US 1870696 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 9,` 1932. T.- G. TAYLOR SELF COOLING, DRILLING, AND CORING BIT Filed July 16. 1929 www Patented Aug. 9, 1932 PATEN THOMAS G. TAYLOR, 0F SHAWNEE, OKLAHOMA SELF COOLING, DRILLING, AND COR-ING BIT Application filed July 16, 192). Serial No. 378,595.
My device relates to drill bits as used in drilling oil and gas wells and the like.
The objects of my invention are to provide a device of this class which is new, novel, practical and of utility; which will be actuated by electric motors contained in my device and in its associated members all adjacent the bottom of a well; which will drill, accurately core and catch cuttings of a section of a well in one operation; which will preserve the core and cuttings so taken, free from the effects of heat; which will provide the means for a short but adequate circulation of mud adjacent the bottom of a well;-
which will provide `self contained means for cooling such mud while in circulation; which will mud the walls of a well as it drills;
which will drill a straighter hole than the present method; which will drill to a gre-at depth; which will drill speedily; which will combine the accuracy of a standard drill with the speed o a rotary drill; which with its ,associated members will depend from a wire cable, rather than from a string of heavy drill pipe; which will use electric current from a usual or desired source of supply above ground, conducted through the core of the sustaining cable to the self-contained motors adjacent the bottom of the well; which will require a minimum of power for its operation; which will eliminate the usual string of heavy drill pipe use-d in rotary and core drilling; which will consequently eliminate the powerful machinery used for rotating such drill pipe; which will eliminate the labor required in assembling and disassembling such drill pipe while lowering and raising same during operations; which i-n eliminating such powerful machines and in reducing the size of and power required to operate ighter and less powerful machines, will save fuel; which will permit the lowering and the raising of the bit to and from the bottom of a well by cable in one continuous speedy operation without stops to assemble or disassemble numerous sections of drill pipe; which, in eliminating long strings of drill pipe, also elim*- inates the torsion now known to exist in present drilling, which forms a crooked hole;
which, in eliminating the crookedness of a hole, also eliminates the caving caused thereby; which, in drilling a comparative-ly straight hole, eliminates largely the chances of losing tools encountered in crooked holes; which in drilling a comparatively straight hole, eliminates the friction and wear upon sucker rods used in pumping a well after completion; which is inexpensive in manufacture in comparison to the cost of the equipment which it replaces; which will be eliicient in accomplishing all the purposes for which it is intended. I.
The trend of drilling for gas and oil is ever toward reaching greater depths. Wells of five and six thousand feet are common and greater depths are being attained. Frequently the success or failure of a tremendously costly drilling operation depends upon the ability to further extend the depth of a well whichis already five or six thousand feet. lVith the increase in such depth, the cost and hazard of the operation are hugely increased, out of proportion to the depth gained. This is largely due to the time lost in assembling and lowering, and in raising and disassembling the long string of drill pipe. The hazards of a crooked hole are increased with each length of drill pipe added to the string, due to the torsion of same. With power applied at the mouth of a well, to'rotate a bit, perhaps a mile or more distant at the bottom of the well, through the rotation of the entire string of heavy drill pipe, it may readily be understood how easily a deflection ofthe well from vertical may occur. It will also be obvious that such deflection will result in increased resistance to further drilling, through greater in, in a greater liability to lose tools therein,
and to a greater difliculty in pumping same economically if,vindeed the drilling operations may be carried on to a successful completion. In Abut few other lines of effort is the requirement for accuracy and speed so great as in oil drilling operations.
My device eliminates many of lthe hazards of the present methods of drilling, and proother companion members, as for example a, means for positioning said bit vertically and transversely, remain inoperative. With this in mind, the drawings and the specifications forming a part of this application will each refer to my previous applications for patent,
Serial Number 314,17 6, filed October 22, 1928, and Serial Number 337,181, filed February 4, 1929. It is not intended in this application to claim any of the features claimed in the above applications, nor to limit the device described in this application to use solely with devices covered by the two previous applications described above. Such reference to either of such previous applications and to other and known devices, as are made in the drawings and specification herewith, is made for the purpose of more clearly showing a means whereby my present device may be properly positioned, sustained and supplied with electrical energy.
