappet can be adjusted to cause the pump to travel in a predetermined efi'ective range. The casing is provided with apertures 61 through which the movement of the plunger guide extension can be observed from the exterior, and lines 62 and 63 are arranged on the casing adjacent the ends of the slots. Such lines determine the predetermined maximum range of the effective movement of the plunger, the line 62 representing the position of the plunger just after closing the ports 37 while the line 63 indicates the extreme injection position of the plunger. The range marks are arranged to register with the shoulder 6-1 on the guide extension to indicate the effective piston position. Through adjustment of the tappet, the actuating mechanism will cause the desired movement of the plunger in a predetermined effective stroke, and such adjustment can be readily made to/compensate for manufacturing inaccuracies and for wear. With such an adjustment the pumps for a multi-cylinder engine, operated by a single cam in timed relation, can be set to be actuated similarly so that uniform fuel charges will be injected into the several cylinders. It will be understood that the effective stroke of the plunger can be varied by manipulation of the ring member 52, as heretofore described, however such adjustment will be within the range established by the tappet adjustment.
While I have herein described in some detail a specific embodiment of my invention,
which I deem to be new and advantageous and may specifically claim, I do not desire it to be understood that my invention is limited to the exact details of the construction, as it will be apparent that changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit or scope of my invention.
What I claim is:
1. In a liquid fuel injecting device for internal combustion engines, a casing, a pump barrel carried, within the casing, a plunger structure including a plunger in the barrel and a guide extension in the casing, and removable retaining means associated with the casing for preventing the endwise displacement of the plunger structure from operative position.
2. In a liquid fuel injecting device for internal combustion engines, a fuel injecting pump structure including a plunger,a bearing, plunger actuating means extending through the bearing, said fuel injecting structure being detachable from the associated actuating means, and a removable retainer associated with the bearing preventing displacement of the actuating means when the pump structure is out of association therewith.
3. In combination with an engine cylinder and crankcase, a unitary fuel pump and nozzle structure detachably secured to the cylinder, and pump actuating means extending through the engine casing in operative relation with the pump, said pump and nozzle structure being removable from the cylinder without disturbing the operative position of the actuating mechanism.
4. In combination with an engine cylinder and crankcase, a fuel pump and nozzle structure secured to the cylinder, said structure having a casing enclosing a plunger, actuating mechanism extending through the crankcase, said mechanism including an adjustable tappet engaging the pump plunger in the casing, and a sleeve enclosing the actuating mechanism extending exteriorly of the crankcase, said sleeve being movable to permit adjustment of'the tappet.
5. In a liquid fuel injection device for internal combustion engines, a casing open at one end, a pump barrel carried within the casing, a plunger structure including a plunger extending into the barrel and a guide extension in the casing, and stop means .extending interiorly of the casing adjacent its open end to limit outward movement of the guide extension, said stop means being detachably associated with the casing.
6. In a liquid injecting device for internal combustion engines, a casing open at one end having an interior circular groove adjacent the open end, a pump barrel carried within the casing, a plunger structure including a plunger extending into the barrel and a guide extension in the casing, and a spring retainer seated in the groove in said casing and projecting inwardly thereof to limit outward movement of the guide extension, said spring retainer being detachable from the casing ment'with the pump, said unitary pump and nozzle structure being removable laterally from the cylinder and actuating mechanism.
8. In combination with an engine cylinder and crank case, a unitary fuel pump and nozzle structure, means detachably securing said nozzle portion of the structure to the cylinder, and a pump actuating push rod structure extending through the crank case into operative engagement with the pump, said unitary structure being removable laterally from the crank case and push rod structure without disturbing the adjustment or position of the push rod structure.
9. In an internal combustion engine having a crank case, a cylinder and a fuel injecting structure including a pump plunger removably secured to the cylinder; the combi nation of a bearing extending through the crank case wall in alignment with the pump plunger, a push rod structure extending through the bearing and operative-1y engaging the pump plunger, and a push rod retaining spring member arranged in the bearing to prevent outward displacement of the pushvrod from the crank case, said retaining spring member being (letachably associated with the bearing.
10. In combination with an engine cylinder and crankcase, a fuel pump and nozzle structure secured to the cylinder, said structure having a casing enclosing a plunger,
actuating mechanism extending through the crank case, said mechanism including an adjustable tappet at one end engaging the pump plunger, and a sleeve enclosing the actuating mechanism extending exteriorly of the crank case, said sleeve telescoping a portion of the casing and being movable to uncover the actuating mechanism extending exteriorly of the crank case to permit adjustment of the tapet. p 11. In an internal combustion engine, a crank case, a cylinder extending from the crank case, a combined nozzle and pump structure detachably secured to the cylinder, said structure including a pump casing and a detachable two-part plunger, and a push rod structure extending through the crank case and operatively engaging one end of the plunger, the part of'the plunger with which the push rod structure engages being laterally removable from the other plunger part when moved to a position beyond the end of the pump casing.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature.
LIONEL M. WOOLSON.