US 1872617 A
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Patented Aug. 16, 1932 NITED mm "PATENT QFFIUE ARTHUR L. BROWN, OF WILKINSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF PENNSYLVANIA ,nmunsrrrnn rum) LUBRICANT No Drawing.
My invention relates to liquid lubricants more specifically to emulsions that are usef l as lubricants for machining operations and to methods of making the same.
It is among the objects of my invention to provide an emulsion containing a small but adequate amount of lubricating material to render it useful as a cutting oil for machining operations When it has been sufiiciently diluted with water.
Another object of my invention is to provide a liquid emulsion'that shall be permanent in that it will withstand heating to relatively high temperatures and cooling to relatively low temperatures without separation of the water and oil.
Still another object of my invention is to provide a concentrated emulsion, that shall be in liquid form and may be economically manufactured from inexpensive materials.
My lubricant or cutting lubricant is an emulsion consisting of a soa base, a neutral or mineral oil, such as para 11 oil, and water. The emulsion is preferably prepared in a concentrated form and then diluted for use by mixing it with water.
The valuable properties of my emulsion, such as permanence and persistence when heated, when cooled or when highly diluted, are obtained by accurately proportioning the ingredients and as a result of the manner in which the several ingredients are combined.
The'soap base or emulsifier is first pre- 1 g pared. 300 pounds of elaine oil (commercial oleic acid) are heated in a kettle to 100-110 C. and 300 pounds of water-white grade. rosin are added, preferably in two equal portions, and the heating is continued until solution is complete. The solution is then cooled to about 95 (1, and a solution of caustic potash containing 102 pounds of water and 47 pounds of 88-92% KOH (sufficient to saponify 73% of the elaine oil) is slowly added.
The contents of the kettle are heated from 95 to 101 C. for about an hour until the foam caused. by the liberated carbonic acid pounds of ammonia Application filed February 21, 1927. Serial No. 170,061.
a portion of the fatty acids. then cooled.
The cooled thick soapy liquid is next thinned, and the soap content is increased and rendered more effective as an emulsifier by adding an alcohol, such as denatured alcohol, and ammonia. The ammonia, however, is not, as a rule, added in sufiicient amount to saponify all the fatty acids. If concentrated ammonia or a dilute water solution thereof is added directly to the soap solution, a stringy, ropy product, which is not an efiicient emulsiher, will result. I have found that the ropiness can be prevented by first mixing the ammonia. with denatured alcohol and then adding the mixture to the soap solution. I mix 98 pounds of 95% denatured alcohol with 31 26 B.) and slowly stir the mixture into t e soap solution. The resulting solution is a syrupy liquid containing ammonia and potash soaps and is used to mix with the neutral oil in' making the emulsion.
The concentrated liquid emulsion is made by adding a solution of 21 gallons of neutral oil, such as parafiin oil, and 3 gallons of the soap base, previously mixed to ether, to a dilute solution of soda ash. Pre erably, I add the above mixture to a solution made by adding 3.2 pounds of an alkaline compound, such as soda ash, to 24% gallons of water. The soda ash is present in such quantity that it reacts with the remaining fatty acids and is preferably present in excess so as to act as a softening agent for the additional Water that is added to the emulsion before it is utilized.
The liquid is A concentrated emulsion may be made bytoo i boihng point or cooled to the freezing point,
may be formed if the ingredients are properly combined. I place the soda ash solu- 'tion in the crutcher and gradually add the solution of soap base in oil to the soda ash solution while stirring. The resulting compound contains about water, and the emulsion will not break on standing, heating or cooling. a
The concentrated emulsion is used to make a-suitablythinned. emulsion such as cutting oil or emulsion. One volume of the concentrated emulsion may be diluted with 9 volumes of water for making a cutting compound satisfactory for ordinary milling operations, and more dilute solutions, containing twice as much water as that used for the'cutting compound, may be successfully made is desired. a
My invention enables one to produce a liquid emulsion containing, for exam 1e, 7 volumes of water, a small amount 0 soda ash in solution, 6 volumes of paraflin oil and about 1 volume of the soap base or liquid emulsifier; The resulting product is an inexpensive compound, inasmuch as it contains less than 15% byvolume, of the only ingredient of any considerable value. This product constitutes a permanent emulsion which may be diluted with water without further processing. a 7 Although I have described a specific embodiment of my invention, I do not wish to be limited thereto, as modifications. of my invention will suggest themselves to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. For example, instead of parafin oil I may use another neutral oil, such as red engine oil. Still'other modifications, such as small changes in the roportions of some of the ingredients, may made without departing from the spirit of my invention, as defined in the annexed I claim as my ,invention:' I 1. The method of making a liquid emulnonwhich comprises mixing a mineral oil. with a liquid emulsifier comprising a mixture of alcohol and ammonia and fixed alkali soaps, and then adding said mixture to water which has beeil rendered slightly alkaline.
2. The method of making a liquid emul sion which comprises mixing a mineral oil with a li uid emulsifier comprising a mixqtu're of a cohol and ammonia and :fixed alkali soaps, and then slowly adding said mixture' to, a dilute solution of an alkali carbonate.
mixture to a dilute solution of sodium carbonate.
4. A liquid emulsion comprising water, a mineral oil and 'a liquid emulsifier, said hquid emulsifier comprlsing a mixture of alcohol and ammoniafand otash soaps consisting of the reaction pro uct of about 3 parts oleic acid, 3 parts rosin, 1 part water, suflicient caustic potash to saponify about threefourths ofzthe oleic acid and suflicient ammonia .to increase the soap content.
5. A stable liquid emulsion comprisin a major proportion of .a mineral oil an a minor proportion of an emulsifier comprising a mixture of ammonium and alkali metal oleates and resinates containing a sub"- stantial amount of each ingredient and sufficient water to emulsify the base and main- 1 tain the emulsion in a liquid form. I
6. A stable liquid emulsion comprisin a major proportion of a mineral oil an a minor proportion of an emulsifier comprising a mixture of alcohol in suificientamount to prevent ropiness and ammonium and alkali metal soaps containing a substantial amount of each ingredient and asuflicient quantity of water to emulsify the base and maintain it in a liquid condition.
7. A stable liquid emulsion comprising a major proportion of a mineral oil and a minor proportion of an emulsifier compris- I ing a mixture of ammonium and alkali metal oleates and resinates containing a substantial amount of each ingredient and a sufficient quantity of water reildered slightly alkaline to emulsify the base and maintain it in a liquid condition.
8. -A stable liquid emulsion comprising approximately 7 volumes of water, 6 volumes of a paraflin'oil and one volume of an emulsifier, said emulsifier including sufiicient alcohol to prevent ropiness and a mixture of ammqmum and alkali metal soaps containing a substantial amount of each ingredient.
9. A stable liquid emulsion comprising approximately 7 volumes of water, 6 volumes of a arailin oil and one volume of a liquid emu ifier comprising sufiicient alcohol to prevent ropiness and a mixture of ammonium and alkali metal oleates and fesinates containing a substantial amount of each of these ingredients.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribedmy name this 16th day of Feb ruary, 1927. o
. ARTHUR L. BROWN.
3. The method of making a liquid emul sion which-comprises a mineral oil with a liquid emulsifier comprising a mix? ture 'of alcohol and ammonia and fixed alkali soaps,- a.nd then slowly adding said which has been AmhlauwwiWwM-nwmmmmw