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Publication numberUS1868840 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 26, 1932
Filing dateJul 3, 1930
Priority dateJul 3, 1930
Publication numberUS 1868840 A, US 1868840A, US-A-1868840, US1868840 A, US1868840A
InventorsMcnaught Norris F, Peterson Edward H
Original AssigneeDuro Metal Prod Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ratchet lever
US 1868840 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Il' lllll IIIIIIIIIIIIII N. F; MCNAUGHT ET AL RATCHET LEVER Filed July :5, 195o -Jgly 26, 1932.


The present invention relates to ratchet levers, and is particularly concerned with ratchet levers adapted to be used as wrenches.

One of the objects of the present invention "f5, is the provision of an improved ratchet lever of particularly simple and economical construction, which is capable of manufacture in large volume at a low cost.

Another object is the provision of an improved ratchet lever having an improved form of supporting body capable ofy being constructed of ordinary stock materials with a minimum of machining operations, and having an improved form of pawl which may be constructed of high grade materials, with a minimum expenditure of time and labor.

Another object is the provision of an improved ratchet lever which is sturdy, simple, economical, has a minimum of moving parts, and which is capable of withstanding a greater amount of hard usage and abuse than the devices of the prior art.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved ratchet lever, all parts l of which may be made of the best materials,

such as tool steel, with a minimum amount of machine operations, thereby providing a ratchet lever of high quality at a cost which is within the reach of a vast number of purchasers. e

Another object is the provision of an improved ratchet lever of greater strength than the devices of the prior art, by virtue of the arrangement and organization of its part and the provision yof pawl and ratchet engagement utilizing a greater number of teeth.

Other objects and advantages ofthe invention will be apparent from the following description and from the accompanying drawing in which similar characters ofreference indicate similar parts throughout the several views.

Referring to the single sheet of drawing: Fig. 1 is a plan view of the ratchet lever with `one of the cover plates partially broken away to show the internal mechanism;

Fig. 2 is a side elevational view in partial section on the plane of the line 2-2 of Fig." 1; view of a modified form of Fig. 3 is a plan pawl;

`Fig. Liis a lplan view of anothermodified form of pawl; V

Fig. '5 'is a sectional view` through the ratchet member taken on the plane of the line 5*-'5 of Fig. 1. f

Referring to Figs. A1. and 2, the ratchet lever or wrench, which is indicated in itsentirety by the numeral 10, preferably ,includesr a body member or handle 11, a vratchet memy ber 12, and a pawl 13. The rotatable ratchet member 12 may consist of any form ofr wrench, including members having projecting wrench formations as distinguished from the socket kvtype of wrench formationillustrated, and kthe present embodiment .consists of .a round metallic member having a plurality of teethl located on its periphery, and having a non-circular socket 15 axially located in its body. It should be understood that. while the socket 15 is shown as a square socket, any form of wrench socket, such as hexagonal or other forms may also be employed. V i

different forms, but are preferably provided with side surfaces 16, 17- of substantially the The-teeth 14C may take any. of a number 'of same slope kso as to make the same ratchet member adaptable for use in constructing ratchet levers of ak number of different types, y

and to eliminate any necessity for particular attention in assembling the ratchet lever Vwith the pawl to assure the arrangement of the teeth in the proper direction. LThe pres,-

enttype of ratchet member may be inserted i .into its socket with either side forming the top, since the teeth are symmetrically shaped. The ratchet member 412 isV preferably formed with `relatively flat surfaces 18 at` each 'end guiding a complementary non-circular part into the socket 15.

rlie body 11 may be formed of a bar of stock material of any shape, but it is preferably provided with a handle or grip formed with a relatively thin web 2G which joins a pair of bordering transverse flanges 27, 28. The iveb 26 may have an aperture 29 for use in hanging up the ratchet lever, and the formation of the handle 25 with the relatively thin Web 26 greatly decreases the iv ight of the finished Wrench, While the transverse flanges 2T and 28 give increased bearing or gripping surface for t-he h and of the operator.

The handle 25 is preferably provided with a head of greater thickness as at 30 formed with recess 31 for receiving the cover plates 21 and 22 flush with the faces 30 of the head. The Width of the head 30 is also preferably increased to provide sufficient space for ratchet head 12 Without weakening the structure of the head 30, but it should be understood that many of the advantages of the invention may be realized without providing a body of the speciiic shape illustrated.