With these and other objects in view as will more fully appear, my invention consists in the construction, novel features, and combination of parts hereinafter more fully described, and pointed out in the claims hereto appended.
Referring to the accompanying drawings attached hereto and in which similar reference characters designate similar parts throughout the specification,
Figure 1 is a view in elevation showing supporting and holding means for the drill assembly,
Figure 2, a vertical section of parts of the device showing the mud circulating pump, the cooling means and motors for-operating them,
Figure 3, a vertical section showing the drilling cones and the core barrel and the spaces for mud circulation,
Figure 4, a view in elevation of parts of the device showing the hinged casing and supports,
Figure 5, a. section on line 5-5 of Figure 4,
Figure 6 a fragmentary elevation of the casing hinge,
Figure 7, a section on line 7-'7 of Figure 3, and
Figure 8 a detail showing a portion of the expansion system for the cooling system.
It is understood that various changes in the form, proportion, size, shape, weight and other details of construction, within the scope of my invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit or broad principle of my invention and without sacrificing any of the advantages thereof; and it is also understood that the drawings are to be interpreted as being illustrative and not restrictive.
A practical embodiment of the invention as illustrated in the drawings comprises:
A sustaining group of members as shown in the upper portion of Fig. 1, comprising a wire cable 1, incorporating therein a plurality of insulated conductors for electric current, from a generator above ground. Said cable 1 is designed further to raise and lower, and to sustain at a desired position in or above a well the members attached thereto below, and to have a take-ofi', not shown,
adjacent its point of connection to said lowerl members, for the delivery, through usual or desired means, of such electric current to a point or points as desired, below.
Dependent from the said cable 1, in sefirmly prevent, by said wall contact, the rotation of the said member 5 and consequent rotation of said members 1, 2, 3 and 4. Said members 6 are first actuated in their expansion, when the weight of the members below, yet to be described herein, is sustained by the bottom of the well. l/Vhen so sustained solidly, with a little slack in the said cable 1, the weight of the said members 2, 3 and 4, will force hydraulically the movement outwardly of the said members 6, by means of the downward stroke of the piston 7 in the liquid vfilled chamber shown as 8, and the travel of said liquid through the pipe 9 to the aituating pistons 10 below. When the weight of the members below is again sustained by the tightened cable 1, the sai-d piston 7'will be raised in said chamber 8, the pressure of the liquid upon said lower pistons 10 will be relieved, and they, together with the action of a retrieving helical spring, not
shown, will withdraw said members 6 from their contact with the wall, thus permitting a raising or further lowering of the sequent drilling members.
By a usual tool joint, the parts of which are indicated by the numerals 11 and 12, the said member 5 is connected to the main drive motor memberv 13, below.
Member 13 comprises a housing 14, for an electric motor 15, taking its current from the insulated wires 16, which, in ways usual or desired, are connected at their opposite terminals as heretofore described, but not herein shown, to insulated wires in the core of the said cable 1. Said motor 15 comprises the usual features known to such motors, but in addition thereto is especially adapted for use with my device by the incorporation therein, of a hollow drive shaft 1- Said shaft 17 houses a plurality of insulated wires 18 which rotate with said shaft 17. Rotating also with said shaft 17 and disposed upon the upper end portion of same, 1s the- It is to be understood that as hereinbefore mentioned the members and means above' described and indicated by the numerals 1 to 22 inclusive, are, in so far as this application is concerned, considered as known, and it is not desired herein to lay claim to any or either of them, except as in combination with my drill and core bit, cuttings catcher, and refrigerating system, hereinafter described, they may assist in the operativeness of the device.
The lower end portions of said insulated wires 18 are brought outward from the said flanged portion 22 offsaid shaft 17 A through perforations therethrough, not shown Said flange 22 is rigidly secured-by the plurality of bolts 23 therethrough, to the end flange 24 of the housing 25 for the drill bit and refrigerating unit v26.
