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Publication numberUS1873944 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 23, 1932
Filing dateOct 12, 1931
Priority dateOct 12, 1931
Publication numberUS 1873944 A, US 1873944A, US-A-1873944, US1873944 A, US1873944A
InventorsBlack James E
Original AssigneeBlack Systems Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building covering
US 1873944 A
Images(4)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 23, 1932. J 5, BLACK 1,873,944

BUILDING COVERING Filed 001:. 12, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet l Aug. 23, 1932. BLACK 1,873,944

BUILDING COVERING Filed Oct. 12, 193] 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Aug. 23, 1932. .J. E. BLACK BUILDING COVERING Filed 051;. 12, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 wear {72:95 fjjlad Aug. 23, 1932. J. E. BLACK BUILDING COVERING Filed Oct. 12. 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 7 If Q J6- amt Au ..23, 1932 UNITED STATES was mam oFFics JAMES E. BLACK, 'OF. EAST ORANGE, JERSEY, ASSIGN'OR TO BLACK SYSTEMS, INC.,

0! CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, A COREOZRATION OF ILLINOIS nornnnm comma Application filed October 12, 1931. Serial No. 568,284.

My invention relates'to building cover-' ings. That is, to the protective and decorative weatherproof coverings which are applied to the roofs and outer side walls of buildings, usually in theiform of individual or multiple un1ts--generally called shlnglesor in strips. In some forms the strip covering units are commonly termed roll roofing.

The invention has particular reference to the anchorage upon building roo'fs or side walls of flexible units, such as those. formed from the various well known varieties of prepared sheet roofing material. Such material, as now generally used, comprises asphaltum impregnated paper'stock or felt which is sometimesprovided on one surface with a protective and decorative coating'of crushed stone or other resistant material and sometimes used plain.

One of the difliculties encountered in the use of such units of flexible material is that,

of adequately anchoring the butt or exposed end. Metal anchorages, such as ordinary roofing nails, are the most satisfactory from the standpoint of security and expense but their use without exposing the metal to the elements-sun and moisture-is a troublesome problem. i

Various methods and arrangements for concealing and protecting metallic butt-anchorages have been developed, but those which are satisfactory from a maintenance standpoint are either too expensive to produce or install or too difiicult to handle with unskilled labor to permit them being adapted on the cheaper installations One of the objects of my invention is to provide a building covering which is inexpensive to produce and apply and yet the metallic butt-anchorages are concealed and protected against the action of the elements.

Another object is to provide a covering composed of simple, attractive and, in general, conventional forms and styles of units which, however, may be'securely and cheaply anchored adjacent thebutt or exposed edge with ordinary roofing nails without the nails showing.

Another object is to provide a cheap and shown wherein ,Fig.. 1 is a front view of a unit of conventional rectangular shape as I would prefer to produce and supply it for application in accordance with my invention;

Fig. 2 is a similar view of the same unit with the lowercorner removed to provide the exposed or butt edges for the conventional hexagonalidesigncovering and the key for covering the butt-anchoring nail;

, Fig. 3 is a front view of a section of covering composed of units such as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 anchored in accordance with my invention;

Fi 4 isa phantom perspective view, partly in section, ofa unit with its butt anchored and the tip slightly elevated to illustrate how the key is applied from the rear and retained and how it functions;

Fig. 5 is a front view of'a section of cavering composed of strip units anchored according .to myinvention and wherein the anwchorage covering keys are applied from the tion ofa u'nit'in the form of a strip, such as is particularly appropriate for slde walls, and of the anchorage covering key! also in strip form; Fig. 10 is a front view,in reduced scale, of a section of covering composed of strips such as shown in Fig.9;

Fig. 11 is a perspective view illustrating the application of strip units and keys shown in Fig. 9 to produce the efiect or design shown in Fig. 10

Fig. 12 is a perspective view illustrating a different method of applying strip covering units;

Fig. 13 is a perspective View, in reduced scale, of a strip unit adapted for application as shown in Fig. 12;

" Fig. 14. is a' front view, in reduced scale, of the design produced by the application of strip units such as shown in Fig. 13 in accordance with the method illustrated in Fig. 12; I g

Fig-15 is a front view of a modified form of unit, particularly adapted for side wall covering, in the application of which a part of an adjacent unit forms the key for concealing the butt anchoring nail;

Fig. 16 is a front view of an assembly of two such units to illustrate, how a part of one conceals the butt-anchorage of the, other;

Fig. 17 is an enlarged perspective view, partly in section, illustrating further how a part of one unit acts as a key to conceal the butt-anchorage of an adjacent unit;

Fig. 18 is a front view, in reduced scale, of a section of covering formed from units such as illustrated in Figs. 15 and 16;

19 is a front view of another modification, particularly adapted for the anchorage of strip units when they are laid vertically; and

I, Fig. 20 is a perspective and partial section, on an enlarged scale, illustratin the applica} tion of units to produce thee ectshown in' Fig. 19. v

The term unit as heretofore and hereinafter employed embraces all of the usual basic forms of building coverings, such as individual, multipleand strip shingles, so called roll roofing and siding.

