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Publication numberUS1871090 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 9, 1932
Filing dateJan 18, 1930
Priority dateJan 18, 1930
Publication numberUS 1871090 A, US 1871090A, US-A-1871090, US1871090 A, US1871090A
InventorsWilliam M Shakespeare
Original AssigneeAnaconda Sales Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building product
US 1871090 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

gw. M. SHAKESPEARE 1,871,090

BUILDING PRODUCT Filed Jan. 18. 1950 Fig: J.

ap'rzzwm- INV g M Z /Z ATTORNEY? Patented Aug. 9, 1932 UNITED STATES PATEN OFFICE] WILLIAM M. SHAKESPEARE, OF SOUTH ORANGE, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO ANA- CONDA SALES COMPANY, OF YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE .'BUILDING PRODUCT marily of heat-insulating material provided with protective means which cover such portions of the heat-insulating material as are normally exposed in use, the protective means also serving to enhance the appearance of the article.- The product of this invention is especially useful as a roofing element or shingle and for purposes of illustration, an embodiment of the invention in the form of a roofing element will presently be described to make clear the several features of the invention.

Roofing materials now in common use, such as metal, slate, tile and the like are opento the common objection that they are not true heat insulators and when applied to a roof they transmit heat with such rapidity that it is standard practice in laying high grade roofs with such materials to put down a lay er of heat-insulating sheathing underneath the usual courses of shingles. Roofing felt made of rags, asbestos, etc. has some heatinsulating qualities but before it is fabricated into shingles, it is practically always saturated with asphalt or at least impregnated to as complete an extent as possible so that it is really little more than a vehicle for asphalt which fills the voids in the felt and thus destroys its natural heat-insulating characteristics. Practically all shingles now in use are made of materials, therefore, which either transmit heat naturally or else are so treated as to become heat conductive.

It is the object of this invention to provide a building product which is made of a material which is a true heat insulator and greatly superior in its insulating power to the materialsheretofore used for such purposes. In the new product, the material is protected against the action of the weather and such parts of each product as are normally exposed to the weather are protected by a sealin g coating. This coating is applied in such a way as not to add materially to the cost of the finished product and the product is so constructed that should rain or snow reach porthin sheathing of metal.

tions of the product not protected by the sealing coating, the moisture which enters the product is free to be dissipated therefrom over substantial areas and thus the element quickly dries out and is not detrimentally affected by the action of the moisture. I

The material which I prefer to use as the base of the new product may be any one of several well known heat insulators. There are numerous materials which are suitable for the purpose, such as those sold commercially under the names of Celotex, Insulite, Masonite, etc., these materials having a multiplicity of voids throughout which produce the heat-insulating effect. Celotex which is particularly desirable for use in the manufacture of the new product is made of matted fibres of bagass'e compressed into the form of boards.

In the manufacture of a roofing element or shingle embodying the present invention, I may employ a rectangular plate of Celotex of the desired shape and size and apply to this plate along one edge a coating which covers a part of both faces and the edges of the plate and serves to seal the pores thereof and prevent the entrance of moisture. Preferably the plate is coated to the desired extent with hot asphalt of a suitable melt point, the asphalt forming a substantially impervious coating. Since asphalt seems to be detrimentally affected by the actinic rays of the sun, the sealing coating is then protected by an armoring layer, which may be either a layer of crushed grit or a This layer conceals and protects the asphalt and improves the appearance ofthe product for roofing up between the spaced edges of a pair of adjacent elements, and water may thus enter the pores of the base material. Some molsture may also enter the base through the sealing coating, since it is practically impossible to produce a sealing coating which 1s water-tight. The moisture which enters the base in this manner is free to pass out of the base through the rear edge and the undersurface thereof to the rear of the sealing coating and the area of such portions of the base is much greater than the area through which moisture maybe absorbed so that thebase dries out quickly and loses the moisture which has entered it. y

The presence of the felt on the upper surface of the-base provides a good joint between the element and those elements which overlie it, since the felt is relatively soft and makes good contact with the relatively rough heat-insulating material. If desired, the under-surface of each element may be also provided with a thin layer of felt which may be confined to a portion of the surface adjacent the edge to be exposed or may extend throughout the entire under-surface of the element. The presence of the under layer of felt is particularly desirable in connection with metal sheathing, since the-felt serves to assist in securing the metal in position and rotects it against injury. In elements which have a felt layer covering all or only a portion of the under-surface of the base, moisture which enters the base through the side edges may be dissipated through the rear edge which is uncovered and as this rear edge is of substantially greater extent than the uncoated portions of the side edges, the elements dry out quickly so that rotting is substantially prevented.