The said unit 26 comprises the said hollow cylindrical housing 25, the upper end portion of which is reduced below the said flange 24 to form a smaller neck 27. Within the neck 27 is a hollow compression cylinder 28 for a usual or desired refrigerant. Leading outward and downward' from the cylinder 28, through one side'of the said neck 27, is the outlet pipe 29 of the refrigerating or cooling system, and upon said outlet pipe 29 is the usual check valve 30. Said pipe 29 leads downwardly, embedded in the groove shown as31 upon the exterior of the said housing 25, to be again received within a lower portion of said housing 25 as shown at 32 in Figs. 3 and 8. Leading outward and downward rfrom another portion of the said cylinder 28,
through a side of the said neck 27, is the inlet pipe 33, of the said cooling system. Like the said pipe 29, the pipe 33 extends downward along the grooved exterior of `the housing 25,
v to enter same again at a lower point indicated as 34. Said pipe 33 is rovided with intake valve 76. Operating wit in'said cylinder 28 is a piston 35, of any suitable design, having a conneetin rod 36 ada ted tobe actuated by a)cran sha-ft 37. aid crank shaft 37 has its end bearings in the wall of said housing 25 and is provided with a bevel gear 38. Gear 38 meshes with the. pinion 39, disposed upon the upper end of the shaft 40 of the electricmotor 41. Saidhousing 2,5 is
provided with a plurality of `removable cross section partitions 42 which respectively pro. vide sup-ports and thrust bearings 43 for the said motor 41 and for the similar motor 44 tlierebelow. Said motor 41 his activating agent for the said cooling system, and said motor 44 furnishes power for. the circulatshft 45 of said motor 44 extends downwardly through oneof said thrust bearings 43 and partitions 42, and upon its lower end portion is provided with the blades 46 of the centrifugal mud circulating pump. Alined, laterally with said blades 46 the said housing 25 is provided with a plurality of perforations therethrough shown as 47. Said perforations 47 are the outlet ports for lnud circulation. Said housing 25 comprises a top and lower section, primarily to facilitate the placing, lubrication, inspection and repair of the various members therein contained. Said sections have an abutted joint as shown at 48 and are secured one to another by the interior sleeve 49. The interior cylindrical wall of i the sleeve 49 is threadedv as shown at 50 to receive a top end portion of the plurally per-A forated hollow cylindrical mud screen 51, the latter being provided with a solid bottom 52. Between the top threaded end portion of the screen 51 and the blades 46 of the centrifugal pump is a chamber shown as 53, leading from the bore of said screen to the pump inlet opening 54. The said electric feed wires 18 are extended downwardly in a manner usual or desired to connect to each of the said motors 41 and 44. Within-the lower section fof the said housing 25 and adjacent but not in contact with the bottom of the .said mud screen 51, is centrally disposed the cuttings magazine tube 55. Said magazine 55\ is a long cylindrical tube open and flared at its top end portion 56, closed at its bottom end, and is supported as best shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, by a plurality of brackets 57 rigidly secured to the interior walls of said housing 25, con tacting .alike plurality of annular flanges 58 upon said tube 55. vThe lower end portion of said magazine 55 is embraced by a portion of' a sleeve 59, which, therebelow also embraces the elosedtop end portion ofthe core barrel 60. v Core barrel 60vis supported at its midsection bythe flange 6l and brackets 62, similar to flanges 58-and brackets 57, above.l Its bottom 73 is open and is alined with a shorter open ended cylindrical section, 74 adjacent the lower end portion of the said member 25. Said short section 74 comprises the core catchers 63 of usual or desired. design,y and is cooled by the turns, thereabout, of the .expansion coils 64 of the refrigeration line. At 65 mud system, to be described later. The
is indicated the usual expansion valve for the latter.
The extreme lower portion of the said housing 25, is provided with usual or desired drilling and coring cones 66, or other means suitable for the rotary drilling and coring of wells, and a lower portion of the said refrigeration pipes 29 and 33 leading to and from the said expansion coils 64. It will be noted that at the line indicated at 7 7 of Fig. 3 the sections lying therebelow may be disassembled from the sections thereabove, and for this purpose I provide the said lines 29 and 33 with a plurality of unions 67, and a plurality of hand valves 68 thereabove and below. Said hand valves 68 are provided to conserve the refrigerant during disassembly. As best maybe seen in Fig. 4, that seetion of the housing 25 which encloses the said cuttings magazine 55 and the said core barrel 60, together with the said hand valves 68 and unions 67, is provided with a segment 69 hinged as shown at'70. The otice of said segment 69 is for the removal of said magazine 55 and said barrel 60, and for other purposes as will be apparent. Locking means for said segment 69 are indicated -at 71 in Figs. 4, 5 and 7. As indicated in the drawings, it will be seen that between the interiorwalls of the said housing 25 and the said mud screen 52 is left an annular space shown as 72 for mud circulation. The same is true as re ards the said magazine 55 and the said core arrel`60. It will be noted by reference to the cross section 7 7 in Fig. 7 that a provision for mud circulation has also been made in the congested lower section of said member 26, as indicated by the plurality of perforations shown as 75. The usual means, not shown, are employed for circulation in and about and upward between said drilling members 66 to the said perforations 75 thence to said annular space 72.
