US 1873184 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 23, 1932.
F. cALvANl 1,873,184
SAXOPHONE Filed Oct. 3, 1931 6 Sheets-Sheet l r-NATDHAL summa. VALVE 17 VALVE iff/n .ff nEw c To v ATTACHMENT 4f L ct SHARP VALVE M1-umu. N w p 5:25p
TMLL DI 54,/ vwnmAL Ey ,if c-NATURAL/ O DGM" KEY y VALVE JZ 7 if [LNATUKAL KEY n I J6, 5-NATuKALVALVE Bfnmxev/ Sy Tum. Ev
@NATURAL KEY cry/mmm. Kw1-f 'G'SMKP EY c-snmwnsv B'NATURAL B-FLAT vALvc 4 J a- FLAT/ M27 'Z- v i a- SHARP VALVE A-NATUML "W V LVE A Jz 6'7 l c-uATuRAL VALVE J/ k MA1-uml. Kev
JJ y ssl-MRP VALVE. CNATURAL KEY B-Fnggev L F-NATURAL VALVE y/ E-NATURAL VALVE I EFL/a1' nav .77
c-rmTURAL KEV n Z0 .l ZZ Inventor f1 Homey p-MTUWAL vALvr; /7 VMTURA L VENT F. cALvANl 1,873,184
SAXOPHONE Aug. 23, 1932,
Filed Oct. 5, 1951 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 y Aug. 23, 1932.
F. CALVANI SAXOPHONE Filed Oct, 3, 1931 6 Sheets-.Sheet 3 U- NATIJHAL VALVE c-SHAKP vALv:
6-5HAKP KEW B-NATUKAL Key C-SHARP KEY -nxr new f' C* NATURAL VALVE B'NATURAL KEY B- MTU RA L VA LV E C* NATURAL VALVE C* SMAK? VALVE @www llomey Inventor ,/1 Homey Aug. 23, 1932. F. cALvANl SAXOPHONE Filed oct. 5, 1931 'e sheets-sheet 4 D-MTUKAL VALV:
OCTAVI! UvTTO B- NAI' KAL VALVE C-SMARP VALVE By @M F, CALVANI Aug. 23, 1932.
SAXOPHONE Filed Oct. 5, 1931 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 B- NATuvmL vALv:
@SNMP KEY D NATURAL VALVE r lo. nu e m I Y E K M L M r B w E N .u K w ,y M 44 D .7%22/250 hie/ani@ Mum..
llomey Aug. 23, 1932. F CALVANl 1,873,184
SAXOPHONE Filed oct. 3, 1931` 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 B- NATURAL VALVE c-NATUKAL Kf-Y a-FLAT veuf 8- FLAT VALVE CNATURL TRILL KEY l Inventor @aww/ih flllomey B- FLAT KEY (new) Patented Aug. 23, 1932 FUIivIoCALr/m, or NEWARK, NEW JERSEY f SAXOPHONE appncaaonaiea detener a, 1931. serial No. 566,746.
The present invention comprehends a f number'of readily distinguishable and appreciable refinements and structural improvements embodied in the-key operated mecha- 5 nism, valved vents, and spring assembly means on -a saxophone. My principal object is to improve generally upon prior patented and marketed musical instruments by sim-y plifying the now intricate assembly by omitlD ting certain troublesome valves and keys, and
accomplishing new results without materlally changing or interfering with the present day method or system of ingerin By way of introduction, attentlon yis first l5 invited to the fact that one of the live improvements of this application is related t0 and recognized as an advanced improvement 'said hands may now be used quickly and suc-y upon the invention covered in application Serial No. 453,280, filed by yme under date'of May 17, 1930, and allowed April 29, 1931.
In the aforesaid pending application, the principal change iny construction and rnechanism was predicated upon a novel method' and means for operation of the C-sharp and D-natural valves in the low register of the instrument. n
Admittedly, it is a matter of common' knowledge to persons skilled inthe art to which the invention relates that on the stand- 59, ard saxophone the C-sharp valve (in the low register) is normally closed, while the adjacent D-natural valve is normally open.` Consequently, in either ascending or descending the chromatic scale, and encountering the key system they low register, it is essential to resort to awkward and uncertain and sluggish fingering in producing the tones C-natural and C-sharp respectively.
