US 1864916 A
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June 28, 1932 M. GAcHAsslN-LAFITE iVISIBLE sHoT CONCENTRATING PROJECTILE Fon SPORTING GUNS Filed May 8. 1930 .ausEEEEEEE Md n Pafenfed Jene 2s, 1932 .PATENT o1-F1osih MARCEL GACHASIN-LAFIT'R OF BRUSSELS, BELGIUM VISIBLE SHOT GONCENTRATING PROJECTILE FOR SPORTING GUNS .Application vle. May 8, 1930, Serial No.' 450,616, and in BelgiumApril 1, 1930.
' This invention relates to improvements in projectiles and refers particularly to pro j-ectiles containing a charge of lead shot or'- similar material which,V is discharged from 5 the case during the fiight of the projectile.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide a projectile lby means of which the path thereof can readily be followed by the person firing the projectile, lo while a further object of the present invention is to provide a projectile adapted for lethal purposes, `whereby the effective range of the shot is increased by ensuring a more dense distribution of the shot charge at a l5 given distance from the gun in comparison with the distribution of shot produced by firing a cartridge containing shot.
In accordance with the present invention,
there is provided, to contain the charge of its forward end for the passage of shot away from the case in combinationl with a forcibly' expanded retarding device associated with and larger than the base of said case. By suitably proportioning the area of the retarding device at the rear, the size of the grains of shot and the size of the aperture at the forward end of the case, the projectile may be adapted primarily eithervfor tracing 1s of such a nature as to be easily visible throughout their flight or alternatively as a lethal projectile in which case of course, the retardin device may be less visible through- 25 out the 'ght.
These advantages andl some others will be explained in the ,theoretical statement fol- A lowing, A
It is recognized that in the firing of a shot cartridge of the usual type, there. is produced a sudden blow on the wad which overcomes the inertia of the shot charge and projects Y metre.
urposes in which case the retarding device` takes a spherical form on leaving the barrel and spreads very rapidly after about 35 meters covering a space of more than a square The individual shot which are furthest from the direct line of fire, diverge progressively during the flight, with the result that everything which isaimed at and which is not exactly in the center of the aim, is likely not to be hit by'a suicient number of shot and in the case of animals or birds, eithermissed or uselessly maimed. This has been remedied to `some extent by the choke guns which eii'ect a lengthening of the charge of shot in iiight and prevent undue spreading, thus extending the useful range of the shot, but this method increases still more the inconveniences of deformation of the shot and of leading 'of the barrel. It i's recognized,
however, that a Agood choke ensures an advantagel in range of about 10 metres over the same shot tired by a smooth gun. p
With the projectile according to the present invention, it is possible to calculate the various ballistic and mechanical elements` so that the spreading of the shot only commences at a definite distance, for example, 15 or 20 metres, or even more, from the gun, which will thus ensure that a given grouping of the shot is obtained at a distance of 15 or 20 metres beyond that which would be obtained with an ordinary cartrid. For example, if a parallel bore gun, w 'ch an Ordinar cartridge fires 245 No. 6 shot into a circle o 0.75 metres in diameter at a distance of 35 metres, the same spreading effect will be attainedvat or 55 metres Laccording tothe construction, with the projectile according to the present invention. Furthermore, due to the reduction of friction in the barrel it is possible to obtain this. result by using a smaller charge of powder, with the certainty that none of the shot will fall short.
Further. it is known that it is impossible with an ordinary cartridge, to tell where the shot has carried with respect to the moving o that the projectile proper consists of a hol- .lll
low cylindrical case of elastic material, such as rubber, having an integral hemispherical or pointed head provided with a comparatively reduced opening at its top and attached at its base to a large, forcibly expanded retarding device. The hollow projectile is llcd with sporting shot of suitable sizes.