For a better understanding of the invention, reference may be had to the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. 1 is a plan view of a product embodying the invention, in which the sealing coating is covered with an armoring layer of grit;

Figs. 2 and 3 are sectional views on the lines 2-2 and 33, respectively, of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a plan view of a modified form of the product in which an armoring layer of metal is employed;

Figs. 5 and 6 are sectional views on the linss 55 and 66, respectively, of Fig. 4; an

Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 6 showing a slightly modified construction.

Referring now to the drawing, the product is illustrated in a form suitable for use as a roofing element or shingle and it consists of a base 10 of rectangular form and of a size similar to an ordinary strip shingle which may be 36" long by 16 wide. The base may be of any convenient thickness, such, for

example, as T and this base is made of a heat-insulating material having a multi-' plicity of voids within it. Examples of the materials suitable for the purpose have been previously mentioned.

" The base is provided with a sealing coating l1)1 which covers a portion of the top of the ase of moisture into the base through such areas as may bewholly or artly exposed when the element is laid in the ordinary manner in overlapping courses; Sinceasphalt is. apparently detrimentally affected by the actinic rays of the sun, the sealing'coating is protected by an armoringv layer and for this purpose, I may employcrushed g'rit 11 distributed over the coatingand embedded therein in the ordinary manner. The grit layer may cover the entire sealing coating on both' topand bottom faces of the base and along the edges thereof, as illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3.

or the grit may be confined merely to the top surface of the base or to this surface and the edges 12 and 13.

In order to improve the joint between the elements when laid, I provide a layer- 15 of thin saturated roofing felt which is applied to the top surface of the base and extends from the rear edge 16 of the base .to the line 17 defining the rear edge of the normal exposure, the felt 'thus overlying the sealing coating by the amount of the head-lap and being secured in place by a film of asphalt which acts as an adhesive. The felt used for this purpose is very thin and of little weight so that it does not add materially to the cost of the finished product. The felt, being relatively soft, conforms readily to the irregularities in the under-surface of the overlying elements and this provides 'a good joint between courses. i

For some purposes, I prefer to leave the under-surface of the base throughout the area designated 18 uncovered, so that any mois-' ture which enters the element through the end edges 12 to the rear of the coating may be dissipated through the surface 18 and also through the rear edge 16. Manyof these heat-insulating materials are treated so as to be water-repellent and the entrance of moisture into the base is, therefore, greatly hindered, but if any moisture does enter thebody of'the new shingle, it is free .to pass therefrom throughout a. relatively large area and is thus dissipated quickly.

from one end to the other and extends back from the longitudinal edge a distance cated at 20. If desired, the top surface of the base may be provided with division lines or channels formed by saw cuts 21, the metal being forced into these channels so as to give the base the appearance of being made up of several individual shingles. With metal as the armoring layer, the layer of felt 15 is preferably of sufiicient size to overlie the rear edge of the metal at 22 by the amount of the head-lap so that the felt improves the joint between elements and serves the additional purpose of preventing leakage of water into the space between the metal and sealing coating and also helps to anchor the metal in place. Over the layer of felt there is applied a narrow strip of metal 23 extending from the rear edge of the main metal layer to therear edge of the element. This strip 23 covers that portion of the base which would otherwise be exposed when the elements are laid side by side in overlapping courses and thus by the use of the strip 23, all exposed portions of a roof covered with the elements are protected by metal.

In a metal-clad element, I prefer to apply a layer of felt on the under surface of each element by means of a film of asphalt, the felt extending rearwardly from the front edge 13 to a line 24, and the width of the felt layer 25 being equal to the normal exposure of the element plus the head-lap. The felt layer serves not only to assist in sealing the pores of the base throughout the area over which it is applied, but also helps to keep the turned-back edges 20 of the metal in place. In this construction, the rear portion 18 of the undersurface of the base is uncovered so that moisture may be dissipated therethrough.