40 As a matter of fact, in descending the chroday arrangement to simultaneously depress the C-sharp and C-natural keys in order to close the D-natural valve, and to open the C-sharp valve in unison to produce the tone unison and as th-cse fingers are comparatively weak and the leverage system resistive in ac-'-vv maticscale, it is necessaryunder the present Obviously, this necessitates def pressing the little fingers of both hands invr Fundamentally, what was accomplished in the aforesaid invention and what is also accomplished in the present invention is the provision' of a mechanism and key conn trol lsystem which permits the aforesaid objection to be better overcome. The gist of the new idea is found in a unique arrangement of parts which permits both the C-sharp and `D-natural pads or valves to remain normally unseated, said D-natural valve being separately and remotely controlled from the customarily or usual C-sharp key] by the little finger of the left hand, andboth valves ,being simultaneously closedor seated by the little 4finger of the right hand fromL the ordinary' 05 C-natural key. y
Consequently, the `little fingers of both of,l
cessively as well as independently of eachk other for more rapid and precisemanipula-YO tion. Incidently, I shall not attempt to set forth commercially the very numerous advantages in tone control and intonation accomplished by the improvements of this application, but shall restrict the description and fl claims primarily to the revised and improved mechanical mechanism for structurally distinguishing my saxophone from similar ones.
The mechanism employed in the aforesaid pending case'is decidedly improved upon in 3U the present application and the details for accomplishing this result will be hereinafter specified. f
A` second featurekof the present invention is predicated uponvasupplemental device, 85
inthe nature of an attachment, for optional use mounted kon the upper portion of the n tubing and (2o-operating with the D-sharp valve and C-'na-tural valve in the upper register for permitting said valves to be alternately operatedfrom the index and second finger, of the left hand, with a portion of said attachment co-operating with a novel duplex valve in a manner to lower the tone emitted from said C-sharp vent and to permit the 95' practical playing of a trill or any regular passage from C to D-natural.
As implied, this particular attachment embodies a new'key to-be depressed by said invdex finger inasmuchas said D-sharp valve is nism being such as to permit the production of a smooth trill or straight passage from F-natural to F -sharp, and the arrangement being such as to permit the old side mounted F-shairp trill key to be dispensed with entirely. As is known, practically all present day saxophones are provided near F -naturalin `the middle register with what is known as an F-sharp trill key, but in the present revision and improved arrangement such trill key and its valve is entirely dispensed with.
On present day saxophones middle B-tlat` zar-.ris sometimes produced by sliding the tip ofthe4 index finger of the left hand from the B-natural-fkey onto a small adjacent tab or B-Hat key,and/or said B-flat tone is sometimes produced by depressing the B-natural key and wasimultaneously depressing F-natural key by' the index finger of the right hand. This latter tone is however, frequently muffled, and therefore not consistent in quality with the B-fiat tone produced by way of my improved ssirsideiB-iiat keyarrangement to be later de'- scribed in detail.
It follows that a` fourth and-important im-V provement is predicated upon-the provision ofa newreinote control key operable bya `Vfinger of the right hand for producing a clean and undistort'ed passage between B andA B-iiat.`
A `fifth improvement is vested in the provision of new key between the customary to co-operate with the E-natural valve operatinggshaft, permitting a section of said of one direction as usual), and when oscil-4 aforesaid ring-like member of the-new duplex C-natural valve for decreasing momentarily the diameter of the C-natural vent, which said valve covers7 in order. tov permit @the playingof a trill between B and C-natural. By way of differentiation, I may add high E-natural key and the new B-flat keyv --lated in one of` said directions to actuate thev Figure 2 is a side elevational view with portions of the mechanism omitted for clearness of observation and showing the D-natural valve, C-natural key, (low register), the control or key for high E-natural, the new B-lat key, and the duplex or sectional valve for making the B to C trill in middle register.
Figure 3 is a side view showing the new position of C-sharp valve in the lower register, and the usual operating keys for the tones (ii-sharp,- C-sharp, B-natural and B-flat.
Figure 4 is a transverse section on the line 4 4 of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is an elevational view showing the new attachment for operating the D-sharp key in the: upper register of the instrument to lnake for a Itrill between C-natural and D.-natural.
Figure 6 is a. fragmentary perspective view showingtheoperating rocker arm for controlling the D-natural and C-sharp valvesv in the lower register.