The head 30 is preferably formed Wit-h a plurality of transverse bores 33, 34 for providing socketsy or recesses for receiving the operative mechanism of the ratchet lever. The bores 32, 33, 34 are located sutiiciently close to each other, so that they communicate with each other through the apertures 35, 36, so that the parts located in one bore may project into another bore and cooperate with the mechanism located therein. Since the recesses or sockets for the mechanism may be made in the shape of ordinary bores, it Will be evident that these sockets may be very readily formed and/or inished by ordinary tools.

The `first bore 32 is of suftieientsize to receive the ratchet member12,the teeth of which project into the second bore 33 for engagement With the paivl 13. The paivl 13 preferably consists of a solid metal member made of tool steel or other high grade material and provided With a cylindrical formation or surface 39. which is substantially complementary to the inner cylindrical surface of the bore 34.

The pawl 13 of the present embodiment is formed With an outwardly projecting arm 44 extending into bore 33 and through the opening 19 into engagement with the teeth 14 of ratchet member 12. rShe opening 36 between bores 33 and 34 is of sutlicient vvidth relative to the Width of the arm 44 at this point so as to permit a limited rotative movement of the pavvl 13, sutlicient to permit the paivl to engage teeth 14 or to be disengaged therefrom. The pawl 13 is preferably provided with upper and lower iat surfaces 37, 38 adapted to slidably engage the inside surfaces of the cover plates 21 and 22, and a spring 42 is tensioned between the side 41 of payvl 13 and the side Wall of the bore 33, urging the paWl 13 into ratchet engaging position.

The present paivl may be provided with a single tooth 45 of a shape complen'ientary to the spaces between the teeth 14 on the ratchet member 12, or the paivl may be provided with tivo or more teeth 45 as shown in Figs. 1 and 3. rlhe sides 43, 47 of each of the teeth 45 are also preferably,- of substantially the saine slope or angularity, and the teeth are so arranged that when a plurality of teeth 45 are employed as in Fig, 1, all of the teeth engage the complementary teeth 14 on ratchet member 12 simultaneously.

lVhen a single tooth is employed upon the paivl 13, the strength of the ratchet lever is limited to the strength of its Weakest part, probably the shearing strength of a single tooth on the ratchet member 12. rl`he strength of a single tooth may be made sutlicient for most practical purposes, since the present paWl and ratchet member have teeth of substantial length, almost equal to the distance between the plates 21, 22. rEhe breaking strength of the ratchet lever may.r however, be greatly increased by providing a 'llilrality of simultaneously engaging teeth 45, as shown in Fig. 1, thereby bringing more than one tooth of the ratchet member into play and eliminating any possibility of breakage of the ratchet teeth.

The thickness or depth of the pawl 13 isY preferably slightly less than the-thickness of the head 30 to provide suiiicient clearance between the paWl and cover 'plates 21 and 22, so that the paivl may move freely Without binding although the cover plates are securely fastened to head 30. T he thickness of the ratchet member 12 between the iiat surfaces 1S is also less than the thickness of the head 30 in order to permit free rotation of the ratchet member as Well.

The side cover plates 21 and 22 constitute means for rotatably retaining the ratchet member and pavvl Within the bores 32, and the ulates 21, 22 are provided with apertures or bores 20 adapted to register with the ratchet. member 12 to permit access to the Wrench socket 15, and also to form bearings for the journals 19 of the ratchet .incinber 12. rlh'e cover plates 21, 22 may be secured to t-he body 11 by a plurality of rivets 48 passing through the head 30 and plates 21, 22, provided with a head or riveted over outside of each plate, or any convenient form of device for securing the plates on the body may be employed. Y

t should be noted that the bore 34 is disposed toward one side out of alignment With the line of centers between the bores 32 and 33 in order that the pawl 13 may bo so supported that the pawl 13 will be camnled out of engagement With the teeth 14 by rotative movement of the ratchet 12 in one direction and drawn into engagement with the teeth 14 by rotative movement in the opposite direction.

The operation of the present ratchet lever is as follows:

When the ratchet member 12 is rotated in a clockwise direction in Fig. A1, the side surfaces 16 of the teeth 14 cam against the side surfaces 46 of the teeth 45 on pawl 13, moving the pawl 13 in a counterclockwise direction against the tension of spring 42, and permitting rotation of the ratchet member 12 in this direction.

However, rotation of the ratchet member 12 in the opposite direction tends to draw the teeth 45 into closer engagement with the teeth 14, and the pawl 13 is maintained in ratchet engaging position by the spring 42. y

The ratchet lever may be utilized for righthand or left-hand rotation by merely revers ing the lever upon the part to which it is applied.

