US 1867420 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 12, 1932. 1,867,420
CANDLE AND METHOD RELATING THERETO Filed NOV. 10. 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet l July 12. 1932. H, ROOT i l,867,420'
CANDLE AND METHOD RELATING THERETO' Filed NOV. 10, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 gwuemtoa 7 44 WZDW' areas as re, iesa meant area;
HUBER H. ROOT, OF MEDINA, OHIO, ASSIGN'OR TO THE A. I. BOOT COMPANY, OF MEDINA,
OHIO, A CORPORATION OHIO CANDLE Ann mnrnon RELATING ammo Application filed November 10, 193G. Serial No. 494,459.
clearly indicate, all during such time, that it is burning.
Another object is to provide an improved candle for use as part of a sanctuary light, and which may be used without requiring modification of the present-day fixtures, such,
- for example, as the usual ruby glass, the conventional base therefor, and other ancillary parts.
A further object is to provide an improved means for preventing the formation of a deep well in the top: of the fuel body of 'a candle of relatively large avera e diameter,
during the critical period short candleis lighted.
Still another object is to provide a candle which will be better adapted for packing and y after the I shipping than are candles of the class herein essential novelty is defined by the claims.
shown, heretofore used.
Another specific object is to provide a sacramental candle, for use say'in common types of sanctuary light equipment, etc., w 1ch candle will not deposit soot or wax on.-the inside of the' usual glass dle supporting base.
Other objects and novel features of the in-v vention will become apparent from the following description, which relates to the-accompanying .drawings. The drawings showthe prefered forms of the apparatus, and the characteristic features of the method. The
. Inthedrawings, Fig. 1 is acentralsec- "tional view, showing a known type of sanctuary light globe, a conventional base and insect'guard therefor, my improved candle being shown in place within the globe; Fig.
. 2 is afragmentary sectional view of-the up per portion of the candle, and showing, par ticularly, 'a device --for' protecting. the candle globe or on the canwhen used in low temperatures? Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the improved candle, showing, in diagram, the manner in which the can i die operates, and showing, urther, a preferred construction for preventing the wick from tipping over when nearly consumed;
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view, illustrating 1 the condition of the fuel and flame whenthe candle is, say about half consumed; Fig. 5
is a sectional view of the base portion of the candle, (nearly consumed), the view being taken substantially along the line 55 on Fig. 3; Fig. 6 shows a modified wick support; Fig. 7 shows a modified form of candle, the upper portion thereof beingbroken away in central cross-section; Figs. 8 and 9. are still other modified formsof the invenwick, the fuel being in suitable, say elongated, .bodyform and adapted to burn in a hollow globe, either spaced, from the inner surfaces thereof horizontally (fruby cylinder type) or set into globes which were in the nature of cups or containers intimately-embracing the fuel material horizontally on all sides, (as though poured into and solidified therein).
The latter arrangement of globes (lily type) have always been characterized by having. wide mouths, and slopingrsides usuallyif not always permitting the solidified material to be inserted into and withdrawn therefrom. The ruby cylinder type often requires a follower or burner. to assist in preventing dripping and the formation of deep wells in the'fuel body, andsixch ancillary advantages of followers, and, moreover, the
need for follower devicesof some this type of light, are generally recognized.
. equipment" is not satisfactory, principally The other (lily) type of sanctuary lightdoes not permit the use of a. follower, but this has disadvantages of its own and some in common with the ruby cylinder type-particularly the nuisance of having to laborious- 1y clean out wick and wax depositsand soot. The principal disadvantage of the lily type, however, is the formation of a deep well in the fuel body around the Wick when this type of light is started burning in low. temperatures or where the temperature suddenly lowers at any time during the burning. If a deep well forms, then the light appears to have gone out though it may still be burning and after a well is formed and the temperature suddenly rises, then the sides of the well collapse or slide down, causing the melted fuel at the center to rise and extinguish the All the disadvantages incident to using the prior devices above mentioned are overcome by the new arrangement hereinafter described.
In Fig. l the ruby glass is shown at A, resting at its bottom margin, in a rim 9 of a suitable base G. The bell-mouthed upper end B of the ruby glass isadapted to support a suitable reticulated insect guard indicated diagrammatically at H. The base G has below the shouldered rim 9 an annular shoulder 9 adapted to support the usual form of candle, and which shoulder-I may also make use of to support the improved candle.
As shown in Figs. 1 to 10, the candle comprises a single piece glass vessel 1, having a restricted mouth at 2, at the top. The candle has a wick 3; preferably centrally thereof and running the entire length of the vessel. The preferred wick is the conventional metal coredwick, that is to say, one in which there is incorporated a strand of soft metal, such as lead, which metal melts as the wick burns down, but remains solid enough at and below the charred portion, to-prevent the free end of the wick from bending over into the melted wax.