Figure 7 is a cross section on the line 7*? of Figure 2 disclosing thefaforesaid duplex or sectional valve.
Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure 7 showingthe ring-like member of said valve seated.
Figure 9 is a View similar to Figure 7 disclosing -the operating arms and mechanism more precisely.
Figure 10 is a rear face elevation showing how several-old keys and valves are systematically omitted.
Figure 11 is a detail enlarged section on the line 11-11 of Figure 2.
Figure 12 is a diagrammatic isolated view showing the D-natural valve, C-sharp key, andoperating connection between said valve and key.
Figure 13 is a similar detail view ofthe new trill attachment for optional use (C to D trill) with the ordinary D-sharp key in the upper register of the instrument.
Figure 14 is a detail view of the new F- sharp key and valve arrangement.
Figure 15 is a diagrammatic view'of the new side controlBflat key and the associated shaft to oscillate in two directions, (instead.
valves and operating means therefor.
Figure 16 is afragmentary longitudinal sectional'view through the vtwo master shafts seen-'on the right hand side ofthe instrument depicted in Figure 10, designed to show just how these shafts are constructed.
Figure 17 is a fragmentary perspective view detailing the essential parts of the mechanism utilized to produce either a trill or a regular alternating passage between the tones B and C-n atural in either the middle or upper register as desired.
Figure- 18 is an isolatedv perspective view showing the improved F-sharp key with parts in dotted lines to better bring out the operation of this particular improvement.
Figure 19 is a similar fragmentary perspective view designed to illustrate pictorially the new remote control B-lat key and companion mechanism.L
`It is believed to be systemmatic to irst describe the C-sharp valve and D-nat'ural with4 the controls or operating mechanism for said valves.
In Figure 1 for example, the body or tubing of the instrument indicated at 16 is ,formed with the customary D-natural vent 17 and the corresponding pad or valve 18. This valve is carried by an actuating arm 19 formed integrally with an oscillatory rockshaft 2() supported between the bearing posts ,21 and 22, said shaft having an associated spring 23 for normally holding the D-natural valve 18 open. n
This shaft 2() as seen better in Figure 4 isprovided with a curvate operating finger or arm 24, which as also seen in'Figure 6, is provided at its free endy with a lug 25 which underlies the free end portion of a companion arm 26, the arm 26 being formed integrally on the long rockshaft 27 controlled `by the customary C-sharp key 28 as seen in F igure. The aforesaid spring 23 (Figurey 11) exerts spring pressure on these two arms 24 and 26 to normally lift the arm r26 and to maintain the C-sharp'key 28 in its customary elevatedposition, as well as to hold the D-natural valve 18 normally open. f
Thus, it is possible by depressing the key 28 (Figure 3) and rocking the shaft 27 to cause the arm 26 to press down on the lug 25, which in turn rocks the shaft 20 against the tension of the spring 23 to close the valve 18 by manual pressure. This C-sharp key 28 is an independent left hand (little finger) control for the valve 18, which valve by the way,
serves to produce the tone C-sharp the tone being emitted through the C-sharp vent `29 in Figure 4. 1
The C-sharp valve is indicated by the numeral 30 and is carried on an arm 31, said il* `arm being in turn rigid on the rocker or operatingshaft 32 supported between bearings 33 and 34 on the left hand side of the instruy ment as shown in Figure 3. y The associate spring 35 anchored at one 'iend on the post 33 serves to oscillate the shaft 32 in a direction to normally unseat or maintain the C-sharp valve 30 in an open position. This same shaft 32 is provided with an integral or rigid operating lever 36 which '.carries a finger piece 37 designated as the Cnatural key. This lever 36 is located directly over the arm 24and hence when the key 37 is depressed with the little finger of the right hand, said arm 24'is also depressed 'fand the tension of both springs 23 and 35 is overcome so that both valves 18 and 30 are simultaneously Closed for producing the tone C-natural. l
Consequently, as before stated, it is pos- '.sible to simultaneously close these two valves 18 and 30 to produce the tone G-natural with the little finger of the right hand or to individually close the valve 18 from the C-sharp vkey 28'to producethe tone C-sharp; yalve in the lower register of the instrument This same fundamental result was alsov obtained inthe aforesaid pendingapplication, `but ther operating mechanism herein illustrated is more simple and satisfactory` and constitutes one of the features of the y Vrusual position, while the C-sharp valve has been shifted to the opposite side of the bell in order to simplify the action and better equalize the spring and valve arrangement.