The parts of the present ratchet lever are peculiarly simple, and they are adapted to be manufactured with a minimum amount of machine operations, although all of theparts may be constructed of the best tool steel, thereby 'constructing a ratchet lever of higher quality and greater durability at a minimum cost.

The provision of the body member with round sockets for receiving the ratchet member, pawl and spring also simplifies the manufacture of the body of the wrench, and the f present construction is more durable and less apt to get out of order than the devices of the prior art, on account of the enlarged bearing surfaces which are provided for all of the moving parts. i

While we have illustrated and described a specific embodiment of our invention, many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and we do not wish to b-e limited to the precise details set forth, but desire to avail ourselves of all changes within the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus described our invention, what we claim is new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. In a ratchet lever the combination of a supporting body comprising a metal bar having a plurality of transverse circular bores extending through said body and having a pair of metal plates for enclosing said bores, said plates having apertures forming bearings for a ratchet member, said ratchet member having trunnions in said bearings and located in the iirst of said bores, said bores communicating with each other, apawl comprising an elongated member formed with a substantially cylindrical knob, said pawl inember having its body located in the second of said bores, and having said knob located in the third of said bores, the third of said bores having i-ts walls extending about said knob over morethan half the periphery of said cylindrical knob to retain said pawl member` in place, and a compression coil spring located in the second of said bores engaging the wall of said second bores and engaging the body i of said pawl member to urge said pawl to resilient engagement withy said ratchet mem- .e

ber, saidratchet member being provided with a plurality of substantially equally vspaced end, said bar having a plurality of transverse circular bores extending from one flat surface to the other and saidcircular bores overlapping eacli other andy communicating with each other, the firstV and largest of said bores forming a chamber for a ratchet member, a ratchet member having la noncircular aperture extending through the same and having a plurality of teeth about its periphery, axially projecting trunnions on each side of said ratchet member, plates carried by the metal bar engaging said fiat surfaces on each lside of said bar and means for securing said plates to said bar, saidplates having apertures for. rotatably receiving the trunnions on said ratchet member, the second vof said bores forming a spring and pawl chamber, the third of said bores forming a circular socket for a complementary member formed on a pavvl, a pawl having one end rotatably mounted in the said third bore and having a pluralityof teeth for simultaneously engaging the teeth on said ratchet member, and

a spring compressed between the wall of said second bore andthe side of said ratchet urgingsaid pawl into engagement with said ratchet member. Y

In witness whereof wehereunto subscribe our names this 28th day of June, 1930. y



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2578410 *Oct 29, 1949Dec 11, 1951Aaron T PerbohnerOpen-ended ratchet wrench
US2696748 *Feb 2, 1954Dec 14, 1954Relken Gerald ERatchet wrench
US2708855 *Jun 28, 1951May 24, 1955Tubing Appliance Company IncClosed ratchet wrench
US5636557 *May 24, 1996Jun 10, 1997Ma; Nai-LinRatchet type ring spanner
US6301999 *Jun 20, 2000Oct 16, 2001The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench with force balanced pawl
US6431030 *Jul 12, 2001Aug 13, 2002Wen-Jin KuoAdjusting structure for a ratchet wrench
US6662687Apr 10, 2002Dec 16, 2003The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench with improved force distribution
US6769329May 21, 2002Aug 3, 2004Pilling Weck IncorporatedReleasable socket ratchet wrench
US7353735Jun 2, 2005Apr 8, 2008The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench
US8943928Feb 14, 2011Feb 3, 2015Zhejiang Yiyang Tool Manufacture Co., Ltd.Ratchet wheel wrench
US20060272455 *Jun 2, 2005Dec 7, 2006The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench
US20090038444 *Aug 9, 2007Feb 12, 2009Bobby HuWrench
EP1077792A1 *Jan 20, 1998Feb 28, 2001Tool Design Corporation HandTorque clutched reversible ratchet wrench
EP1077792A4 *Jan 20, 1998Apr 25, 2007Tool Design Corporation HandTorque clutched reversible ratchet wrench
WO1998056539A1 *Jun 9, 1998Dec 17, 1998Hand Tool Design CorporationRatchet type ring spanner
U.S. Classification81/61, 74/156, D08/25
International ClassificationB25B13/00, B25B13/46
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/463
European ClassificationB25B13/46B1B