The fuel supplying body 4 may be ordinary candle wax, any wax of low melting point obtainable on themarket, as such, being suitable. The wax, which is melted and poured into the top of the vessel may fully or partially fill the vessel, preferably partially, about as shown in Fig. 1. r
To support the wick, when the fuel is about consumed, I preferably employ a suitable block of inexpensive material, such as wood, (see Fig. 3 at 5), the block being apertured as at 6, to receive the lower end of the wick. To protect the wood from burning, as well as to weigh down the block against floating in the melted wax and allowing the wick to tip over, there is shown-a smallplate of sheet metal 7, aperturedas at 8, to receive the wick. In order that this plate may function to substantially center the wick, with relation to the vessel, the plate may have one of its dimensions, say its length, corresponding nearly to the inside diameter of the vessel at the bottom thereof while the width of the plate (see Fig. 5) is preferably substantially the same as the block. This wick supporting arrangement may be considerably modified. For example, as shown in Fig. 6, the Wooden block 9 may be covered on its top side with a suitable coating of non-inflammable material, for example, with waterglass, as at 10, and the block may be weighted, as by a small lead insert 12, in which case the weight of the wick supporting device is depended upon to hold the lower end of the wick centrally of the vessel.
In moulding, the preferred method is to place a dummy wick, (preferably a steel wire) in the vessel in the desired location for the wick. The wire is of course thrust through the plate 7 and into the block 5,"thus locating these members. The melted wax is then poured into the vessel. After the wax has hardened, the wire is withdrawn, and the wick then fully inserted into the space left by the Wire. The wick is of course previously treated to render it stiff, as by drawing the same through paraffin.
- Referring again to the top of the vessel, it will be seen that this converges gradually as at 15, to the restricted mouth 2, the smallest diameter of the mouth, as shown, being slightly below the top edge of the vessel. This relationship of the smallest diameter to the top edge is not essential, but, in manufacturing the vessel, it is found desirable to provide some sort of strengthening bead effect, as at 16; and because of this, and in order to maintain a uniform thickness of glass, the resulting vessel is somewhat widened at the mouth, as at 17.
Various stages in candle are shown in Figs. 2 to 5. In-Fig. 2 the fuel has been consumed to a point slightly below themost restricted portion,
2, of the vessel mouth, and at this point, under ordinary conditions, it will be found that a pool 20 of melted wax lies. over the entire upper face of the solid wax, the depth of the pool varying in the neighborhood of 1 3 in a vessel of the proportions shown, and having a mouth diameter, (at 2) of about 1%". The proximity of the glass neck of the vessel to the flame conducts enough heat to the adjacent portions of thefuel to melt the same at the top clear across and thus prevent the formation of any 'wellat this, the most critical period in the burning operation. Now, as the candle burns down, this pool of melted wax remains of substantially uniform perature substantially constant) clear to the wall of the vessel. varies according to room temperatures, but,
The depth of melted wax.
the course of burning the increase 7 the depth, notwithstanding radical changes the cylindrical portion of the vessel, and
Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate thdconditions existing when the candle is about half and nearly entirely consumed, respectively.
It may seem surprising that the candle continues to burn below the neck of the vessel, as in Figs. 3 and 4, but apparently sufficient oxygen in fresh air is drawn down into the vessel about its outer walls (see arrows m) by reason of the rapidly rising column 01 hot burned gases (see arrows 3 Of course, this rising column of burned gas diffuses in the downwardly directed column of fresh air. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the colder, fresh air will continue to move down, and the warm, exhausted air, upwardly, thus continually feeding the flame with oxygen.
It may now be seen, with reference to the diagrammatic illustration of air currents in Figs. 3 and 4, that suliicient heat is imparted to the glass walls of the vessel, both by diffusion of the hot exhaust gases and heat radiation, to insure that the wax will entirely melt oil the walls, and not accumulate on the vessel walls, to such an extent as to obstruct the light.
When the fuel is nearl consumed, as shown in Fig. 5, the weig t of the metal plate 7 prevents the block 5 from tipping over as by floating in the melted wax) and at the same time the. plate prevents the block from burning. In the arrangement illustrated, substantially all the wax at 20 will be drawn up over the edge of the plate 7, to the wick, leaving only a slight residue at the bottom of the vessel, when the flame finally goes out.
