US 1871920 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Aug. 16, 1932 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE JOHN G. SENIOR, OF SANFORD, MAINE, ASSICi-NOIR. '1O SANFORD MILLS, OF SANFORD,
MAINE, A CORPORATION OF MAINE TEXTILE WEB DYEING rmcnss No Drawing.
partin a variegated design to a web of tex- I tile fa ric in a manner somewhat analogous to that of marbling wherein a mutable deli, sign of color is floated on the surface of a water carrier and is taken off the surface by the web.
It is the object of the present invention to render this type of process ap licable to the use of water soluble dye stu s such as are required for coloring or dyeing textiles.
It is the further object of the invention to render this type of process capable of using water soluble dye stuffs which will thorough- 1y impregnate or d e the textile web of any degree of thickness rom ordinary plain goods to high pile plush or pile goods.
The object of the invention is further to provide color materials for use in this type of process comprising water soluble dye stuffs which will float upon and not be absorbed by the water carrier.
The object of the invention is further to provide in this type of process for the control of the thickness of the color film and the dispersion of the various colors going to make up the film by varying the proportion of the ingredients combined with the water soluble dye stuffs.
The general type of process to which this invention relates and of apparatus for carr ing out such a process is already known in t e prior art. An apparatus suitable for carrying out the process of the present invention for the coloring or dyeing of textile webs is disclosed in the patent to Frank W. Clark, No. 1,846,845, granted February 23, 1932, and based upon an application filed concurrently herewith.
In such a process a carrier body of water is usually'employed in the form of a gravity flowing stream in a trough and in which the stream moves slowly enough tomaintain its upper surface perfectly smooth and unrippled. The color fluids of desired hues are prepared and gently laid on the surface of the water so that they floatthereon and are dispersed thereon in the required design. After the color design is formed floating on the surface of the water, it is carried by the Application filed April 11,
This invention relates to a process for im- I 1930. Serial No. 443,622.-
water to a position where the web of material is brought barely into touching contact with the carrier surface while moving in the same direction so that the Web laps off from the surface of the water the color film. In the case of paper and other dense materials, the color film forms a coating on the surface and the colors employed are not soluble in the water so that they float readily thereon and are not absorbed by or disperse in the water.
In the case of a textile web, it is necessary, however, that the colors shall penetrate and thoroughly dye the web even when the web is thic as in the case of a high pile plush and, furthermore, the dye stuffs required for successful and thorough dyeing of textile materials are soluble in water and therefore will not float on a water carrier.
This invention provides color materials comprising the usual water soluble dye stufl's which will float on a water carrier, form a film thereon, and disperse in the required design and becapable of being lapped ofi by v the textile web in the carrying out of the process. This invention also provides for the control of the thickness of the film formed by each color and the rate of its dispersion over the surface of the water.
In the carrying out of the process, the color compositions of the various hues required are fed onto the surface of the water carrier in any suitable manner, as usual, from suitably mounted receptacles fixed or movable, or in any of the other various ways now known in the art. The Various colors thus fed onto the surface of the water carrier merge before or after, or both before and after, they reach the surface of the water carrier into the required desi n, all in the usual or any suitable manner. ny suitable form of apparatus may be employed. The web of textile material is 'guided into lapping contact With the color film travelling at approximately the speed of the water carrier and laps up the color film from off the surface of the water carrier.
The color compositions or materials in ac cordance with the principle of this invention comprise essentially two things;
First-A suitable textile dye stuff of the.
required hue. For this purpose any of the dye stuffs commonly employed in the dyeing of textiles, either (1) a coal tar dye, (2) a natural dye or (3) a synthetic dye. Such dye stuffs as are soluble in water, except for this invention, would not be available for this process because they would be absorbed by or dispersed in the water of the water carrier.