-I now call attention to Figure 5 showing the valve for 'producing the higher tones on the instrument, and it will be noted that 38 represents the usual lever actuated D-natural valve, 39 the D-sharp valve, and 40 the F-natural valve. In accordance with the present invention the D-sharp valve is'slightly altered and is provided with an added extension or linger 41.
It is known, of course, that all three of these valves are normally spring-Closed. In accordance with my idea, however, I provide a C and D-natural trill attachment controlled by the index finger of the left hand for open ing this valve 39, said attachment including an eXtra key disposed in a longitudinal line with the customary bank of keys on the body of the instrument so that it is more easily accessible and readily! operable when the intween, the shaft being' indicated at 44 and i provided with a key 45. This is to be hereina'fter known as the new C to D-natural trill key and it is used for producing a rapid trill between C and D by depressing and holdingthe conventional C-natural key While 'V alternately depressing and releasing the new D-natural trill key 45. f
The shaft 44 is provided with a rigid lifting arm 44a which underlies the finger 41 sothat by depressing the key 45, the valve 39 (ordinarily producing the tone D-sharp) can be opened. In Figure 1 it will be observed that the key 45 is so located to simultaneously depress and close the underlying C-sharp valve 46. This valve 46 and itsfmechanism is of ordinary type and found on conventional saxophones. It is so mounted as tobe closed simultaneously with the C-natural key operated by rthe second linger of the left hand.
In addition, the key 45 isiso located that one edge portion thereof overlies the adjacent edge portion of the annulus or ring section 47 of a novel duplex valve (Cl-natural) indicated as a unit by the numeral 48.
This I in order to make the tone D-natura valve-4S `is a new valve and serves several purposes. The closure section or pad of this particular valve 48 is distinguished by the numeral 49. The valve 48 is thus sectional y; and so constructed and arranged that by depressing the key the ring 47 is silnultaneously depressed against the adjacent C-natural vent 50, as seen in Figure 8, so as to make posible to produce the improved C to D- natural trill perfectly in tune.
Under the present arrangement by simultaneously closing the valve 4G and seating the ring 47 the tone emitted through the usual D-sharp vent is lowered one-half tone bviously then, the presence of this trill attachment makes it possible to produce a trill between the tone C-natural and D-natural by using the index an( second fingers of the left hand in proper alternation.
To do this, it is necessary to h old the second finger of the left hand down against the C- natural key and to place the index finger` of the same hand on the key 45 and to alternately raise and lower it. By so doing, the valve 39 is opened at the same time the ring 47 is seated, and by this action, as stated, lowers the pitch of the higher note one-half tone in order to produce the C to D-natural passage.
This attachment is an optional appliance, and has been found to operate satisfactorily for producing the aforesaid C to D-natural trill. Heretofore in order to obtain the same 5 result, it was necessary to depress and hold down the C-natural key and to literally jump the hand back and forth in order to alternately depress and open the ordinary D-natural key. This was found to be awkward and the tone not sharply distinguishable because of the peculiar merging effect. Hence the provision of this novel attachment to better accomplish the result.
It will also be appreciated that C-natural valve 48 must be made up of independently operable sections in that it also constitutes the means for producing the tone B-natura-l when the valve` as a unit is closed. It is obvious then that the pad or valve section 49 not only functions as a valve but as a. carrier for the B-natural key against which the index nger of the left hand is placed in making said tone B-natural.
In practice, this valve section 49 is provided with a suitable pearl button or finger piece as is shown for convenience of operation.
I call attention at this time to Figure 1 wherein the numeral 51 designates the side loca-ted E-natural key for controlling the E- natural valve 53 in they upper register. This is carried by the new two-part spring-pressed rockershaft 52 mounted for oscillation in suitable bearings, and in order to unseat the E- natural valve 53 it is necessary to press down on this key 51 in the ordinary manner.
The shaft 52 as before indicated is made up of two parts or sections which are simultaneously oscillated when operated in one direction and separably operable when oscillated in the opposite or reverse direction. The lower section is distinguished by the numeral 52a (see Figure 17) and this has an arm 51oat the lower end carrying the key 51 (not shown). Then as seen in Figure 11, the free end portion 56 of an auxiliary key 55 is engageable beneath this arm for rocking the shaft section 52a in a direction from left to rightin Figure 17.