Y The sudden blow which is produced at the moment of discharge, forces out the projec- -tile and `in overcoming the inertia of the shot contained therein, the'case is initially pressed against the shot. In consequence of this inertia, during the short moment which follows the discharge, the shots have a tendency to hear against the bottom of the projectile. During all the passage through the barrel, the projecting edges around the rubber envelope are all that rub against the hard metal of the barrel and consequently the lead shot has no occasion to be deformed and they allhave the same speed as the hollow envelope. But after leaving the barrel, the retarding device opens and tends to slow down the speed of the projectile; neverthelessthis retarding action only -operates on the light envelope, and the heavier charge of shot maintaining its indeendent motion moves towards the exit orice. ut here takes place a very characteristic j phenomenon: the mass of the shot preserving a greater speed than that of the envelope, but owing to the smallness of the orifice, there is produced at first a confusion or congestion .which prevents their exit (similar to that which is produced forV example in the case of apanic in a public hall when all the spectators start at one time towards the only em't) those which are at the edge Vprevent the exit of the others and are themselves prevented from leaving by the pressure which is produced towards the 'centre of the opening. It is only at the momentwhen a lnd of order is reestablished, that the opening can be passed through. At this moment, the shots then pass out of the projectile case, which latter continues at a retarded speed. This exit is more or less rapid and moreY or less early, according to the angle of curve of the head of thev projectile, the diameter of theexit orice and the size of the shot. it is evident that the more the angle of curve approaches a vright angle, the more the exit of the shot will be retarded, while if the angle is morel obtuse, that is to say, its shape is more pointed, their exit will be fecititated. Evidently this ein't will be inuenced also by the thicmess or the rigidity of the material oi the headv of the case, by the diameesencia teJ of the centre hole, by the size of the shot, and by the greater or lesser retarding eect on the case. ing cartridges, intended as we have stated for the correction of the aim, it is necessary that With the cartridges called tracthe shot only leave the envelope at a'point as, j.
far away as possible from the mouth o the" barrel, and furthermore, when the projectile:` lis intended for practice or for correction, it is advisable that the shot should be harmless;
in this case, a projectile is used with a head of only slight sphericity, with fairly thick and stili Walls, having comparatively small 50 metres, thus permitting the person firing.
to observe the trajectory that would have been followed by the charge of invisible shot aimed at the same point, the speed ci' this tracing projectile being calculated to correspond to the mean speed or the shot from a sporting gun On the contrary, for lethal projectiles.v the angle oi the head of the case will be more obtuse, the shape of the head being more pointed, the thickness and rigidity of the material of such head being correspondingly less and the exit hole correspondingly larger because the shot are larger and/or have to leave their envelo e earlier. i ln general, for these cartridges t e commencement of the evacuation of 'the killing projectile will vary between l0 and 20 metres from the enit of the barrel, thus ensuring a greater useful range of the weaponby 10 or 20 metres.
lt is evident that by properly calculating the charge of powder, the force of the breh- .ing, the conicity of the head of the case, the
nature of the material used, the size of the exit opening and the size of the shot which it contains, projectiles suitable for all circumstances may be made as desired, for example, projectiles suitable for simply tracing over the whole of the flight, or for tracing over a ill@ deiinite range, or again for tracing over e y. very long flight, or still further for lethal purposes by a rapid liberation of the shot.
after tracing a long iiight.
We will describe below, simply as an eni ample, various forms of embodying this projectile and its braking device, making lreiterence to the annexed drawing in which Fig. 1 showsa side view or one form oi Fig. 3 is 'a section similar to Fig. 2 oi ahilling projectile loadedl lwith sporting shot;
Fig. 'i shows vin section the projectile hired to a retarding device in unfolded position,
material kept under the rojectile by means of a connectorv and a re atively elastic wad which forces it to open;
Fi 5 shows the manner of loading up the tasse to-introduce it into the tube of the cartridge case; and
Fig. 6 is a section of a loaded cartridge after closing;
Fig. 7 shows the arrangement of a thin layer of fibrous or'lexible material held under the bottom of the projectile lby a spring washer;
Fig. 8 is a plan view of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 shows the manner in which the projectile thus furnished fits into the cartridge case, and 4 Fig. 10 is a side view of a variation in construction in which the retarding and tracing device is constituted by a small parachute fixed to the bottom of the projectile by cords.
As will be seen fromF1gs. 1, 2 and 3, the projectile proper is constituted by a cylindrical case 1 having on its periphery several slight projections or longitudinal or other ribs 2, having for theirobject to eiiect the guiding of the projectile in the smooth barrel, and to facilitate the passage through the choke so as not to cause too great a resistance there, and a. thicker bottom or base, preferably reinforced by a washer 3 and provided at the bottom with a small perforation 6 in which the retarding member may be fixed directly or indirectly. This hollow case has a hemispherical or pointed head 4, the extremity of whichhas a central opening 5. -This 4case is filled with 'a charge of shot 7, the
weight and size of the grains of which are j calculated according to the use for which the projectile is intended.
Figs. 1 and 2 show a projectile which is intended for tracing only, and it will be noted that its head' 4 is more spherical, the walls of the head are thicker, and the aperture 5 of a smaller diameter and the case is filled with much finer shot (lead dust), than the lethal projectile shown in Fig. 3.