Second-An oil. Almost any vegetable, animal, mineral, or synthetic oil may be employed. Such oils are well known and familiar to those skilled in the art and the selection thereof is readily made as required for the purpose. The purpose of the oil ingredient is to render the mixture water repellent and thus to cause the mixture to float and be non-miscible with water and this is the essential feature of the process. The kind and amount of the oil mixed with the dye stuifs will depend upon the prevailing temperature and the consistency of the mixture desired. Olive oil, kerosene, neatsfoot oil and sperm oil have been found particularly suitable. The consistency of the mixture in turn will determine the thickness of the film formed on the surface of the water carrier as the mixture is fed thereonto and also the rapidity with which this film will disperse over the surface of the water carrier or, in other words, the rate of dispersion.
In addition to the foregoing two essential elements, it is usually desirable to include in the color composition or material one or more or all of the following things:
Third.-A starch or gum, either or both. The starches particularly suitable for this purpose are corn, wheat and potato, although other suitable starches may be used. The gums particularl suitable for this purpose are tragacanth, arinol, or British gum, although other suitable gums of similar type may be employed. These things givebody to the color composition and prevent the oil from separating out from the mixture and also assist in controlling the thickness of the film and its rate of dispersion.
Fourth.Waxes. A small amount of a 'suitable wax is frequently desirable. Beeswax and parafiin are preferable. The purpose of the wax in the mixture is to thicken the r'fuxture and therefore further to con- 7 trol the thickness of the film and the rate of dispersion. I
Fifth.-An alcohol. A suitable alcohol further assists in controlling the thickness of film and the rate of its dispersion and by adding the required amount to a color mixture already formed of the other ingredients, the film is thinned down and caused to disperse with greater rapidity. Fusel oil has been found desirable for this purpose.
After the colors of the various hues have been mixed in accordance with the foregoing procedure, they are then fed separately in the required amounts to the surface of the water carrier and the rate of flow, the thickness of the film produced by each, and the rate of the dispersion of each over the surface of the water is readily controlled by varying the pro ortions of the mixture in the manner set orth.
The invention therefore presents color compositions of the required hues which float u on the surface of the water without being a sorbed or dispersed therein and which are of a character when lapped up by the textile web thoroughly to impregnate and dye the same. The invention also enables the mutable design of the color film floating on the water carrier readily to be controlled by varying the proportions of the ingredients of the color compositions and thus varying the thickness of the film and the rate of its dispersion in the case of each color.
Since the invention makes usevof the d e stuffs heretoforecommonly employed in t e dyeing of textiles, no material change is necessary in the usual recesses employed for the treatment and ishing of the textiles ,after the dyeing process is completed;
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new, and desired to be secured by Letters Patent, is:
1. The process of pro essively dyeing a textile web with a mutable design of color which consists in mixing a water-soluble dye stuff with an oil to render it non-miscible with water, feeding the mixture onto the surface of a travelling bod of water, controlling the dispersion andthickness of the film of mixture on the surface of the water by the proportion and kind of oil in the mixture and progressively bringing the textile web into lapping contact with the film. v
2. The process of progressively dyeing a textile web with a mutable design of color which consists in mixing a water-soluble dye stuff with material to produce a liquid mixture non-miscible with water and of less specific gravity than water, feeding the mixture onto the surface ofthe travelling body of water, controlling the dispersion and thickness of the film of mixture on the surface of the water by the proportion and kind of the said. material in the mixture and progressively bringing the textile web into lapping contact with the film.
3. The process of progressively dyeing a textile web with a mutable design of color which consists in mixing a water-soluble dye stufi with an oil to render it non-miscible with water and with material to give body to the mixture andprevent the separation of the oil and dye stuff and with an alcohol, feeding the mixture on to the surface of a traveling body of water, controlling the dispersion and thickness of the film of mix ture on the surface of the water by the proportion and kind of the aforesaid in edients of the mixture and progressively ringing the textile web into lapping contact with the film.
- In testimony whereof, I have signed my name to this specification.
JOHN c. sEmoR.