There is a` rigid bell-crank finger 525 on the upper end of the shaft section 52a which cooperates with an adjacent rocker arm 53b carried by the short shaft section 53a and since the latter section 53a, carries the E- natural valve it is evident that when the key 51 is depressed, this rocks the shaft 52 as a unit through the medium of the parts 52?) and 53?) to lift the E-natural valve 53.
The shaft section 52a also has a peculiarly or suitably shaped presser linger 54 whose terminal located to engage and depress the ring 47. The ring 47 is formed integrally with a. lifting finger 47 b on the sleeve section 47e of an adjacent shaft 62. In fact, the finger 47o is engagea-ble beneath the complement-al operating member 46a for the C-sharp valve 46.
t is evident therefore that by depressing the E-nat-ural key 51 in the usual direction from right to left in Figure 17 both shaft sections 52a and 53a are oscillated as a unit to raise the E-natural valve. Secondly, by depressing the C-natural side key 55 the shaft section 52 alone is oscillatcd in an opposite direction.l that is from left to right in Figure 17.
In so doing the finger 54 depresses and seats the ring 47. In addition, this rocks the sleeve 47 a and complemental finger 471) which in turn actuates the member 46e to simultaneously close the valve 46. The result is that the diameter of the C-natural vent is at this moment decreased and the tone emanating therefrom is C-natural.
By holding down the key 55 and its ring 47 and alternately raising and lowering the valve 49 the passage produced is from B to C as is obvious. It is evident of course that when the valve 49 is seated on the ring 47 the tone is emitted through the B-natural vent. A close observation of Figure 17 will serve to clarify this new action.
It is evident that in making the tone B- natural in the middle register it is necessary to depress the double valve 4S as a. unit. This is done by placing the index linger of the left hand on the valve closure 49 and employing it as a key for the purpose. In accordance with the improved arrangement for producing the tone B-at, it is necessary, of course,
1 remote control for the valve 58.
the nature of an additional or new B-flat keyr 1 62 which has an operating connection at 63 to depress the next lower valve 58.
Sometimes, this is done by sliding the same index finger down to reach and depress the usual small key 59. This is anobjectionable type of fingering, and I therefore provide a This is in designated by the numeral r60.
As seen in Figure 15 and in Figure 19, it is carried by anr arm 61 operatively connected b way of a short rocker arm 62a (a new part with the main unit of the rocker shaft with this valve 58. Thisprovides a smooth trill between B-natural and B-flaty and permits B-llat to be controlled at a remote point by the index finger of the right hand instead of attempting to bridge the gap between the ke s 59 and 49 with the yindex finger of the.` le t hand as would ordinarily be necessary. This is one of the most simple improvements c of the invention constituting the novelty of bank of keys. As before state F-sharp is this application. y
In order to produce a B to `B-flat trill simply depress andchold B-natural and alternately raise and lower the key 6() to operate valve 58.
The next improvementis the control .for` F-sharp mounted on the body of the instrument in line with the Ordinar or master produced on the ordinary saxophone in several different ways, and generally .when rapid manipulation is necessary kor a trill'r necessary, a side trill key (not shown in this case) is provided. In fact, in accordance with the present invention the usual trill ke is'dispensed with entirely, and what I do is to provide a lever 64 having an F-sharp key 65,- said lever kbeing formed as an integral part of a rocker shaft 66 carryingvthe valve 67 (see Figure 14) utilized when properly operated to produce the tone F-sharp.
E-natural by the key 69. Likewise, is produced by the key 70 when all three fingers of the left hand are down. The presence of thlsj new key between the keys 69 and 70 (see Figure 18 in particular) places it in a position for convenient manipulation by the third linger of the right han i f In descending the chromatic scale, such as:
for example, B, A, G-sharp, G-natural, in the usual way with the left hand, it is necessary, in order to produce F-sharp to depress the key 65 with the third finger vof the righty hand. This seats the G-natural valve 67 `as seen in Figure 18, producing thetone F- sharp. In making. a trill from F-natura'l to F-sharp, simply depress the keyr65- and hold 1 `it downwhile alternately raising and lowering the key 68.,
' In yorder to appreciate some ofthe surpass- 'l the ordinary saxophone in hand it will be ob- Itis to be remembered as seen in Figure 1 that' F-natural is produced by the ke 68 and l ing merits of the refinements of myimproved instrument it is really necessary for the reader .to be familiar with the standard or conventional marketed saxophone. Taking `in proper line with the main bank ofkeys.