In a modified construction employing the metal, the bottom layer 27 of felt covers the entire bottom surface of the element. In an element of this type, the top and bottom surfaces of the base are entirely covered either by felt or by felt and metal, while the front edge 13 and part of the side edges 12 are protected both by metal and the sealing material. The rear portions of the edges 12 are -unprotected, as is also the rear edge 17. In

this construction there is little opportunity for water to enter the base and the entrance of water is confined to the rear portions of the edges 12. Moisture so entering the base may leave it both through the rear portions of the edges 12 and through the rear edge 17,

so that again in this construction, the areas through which moisture may enter the base are relatively small in extent, while the areas through which the moisture is free to leave the base are substantially larger. The element, therefore, dries out quickly.

It will be seen that the new element has heat-insulating qualities greatly superior to those of ordinary building products made of such materials as slate, tile, asphalt-saturated felt and the like, since the base of the new product contains a multiplicity of voids which are not filledwith an impregnating compound or the like. The base of the new product is protected against the weather by means of the sealing coatin and the sealing coatin is in turn protected against the action 0 the sun by the armoring layer of grit or metal as the case may be. The asphalt and grit or metal also protects'the base, which is relatively soft, against mechanical injury. Such portions of the uncoated'surface of the base as may permit water to enter are rela tively small in area and the base has uncoated areas of much greater extent which are not normally in a position to be entered by moisture but which afford an opportunity for the dissipation of moisture which has entered the base.

What I claim: 7

1. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, said plate having a portion only covered by a sealing coating, an armoring layer over said coating and covering the normally exposed area of the plate, and a layer of fibrous material on the upper surface of the plate to the rear of the armoring layer.

2. A. building element adapted to be laid with others in overlapping courses, which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material partly covered with a coating which seals the pores thereof, the uncoated .area through which moisture may enter the plate when the latter is laid in the normal manner being only a relatively small partof the total uncoated area, and a layer of fibrous material covering a portion of the upper surface of the plate to the rear of the normally exposed area thereof.

3. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering a portion of both faces of the plate along one edge thereof and also covering the edges of the plate adjacent said por tions, an armoring layer over said coating, and a layer of fibrous material coveringthat part of the upper surface of the plate not covered by the armoring layer.

' 4. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering a portion of both faces of the plate, said armorim layer and fibrous material together covering allof said face.

5. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering one end of the plate including portions of both faces and the adjacent edges, an armoring layer over the coating, on at least the upper face of the plate and a layer of fibrous material on the upper face of the plate covering the portion not covered by the armoring layer.

6. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering one end of the plate including portions of both faces and the adjacent edges, an armoring layer over the coating on the upper surface of the plate, a layer of fibrous material on the portion of the upper surface of the plateleft exposed by the armoring layer, and a layer of fibrous material on the under surface of the plate over the sealing coating only.

7. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering one end of the plate including portions of both faces and the adjacent edges, an armoring layer over the coating on the upper surface of the plate, a layer of fibrous materal on the portion of the upper surface of the plate left exposed by the armoring layer, and a layer of fibrous material covering the under surface of the plate including the coated portion thereof.

8. A building element adapted to be laid with others in overlapping courses with headlap which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material, a sealing coating covering the top and bottom faces of the plate from one edge thereof and extending beyond the limit of exposure by'the amount of the head-lap, this coating also covering the edges of the plate adjacent said coated areas, an armoring coating over the upper coated area of the plate and the adjacent side edges of the plate,

and a layer of fibrous material on the upper surface of the plate and covering the normally unexposed portion thereof.

9. A. building element adapted to be laid with others in overlapping courses with head lap, which comprises 'a plate of heat-insulating material, a layer of armoring material coverlng the top face of the platealong one edge thereof and extending from this edge beyond the limit of exposure by the amount of the head-lap, the layer of material also covering the edges of the plate, sealing ma terial interposed between the armoring ma terial and the plate and serving 'to afiix the armoring material to the plate, a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the upper surface of the plate, and film of sealing material between the plate and the fibrous material.

10. A building element adapted to be laid with others in overlapping courses with head-lap which comprises a plate of heatinsulating material, a sealing coating covering the top and bottom faces of the plate from one edge thereof and extending beyond the limit of exposure by the amount of the headlap, this coating also covering the edges of the plate adjacent said coated areas, a layer of armoring material on the upper surface of the plate over the coated area and extending over the coated edges, and a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the upper surface of the plate and covering the armoring material along the rear edge thereof by the amount of the head-lap.

11. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering one end of the plate including portions of both faces and the adjacent edges, an armoring layer over the coating on the upper surface of the plate and-over the said edges of the plate, a layer of fibrous material on the portion of the upper surface of the plate left exposed by the sealing coating, and a layer of fibrous material over the coated portion of the under surface of the plate.

12. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering one end of the plate including portions of both faces and the adjacent edges, an armoring layer covering all said coated area of the plate. a layr of fibrous material on the portion of the upper surface of the base left exposed by the Sealing coating v and a layer of fibrous. material covering the entire under-surface of the plate.

13. A building element .which comprises a. plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering the top and bottom faces of the plate and covering one side edge and a portion of both end edges, armoring material 'aflixed to the plate by the sealing coating and covering a portion of the top surface of the plate, and fibrous material covering the remainder of the top portion of the plate and all of the bottom thereof.

14. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids within it, a sealing coating covering the top of the plate, one side edge, and portions of both end edges and a portion of the bottom surface of the plate adjacent said edge, armoring material covering a portion ofthe top of said plate, and

fibrous material covering the remainder of the top and the coated portion of the bottom.

15. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a 5 multiplicity of voids therein, armoring ma-' terial covering at least a portion of the top surface of the plate, and a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the top portion of the plate.

16. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a layer of metal covering a portion of the top surface of said plate, and a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the top portion of said plate.

17 A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a layer of metal covering a portion of the top surface of said plate, and a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the top portion of said plate, said layer of fibrous material overlapping one edge of the metallic layer.

18. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a sheet of metal on the plate covering a portion of the top surface thereof, said metal extending around the side edge and both end edges and covering a portion of the bottom surface of said plate, and a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the top portion of said plate.

19. A building element which comprises aplate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein,a strip of metal covering a portion of the top surface of said plate along one side edge thereof, the metal extending around said side edge and around both end edges of the plate and covering a portion of the under surface thereof, a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of said top surface of the plate, and fibrous material upon the under surface of said plate overlying the portions of the metal thereon.

20. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a layer of copper covering a portion of the top surface of layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the top surface of said plate.

21. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a layer of copper covering a portion of the top surface of said plate along one side edge thereof, a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the top surface of said plate, and a layer of fibrous material covering at least a portion 05 the under surface of said plate along said e ge.

22. A building element which com rises a plate of heat-insulating material, as elotex, a sheet of copper covering a portion of the top surface of said plate along one edge said plate along one side edge thereof, and a,

thereof, said copper extending around said edge and the two adjacent edges and having portions lying against the under surface of the plate, a layer of felt covering the remainder of the upper surface of the plate, and a sealing coating covering at least an area of the under surface of the plate corresponding to that covered by the metal on the upper surface.

23. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material, asCelotex, a sheet of copper covering a portion of the top surface of said plate along one edge thereof, said copper extending around said edge and the two adjacent edges and having portions lying against the under surface of the plate, a layer of felt covering the remainder of the upper surface of the plate, a sealing coating covering at least an area of the under surface of the plate corresponding to that covered by the metal on the upper surface, and a layer of felt over said sealing coating.

24. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having ,a multiplicity of voids therein, armoring material aflixed to the upper surface of said plate and covering a portion only of said surface, a layer of fibrous material covering the remainder of the upper surface of the plate, and a strip of armoring material extending across said fibrous material and leading from the armored area to said plate. 1

25. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a sheet of copper on the upper surface of the platecovering a portion only of said surface along one edge of the plate, a layer of fibrous material cover- .ing the remainder of the upper surface of the plate, and a strip of copper extending across said fibrous material from said sheet of copper to the opposite edge of said plate.

26. A building element which comprises a plate of heat-insulating material having a multiplicity of voids therein, a sheet of copper on the upper surface of the plate covering a portion only of said surface, a sealing coating covering the remainder of the upper surface of the plate, and a sealing coating cover-' ing at least a portion of the under surface of said plate and portions'only of the edges of said plate, other portions of said edges being uncovered. V

In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.

WILLIAM M} SHAKESPEARE.

the opposite," edgeof

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7601282Oct 24, 2005Oct 13, 2009Johns ManvilleProcesses for forming a fiber-reinforced product
US20070092708 *Oct 24, 2005Apr 26, 2007Gleich Klaus FProcesses for forming a fiber-reinforced product
US20110258956 *May 26, 2011Oct 27, 2011Colin FeltonNatural Fiber Composite Construction Panel
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/143, 428/206, 428/920, 428/457
International ClassificationE04D1/26, E04D1/28
Cooperative ClassificationY10S428/92, E04D1/265, E04D1/28
European ClassificationE04D1/28, E04D1/26A