In operation, after spudding in, in a usual manner, my drilling unit will be suspended in combination with-its companion units, positioned at the bottom of the well to be drilled. It will be assumed that electrical connections have been properly made and that the well has its usual and desired content of drilling fluid or mud.
With a little slack in the cable 1, the drilling cones 66, contacting the well bottom, will support the weght of the units in sequence thereabove. The weight of the units above the hydraulic gripping member 5 will, as before described, cause the gripping means 6, which may be of any desired length, to expand and contact the well walls with sufficient force to position, securely, against vertical or rotative motion the holding member 5, all of the units thereabove and the main motorized drive member 13, therebelfw.
Electric current from the insulated core of the cable 1, through the feed line 16 will operate the motor 15 within the now stationary motor member 13. The rotation of the drive motor shaft 17 is transmitted by its integral liange 22, to the housing 25 of the unit 26 below. It will be understood that not only the housing of the unit 26 is rotated by this means, but that the whole of the unit 26 with all of its incorporated members and units is thus rotated. The consequent rotation of the usual or desired drilling and coring cones 66 upon the Hoor of the well provides the usual means for deepening same. In the deepening process thus described, the core usual to such core drilling will be forced upward in a usual manner into the core barrel 60, and the core so gathered, as well as the core in the short section 74 will be retained by the usual core catchers 63.
During this process, the motor 44, is being supplied with current from the electric line 18, as previously described. Motor 44 is directly connected to the centrifugal pump the blades of which are seen at 46. The action of said centrifugal pump results in the lifting, through suction of the mud and cuttings about the cones 66, upward through usual channels therein and thereabout, through the pcrforations 75 and the annular space 72. It will be noted, by reference to the drawings herewith that the only inlet to said centrifugal pump 54 is through the open mouth of the upper end of the cylindrical mud screen 51. The bottom of the mud screen being closed, the mud or drilling solution is drawn into said screen'throughthe perforations thereof, and thence into the pump. Due to the smallness of these perforations, any cuttings of the formations that havenot previously been removed are screened out and fall into the open mouth 56 of the cuttings magazine 55. The mud which has thus been delivered to the pump is forced outwardly therefrom and thereby, through the adjacent outlet ports 47. The mud so expelled muds the walls on its course downward to and around the drilling cones. It will be noted first that contrariwise to the usual circulation of mud, the circulation in and through my device, is upward through its interior and downward upon its exterior; second, that the circulation of mud is limited to a short section of the well. The advantages of the latter method will be apparent.
The motor 41, receiving its electric current in much the same manner as does the motor 44, previously described, is the actuating agent for the refrigerating system, consisting of the usual or desired units such as a compression chamber, compressing means, eXpansion valve, and expansion coils. The proximity of the cooling area of the expansion coils to the heat producing drilling cone and to- `the core catcher, will also be noted.
It will be understood that in order prevent the heat generated by the compression of the refrigerant from being dissipated through housing 26 and thus causing the drill bit to be heated thereby, that the compression cylinder 28 will be located some considerable distance above the drill bit, to wit, about 100 feet, and that the heat thus generated, will be carried upwards to the surface of the earth by the circulating drilling fluid instead of being transmitted to the bit as the case would be if the drilling iuid were not circulating. It will also be understood that due to the fact that when the liquid is expanded insaid expansion coil 64 and consequently receives some of the heat from the bit, that it will be caused to rise back to the compression chamber through said pipe 33 due to the fact that heated gas has an inherent tendency to ascend. It is therefore deemed unnecessary to provide means for forcing the gas from the eX- pansion coil 64 back to the compression chamr. i Obviously, the invention is susceptible of embodiment in forms other than that which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings and described herein, and applicable for uses and purposes other than as detailed, and I therefore consider as my own all such modifications and adaptations and other uses of the form of the device other than as herein described as fairly fall within the scope of my invention. Having thus described my invention what is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent, is: 1. A. drilling member, as described embodying an encasing element and a combined coring and drilling element thereto attached, a motor driven refrigerating element and a motor driven mud circulating element both housed within said encasing element.