Near F-natural (middle register) and tov the right of the said main row of keys is a single lever valve and corresponding. vent .known as an F -sharp ktrill keyfor optional use. Further to the rightv of this and in line kwith the high E-natural key are two keys frequently referred to as side trill keys but sometimes used in ordinary execution.
1' One ,of these is a B-ilat key and the other usedin making one of the tones of a passage involving B-natural to C-natural (generally a trill). Needless to say, these side keys are awkwardly misplaced and therefore diiicult of rapid execution. Therefore, I have closed all three of these vents, dispensed with the i valves, levers, shafting etc. In fact,'I put my new F-sharpkey right in line with the main bank, provide a simple duplex valve for maky ing the tones B to C-natural having the additional function of making a rapid-pas- ,f sage from C to D-natural, and simplifying the operation of rB-flat.
- kParticularly do yI emphasize the use of the duplex valve which co-operates with the C- natural vent, for whenthe valve, asaunit, v is closed its presence is not noticed, but when the ring is seated the tone is reduced somewhat, wherebyv to enable the playing of D to C-naturaLetC.l f ',f, A;
Summarizing the revelations of the invention, *five factors are to be remembered. First, the unnecessary jumping and shifting of hands is vovercome by the new lC-natural `andC-sharp arrangement in the low register.
Secondly, the new F -sharp key (middle register) is introduced` asv an" easily yplayable means directly in line with the main bank My improved C to D attachof keys, this being readily operable by the .third fingery ofthe right hand.
Third, the highD-sharp attachment is corporatedin such a manner and position as to permit speedy playing of ,-thectones D- natural tok C-natural using the index and second fingers .of the left hand.' Incidently,
thesel tones vcannot be rapidly :executed on present day saXophones because Ythe hand has to be jumped bodily back and forth.
Fourth, I recall the systematically arranged method and remote control means of making the tones B to B-flat in the middle register.
And fifth, vthe useful duplex valve and operating means for half tone diminishing to allow playing of B-natural to C-Iiatural in time and with dependable skill.
1. A saxophone comprising a tubular body including a conventional bell, the bend of the bell being formed on one side with a D- natural vent and a corresponding valve, the tubing being formed on the opposite side with a C-sliarp vent and a corresponding valve, a lonfritudinally elongated rockably mounted shaft on the tubing provided at its upper end with a C-sharp key, an independent operating connection between the lower end of said shaft and said D-natural valve, said operating connection serving to normally unseat said D-natural valve, a second oscillatory shaft mounted for opeiation within the vicinityl of the bend of said bell, said C-sharp valve being rigidly supported thereon, a. spring operating on said second-named shaft for normally urging said C-sharp valve to open position, a C-natural key carried by said second shaft, said C-natural key being operatively associated with the operating connection for said D-natural valve whereby upon depressing said C-natural key both of said valves will be closed, or by depressing said C-sharp key, the D-natural valve alone will be closed.
2. A saxophone comprising a tubular body including a convention al bell, the bend of said bell being formed at one side with a D- natural vent, ay pair of spaced bearing posts on said body, a shaft mounted for oscillation v between said posts, a-laterally directed finger l carried by the intermediate portion of said shaft and terminating 1n a lug, a spring anchored on one of said posts, and connected at its free end with said shaft, a rigid arml on said shaft, a D-natural valve carried by said arm and co-operable with said D-natural Cil vent, and an elongated shaft mounted on an opposite side of the tubular body for limited oscillation and formed at its upper end with a C-shaip key and provided at its lower end with a laterally directed curved arm whose free end portion is engageable with said lug, said tubing being further provided on a side opposite to said D-natural vent with a C- sharp vent, a third shaft mounted for oscillation on the tubing within the vicinity of said vent, a rigid arm carried by said last- Y named shaft, a C-sharp valve on said arm co-operable with said C-sharp vent, a spring for normally opening said C-sharp valve, aY
lever arm carried by said third shaft and terminatingin a C-natnral key, said lever overvclosing said D-natural vent, a G-sharp valve for closing said C-sharp vent, both of said valves being normally unseated, finger actuated means operable by tlie litt-lefinger of the Vright hand for simultaneously seating said valves and closing said vents, independent finger actuated means for the left hand for separately closing said D-natural valve, and
multiple spring means for automatically uni Seating said valves and permitting the desired single and double action of said valves.