A feature of the invention is illustrated in Fig. 2, wherein l have shown means for use in cold weather,-to provide a dead air space between the upper end of the vessel 1 and the. ruby glass. This may comprise simply an annular disc of fibrous material, such as .heavy cardboard or asbestos 25, having an will serve. lln warmer weather it is ighly desirable that air shall circulate freely in the space between the vessel 1 and the ruby glass, to keep the walls of the vessel comparatively cool, hence the disc 25 is used or omitted, depending on expected temperatures. Tn extremely cold weather, the canaper tabs riveted.
dle furnishes plenty of heat to insure that all the wax will be melted away from the inner vessel walls.
Referring now to Fig. 7, this merely illustrates that the vessel does nothaveto be made in one piece,there being a'lower mem ber 35 and a separate, upper neck member 36 arranged, for example, to fit into an annular shoulder 37 on the member 35.
While it is essentially desirable that the walls of the vessel 1 shall be translucent to such an extent as to allow the flame to be seen through the wall of the vessel, and thence through the ruby glass, it is not ontirely essential that all of the vessel 1 shall be translucent. For example, in Fig. 8 the v 'to form a tight fitting joint with the upper end of the vessel 43. This device has a disadvantage not present inthe previously described arrangement, nanTely, that part of the flame cannot be seen directly when it reaches the point illustrated in Fig. 9. Moreover the metal cap is not nearly so effective in preventing Welling 0f the wax in ver dificult to obtain aclose enough fit between the metal and the glass to insure that adequate heat will be conducted to the side walls. Further the wax cannot readily be moulded in the restricted portion or the device to reduce the diameter of the fuel body at the top as in the case of the one piece casing according to Fig. l for example. Howe-ver, portions of the flame will stand either above or below the member 40 at all times, sufficiently, to light up the ruby glass and clearly indicate to the observer that the lamp is burning. r I
Referring to Fig. 10, it will be seen that the method of packing the improved candle, particularly the form shown in Fig. 1, may simply consist in nesting a plurality of the vessels, complete with wicks and fuel bodies, in an ordinary packing container 50, there being suitable fibrous partition members 51 interposed between the vessels to prevent breakage. The advantage of this method of handling the candles will be clearly appreciated when it is considered that, ordinarily, candles must be packed with a great deal of care and in adequate stifieners, to
prevent breakage and distortion.
l. A. solid fuel candle uniformly and intimately embraced by a glass bottle, and held 2. A candle comprising a fusible fuel body, a wick contained thereby, and a relatively non-fusible translucent container of fixed length having a restricted mouth, the concold weather principally because it is Edd rat in the bottle by the restricted mouththereof.
, ceive a suitable wick.
4. A candle, comprising a relatively non fusible translucent elongated casing closed at the bottom and having an opening at the top, fusible solid fuel candle material contained therein in intimate uniform contact with the walls thereof, and means separate from said casing and fitting the same at the upper end thereof, restricting the opening.
5. A candle, comprising a translucent casing formed in one piece, closed at one end and having a restricted mouth .at the other, and a fusible. solid fuel body within the cascontainer, the side walls of the container being brought inwardly to form a restriction embracing the upper portion of the fuel body, the restricted portion of the container intimately and uniformly embracing the side surfaces of such upper portion of the fuel body, whereby when the candle is lighted and the upper portion of the fuel is being consumed, the restricted portion of the container will first confine the melted fuel in a relatively small pool and will thereafter overhang the top surfaces of the remaining solid fuel body in the manner described to retain the heat' generated by the candle flame.
In testimonytwhereof, I hereunto afiix my signature.
HUBER H. ROOT.
ing, of greater diameter than the restricted opening and adapted to be consumed in place by a suitable wick.
6'. A candle,' comprising a solid fusible fuel body and a suitable wick, there being a relatively deep translucent vessel embracing the body in substantially uniform intimate contact therewith throughout the vertical height of said body, and there being heat conducting means associated therewith in overhanging relation to the fuel body and joining said vessel for conducting the heat generated at the candle flame to the vessel wall to thereby maintain the vessel walls free from unmelted fuel.
7 In combination with a candle having an elongated fusible solid fuel body, a rigid said body for substantially the full length thereof and in such proximity to said body that the walls of the casing will retainthe wardly in overhanging pool of melted fuel material as the candle burns, and heat conducting-means associated with the top of the casing and extending inrelation to said body to conduit the heat 0 the flame to the casing walls and thereby prevent congealing of ffluel material on the casing walls opposite the ame.
8. A sanctuary light comprising an outerprotective translucent hollow body, a candle contained thereby and incorporating a fuel supplying body in a translucent rigid casing,
and annular removable means interposed between the upper end of said casing and the adjacent wall of said hollow body to form a dead pocket below said means.
9. A candle, comprising a relatively nonfusible translucent container of fixed length, an elongated fusible fuel body adapted to be consumed by a suitable wick, said body being disposed in fixed upright position in the translucent casing of fixed length enclosing