The retarding device consists essentially of a tassel or tuft, flexible and elastic, or ointed, formed for example of wool, silk, linen or woven material, rubber, or even wires or elastic or jointed metal blades, so as to expand compu sorily and be kept expanded after leaving the barrel, notwithstanding the action of the wind or the pressure of air which should tend to close it, as in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. If the material of' this retarding device is not sufiiciently'resilient in itself, it may be kept unfolded by a mechanical device such as that shown in Figs. 7 and 8, or it may be formed by a kind of parachute asin Fig. 10.
The tuft according to Fig. 4, is made of threads of silk or of twisted wool'8, in which may be incorporateda numberof steel wires and rests on an elastic felt pad` 9 preferably having a diameter slightly larger than the internal diameter of the cartridge case-11, Fig. 6. This pad 9 and the tuft 8 are traversed by a connecting piece 10, for example,
of twine which connects them together, pass-r ing through the hole 6 of the washer 3. To introduce this projectile in the cartridge case, the threads are collected towards the pro jectile as seen in Fig. 5, and the pad 9, which contracts sufficiently, is pushed into the case; by the pressure on the projectile during closing, the wad'9 and the tuft 8 are more or less compressed but expand on passing out of the barrel when the shot is fired.. In flight, the air has even a tendency to throw back too many of the threads of the tuft which would destroy its visibility and its braking action; the purpose of the flexible pad 9 is therefore, to prevent them from closing together, and it is for the same purpose that it is useful to'mix a few steel wires with the wool threads.
In the variation according to Figs. 7, 8, and 9, the tuft 8 is presumed to be made of hair or bristle and the pad 9 which supports it is composed of two layers of felt and cloth between which is held in a suitable manner a star or cross 11 cut from a thin steel spring plate. After the introduction into the cartridge case, as shown in Fig. 8, the arms of this cross 11 are slightly curvedI towards the projectile and the tuft 8 is located in the hollow thus formed. On forming, these arms support the wad 9 and prevent the tuft from yielding too much to the action of the alr.
Finally, in Fig. 10, the tuft is replaced by .a hollowed member 12 of woven material,
rubber, or other material fixed to the projectile by anumber of cords 10, and opening as a parachute under the action of the wind. It is evident that numerous variations may be made without departing from the invention, and that any suitable material may be used for making the parts which are indicated under the general'term of tuft and pad, in order not to lengthen the description by enumerations. For example, a washer of woven material or of rubber might be used of a diameter suiicient to form a bell orskirt, and a wad consisting of a block of rubber or a sprin device.
Furthermore, t e elements used may be lire-proof, painted, dyed, orV rendered phosphorescent, luminous, or brilliant to ensure the visibillty of the retardingrand marking device under all atmospheric conditions.
` Finally it should be noted that the invention consists in a visible projectile loaded withr shot for regulating and increasing the range, particularly for sporting guns, characterized by a hollow envelope retarded by an expanding'device, this projectileY and this braking device vbeing calculated in. such a manner that the charge of shot only leaves 'it at a. definite distance, thus permitting the manufacture as desired of experimental projectiles or tracing. projectiles, or killing projectiles ensuring a greater range and a better I grouping of the shot- I claim: y
l. In a projectile for sporting guns, the combination with anon-rigid case containing a charge of shot and having a hemispherical forward end and a restricted aperture atv said forward end, of an expandible -retarding device associated with vthe rear of said case.
2. In a projectile 'for sporting guns, the combination with a non-rigid case and a charge of lead shot or dust contained there, said 'case having a restricted exit aperture for said shot at theforward end, of a forcibly expanded retarding device having a diameter larger than the base of the case and operatively connected thereto.
3. In a projectile as set forth in claim l where the degree of conicity of the case head and the relative proportions of the retarding deviceare proportioned whereby the projectile maybe employed as a tracer projectile or asa lethal projectile. Y
4. A projectile as set forth in claim l in which the retarding device consists of a tuft of textile material secured to a pad of elastic felt having a relative diameter larger than the bottom of the case and operatively connected to the rear of said case.
5. A projectile as set forth in claim 2 wherein a resilient material is incorporated with the tuft of textile material whereby to prevent the tuft from closing together upon the passage ofthe projectile through the air during its flight. j
6. A projectile as set forth in claim l in which the retarding device comprises a parachute-like element opening under the pressure of air or wind when said case is fired from a gun.
7. A projectile as set forth in claim l in which the retarding device is of a larger size than that of the base of the case so as to be visible during the flight of the case in order .that the projectile may be used for tracing tween two layers of felt within the shot case and cooperatively connected to said device whereby the i ht of said projectile can'be v followed after ring from a gun.
10. In a projectilehaving a cartridge case and containing layers of explosive material therein, a case within said cartridge containing shot therein and having a rounded tapering forward end with an exit opening at the