4. A saxophone comprising ay tubular body formed near its upper end with a C-sharp vent, an adjacent C-natural vent, a B-natural vent, and a D-sharp vent, a normally springclosed D-sbaip valve for said D-sharp vent, three independentnormally open valves for closing the B-natural, C-natural and C-sharp vents, said C-natural valve being composed of two sections, the lower section beingr a ring, and the outer section a pad for closing said ring, said sections being independently operable, a C to D-natural trill attachment mounted on said tubing and operatively connected at one end with said D-sharp valve for. lifting it to open position, and formed at its opposite end with a D-natural -trill key overlying said C-sliarp valve and independently engageable with the ring section of said sectional valve, whereby upon closing the C-natuial valve with the second finger of the left hand and depressing said D-natural trill key, said ring section is seated to diminish the pitch of thc D-sharp tone onelialf tone and to permit the playing of a C-natural to D-natural trill,
5. A saxophone comprising a tubuiai body p)rovided on its upper portion with a high -sharp vent, a spring-closed D-sliarp valve co-operable with said von t and formed wth a marginal extension. a pair of supplementary bearing posts on the 'tubing near said valve, a rock-shaft mounted for oscillation between said bearing pk s and provided at its upper end with a lifting finger underlying said extension, said shaft being formed at its opposite end with a D-natural trill ke),v operable by the little linger of the left hand, a C-sharp vent underlying said tiill key. a C-sharp valve co-operable with said vent. a C-natural vent adjacent to said C-sliarp vent, a duplex C-natural valve co-operable with the C-natural vent and including an inner ring sectionand an outer pad section for closing the ring section, said yD-nat'uraltrill key bein engageable with the adjacent 'por-v tion of t e ring section'independent of the y pad'section wherebyr when said trill key is depressed and said ring section seated von the C-natural vent, the consequent' tone being that ofD-natural. f
6. A C-natural to D-natural trill attachment for a saxophone'comprising a pair of auxiliary bearing posts, a rocker shaft mounted. for oscillation between said posts, a curvate lifting arm on one end of the yshaft having its free end adapted to engage and unseat a conventional D-sharp valve, said shaft being provided at its opposite end s with an g integral arm carrying a trill key, and an assoe ciated duplex valve for co-operation with said trill key, comprising an inner ring adapted for co-operation with a C-natural vent,
and an outer pad for closing said ring, said pad havingr the additional function of carrying a B-natural key, and said ring co-operating with said C-natural ventl in diminishing the pitch of the tone, the trill key being cooperable with the ring section for momentarily seating it.
7 A saxophone comprising a tubular bodyl e formed adjacent its lower portion with longitudin ally alined vents for producing the tones G-natural, F-sharp, F-natural and E-natural, a plurality4 of corresponding valves for said vents, said F-sharp valve being provided with an F-natural key, said F-natural valve being provided with an E-natural key, said E-natural valvebeing provided with an E? natural key, an F-sharp key located between;
the E and D keys and operatively connected with said G-natural valve for independently closing said valve at leisure tofproduce ythe tone F-sharp when the F -sharp valve is opened, or to produce an F-natural to F- sharp trill when the corresponding keys arel operated in proper succession.
8. A saxophone comprising a tubular body formed adjacent its lower portion with longitudinally alined vents for producing thetones G-natural, F-sharp, F -natural and E-natural, a plurality of corresponding valves for said vents, said F-sharp valve being provided with an F-natural key, said F -naturalvalve being provided with an E-natural key, said E-natural valve being provided with a. D-
natural key, an F-sharp key located betweenY the E and D keys and operatively connected with said G-natural valve for independently closing said valves at leisure to produce the tone F-sharp when the F-sharp valve is'A opened, or to produce an F-natural to F- sharp trill when the corresponding keys are operated in proper succession, all of said keys being arranged in substantial longitudinal alineinent in the standard key bank so as to permit the additional F-sharp key to be conveniently manipulated with the third fingerl of the right hand.