2. -A- drilling member, as described,-em bodying an encasing element and a drilling element thereto attached, a motor driven refrigerating element and a'motor driven mud 4circulating element both housed within -said encasing element.
3. A drilling member, as described, em-
' bodying an encasing element and a combined coring and drllling element thereto attached a motor driven refrigerating elemen and a motor drivenmud circulating element both housed within said encasing element, means within said encasing element for separating non-soluble matter from said 'mud and collectively retaining same therewithin, removable means for receiving and retaining a core within -said encasing element.
4. A drilling member, as described, embodying an encasing element and a combined coring and drilling bit element, said encasing elementhousing a motor driven refrigerating eleme'ntanda mud circulating element, and
uble matter from mud and collectively retaining saidmatter, and also housing means for receiving and retaining a core therewithin.
5. A drilling member, as described, em bodying an encasing element and a combined coring anddrilling bit element, said encasing element housing a motor driven refrigeratin element and a mud circulating element, an also housing means for separating non-soluble matter from mud and collectively retaining said matter, and also housing means for receiving and retaining a core therewithin. said drilling member adapted to be rotated by power applied thereto from a point adjacent the bottom of a well.
6. A. drilling member, as described, embodying an encasing element and a combined coring and drillin bit element, a motor driven expansion re rigerating element and a motor driven mud circulating element both operably housed within said drilling member adapted to be rotated by power applied thereto from a point adjacent the bottom of a well, said circulating element adaptedto circulate a fluid outward from the insidel of' the central portion of said encasing element,l
downward to the bottom of said bit element and upward through the inside of said bit element to the original point of discharge in said encasing element, said refrigerating element adapted to cool said bit element and said circulating iiuid, means within said encasing element for separating non-soluble matter from said fluid and collectively and removably retaining same within said encasing element, said encasing element having removable means for retaining a core therewithin.
7 A device, as described, in combination, an encasing element anda combined coring and drilling bit element, a motor driven expansion refrigerating element and amotor driven mud circulatlng element both operably housed within said encasin element, said drilling member adapted to e rotated by power applied thereto from a point adjacent the bottom of a well, said circulating element adapted to circulate a Huid outward from the inside of the central portion of said encasing element, downward to the bottom of said bit element and upward through the inside of said bit element tothe original point of discharge in said encasing element, said refrigerating element adapted to cool said bit element and said circulating fluid, means within said encasing element for separating non-soluble matter from said Huid and collectively and removably retaining same within said encasing element, said encasing element having removable means for retalning la core therewithin.
8. The combination with apparatus for apf plying rotary power to a drilling bit from also housing meansv Jfor separating non-so1` bined coring and drilling bit element, a motor' driven expansion refrigerating element and a motor driven mud circulating element both operably housed Within said encasing element, said circulating element adapted to s circulate a fluid outward of said encasing element, downward to the bottom of said bit element and upward through the inside of said Ibit element to the original point of discharge in said encasing element, said relo frigerating element adapted to cool said bit element and said circulating fluid, means Within said encasing element for separating non-soluble matter from said fluid and collectively and removably retaining same within said encasing element, said encasing element having removable means for retaining a core therevvithin.
9. In a Well drilling device having a stationary motor casing element and a rotary drilling casing element and drilling bit, a motor for rotating said last named element and bit, a refrigerating unit, and a mud circulating unit with motors for operating each of said units, said refrigerating unit and said mud circulating unit being rotated with said bit. A
l0. Well drilling mechanism comprising a stationary element, a rotatable element, a motor for rotating the rotatable element, the rotatable element containing a housing containing a drilling bit, mud circulating means, anda refrigerating unit, the refrigerating unit having a compressor relativel remotely positioned With respect to the drllling bit. THOMAS G. TAYLOR.