9. A saxophone comprising a tubular body provided with longitudinally spaced vents, a normally opennger closed valve co-operable with one of said vents for producing the tone B-na'tural, said valve being provided with ya B-natural key, and adjacent independently operable valve for closing the next adj acent vent for producing B-flat, a rockshaft mounted onl the body and operably connected with said second-named valve, said rocker yshaft being provided at its lower end with a B-lat key adapted to be manipulated by a finger of the right hand, wherebyfto provide aside remote controlv for said second-named .valve to lpermit a B-naturalto B-Hat trill.
10'. A saxophone comprising a tubular body, a rock-shaft Amounted between said posts, said rock-shaft being provided at its upper end with an arm rigidly connected to said B-iat valve, anda B-lat key for operating said shaft, said B-lat key being located on'the right handside of the intermediate portion of the body-of the instrument tok be controlled by the right hand, so as to provide a remote trill key ypermitting a trill from B- natural tov B-lat by depressing and holdin frv the B-natural key and alternately raising an lowering said B-lat key.
e 11. A saxophone comprising a tubular body provided on its upper portion with an E- naturalvent, an E-natural valve for closing saidevent, aV two-partfrocker shaft mounted in bearings on said body, Asaid E-natural valve being operatively. connected with the upperpart Vof said shaft,an E-natural key on the lower` end of said shaft for operating said E- natural valve, the lower section of ksaid shaft being rotatable in unison with the upper section when the E-natural kkey is depressed, a pivotally mounted C t0 B-natural trill ykey mounted withinthe vicinity. of fsaid E-natural key and operativelyk connected with the lower section of said shaft for rotating said lowerv section in a direction opposite to its normal direction'of rotation, said tubular body being provided on its upper portion withy three vents, a pair of valves co-operable with said vents, a third valvey co-operable withthe remaining vent, andan associated yC-natural key co-operable with saidthird valve, theintermediate valve being a duplex valveand including an inner ring co-operable with the underlying vent, and
an outer pad, the last-named sectionvof said sha-ft being provided with a presser finger to decrease the size. o the port of said vent, whereby by depressing and holding said ring down and alternately raising and lowering said oute pad, it is possible to produce a trill from B-natural to C-natural.
12. A saxophone comprising a tubular body provided with a pair of longitudinally spaced ports, a valve for closing the lowermost port, a C-natural key associated with said valve for depressing it, a duplex valve associated with the uppermost vent, said duplex valve including an inner ring for diminishing the orifice of said vent, and a pad for closing said ring, an adjacent presser finger for seating said ring against its vent, and al remote control key operable by the right hand for seating and unseating the ring, whereby by holding said C-natural key down and alternating the open and closed position of said pad, it'is possible to produce a trill between C-natural and B-natural.
13. In a saxophone of the class described, a. tubular body provided on its upper portion with an E-natural vent and further provided on its frontal portion below said vent with a C-sharp vent, a C-natural vent, and a'B-nat ural vent, a pair of longitudinallyfspaced bearing posts on said body, a rocker shaft mounted between said posts, and including an upper section provided with a rigidly mounted E-natural valve for closing said E- natural vent and a rocker arm, a lower shaft section provided at its lower end with a rigid E-natural key and formed at its upper end with a substantially L-shaped finger for engaging and operating said rocker arm when said E-natural key is depressed, a pivotally mounted C-natural trill key on said body engageable with said lower shaft section for oscillating it independently in a direction opposite to said upper. shaft section, a C-sharp valve for closing said C-sharp vent, an operating member rockably supported from said body, a. ring co-operable with said C-natural vent 'for temporarily and proportionately reducing the orifice thereof, an independently operable closure for said ring-like member, said ring-like memberhaving operating connection with the C-sharp valve, a presser finger carried by the lower shaft sectiorrand engageable with said ring-like member, whereby when said G-natural trillA key is'depressed, said lower shaitt section is oscillated in a direction to simultaneously seattheringlike member and close the C-sharp vent to produce the tone C-natural through the opening of said ring-like member, and whereby when said closure is operated against the ring-like member an alternating passage between C-natural and B-natural is playable.
le. In a saxophone, a tubularibody'provided with a @sharp vent, a B-natural vent, and an intervening C-natural vent, a ring closure co-operable with said Cnatural vent,
z. an independently operable--valve co-oper- 4able with said ring closure, a remote control for. said ring member including a C-natural