Referring first to Figs. 1 to 4 the unit 5 comprises a rectangular sheet of fiexible prepared roofing material, which, in the embodiment illustrated, is adapted to have its lower corner removed so that it may be laid to produce the conventional hexagonal design on the building. The removed corner constitutes the key for concealing the butt anchoring nail, as will be hereinafter described. Thus, as produced and supplied to thetrade the lower corner 6 is in place, asshownin Fig. 1, but by a series of cuts or indentations 7 it is rendered readily separable from the body. Whenthe corner is removed the body edge 8 forms the butt edge of the applied unit as shown in Figs; 3 and 4. An opening9 is cut through the unit near the; butt edge 8 in such a way as to provide a tongue 10 the upper end of which is free and the lower end of which is inte l with the unit body. Thus,as illustrate this opening may be composed. of two 'angularly related slits 11 and 12 diverging downwardly and outwardly and serve to facilitate the application of. the .key and to prevent the tearing of the unitby the key. In' this manner the opening through a Y the shingle provides a tongue, adjacent the butt edge, through. which a nail 15 maybe driven to anchor the butt of the unit firmly to'the building framework. This nail when applied isexposed but,-since it firmly holds down the tongue, theraising of the rear or tip end of the body ofthe unit separates the tongue from the rest of the unit body along the lines of the slits. 11 and 12 and thereby forms a hole through the unit. This hole permits the triangular key 6, after being slipped behind or underneath the unit, to be inserted outwardly through the opening therein and above the tongue to cover the nail. By making the distance separating the shoulder forming slits 13 and l l sufiiciently less than the maximum width of the triangular key, the key may be forced through the opening in the body of' the unit sufiiciently far adequately to cover the'nail and yet not so far but what the upper end thereof will lie above and behind the. apex of the opening.

laid flat and anchored down the key can not be displaced by any of the usual forces which act on the covering, such as wind, contraction and expansion and the like.

In laying a covering composed of units such as just described the usual starting strip 16, ordinarily composed of material similar to the, units, may first be nailed in position at the eave ofthe roof or base of the wall. Then the first or lowest horizontal course of units is applied at the properly spaced intervals for the desired design. Each unit is located and then a nail driven through its tongue 10 into the framework. When a unit has been this anchored at the butt the tip is elevated and, since the tongue is held down by the nail, a triangular hole, defined by slits 11 and 12, is temporarily opened in the unit. Next the triangular key 6, which previously has been separated from the unit by tearing the same therefrom along the perforated line 7, is slipped behind the unit and forced from the rear out'through the hole therein and above the tongue until its diverging edges firmly engage the shoulders formed by slits 13 and 14. In this position the key, which lies on top of the tongue, covers the butt-anchoring nail. The unit may now be laid fiat and its tip end anchored by nails driven therethrough within the area which will be cov When the tip of the unit is subsequently ered by the overlapping units of the next course. Thus each unit is securely anchored not only at its concealed tip end but also exposed or butt end of the unit is not desired the key may be provided by locating the severing perforations so as to eifect the removal of the corner opposite the tongue forming opening. This tip region of the unit may be so far overlapped by the succeeding'course :unitsthat the removal of the upper concealed 'cornerwill do no harm. Likewise, if desired,

one or more tongue forming openings may be located adjacent one of the longer edges of the unit, in which event that edge will form the butt edge, while'the keysmay be provided by forming angularly related sets of separating perforations along the opposite tip or concealed edge. It is not necessary, however that the keys be formed initially as a part of the units as they ma be produced separately.

The provision 0 unitswhich, as made, handled, packed, shipped and stored, are complete flat rectangles or other symmetrical shapes simplifies the marketing problem because they may be packaged easily, quickly and inexpensively. There are no irregularities in thickness, or projecting shoulders or other peculiarties which, unless special precautions are taken, tend to'injure the adjacent units in the package. The making of the key integrally with the body and attached thereto until u'sed-although readily separated when occasion requires'also simplifies themarket ing problem. It is not necessary to take precautions to insure that the customer receives the requisite keysthey are always there with the units.

Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate an arrangementwhereby the butt-anchorage covering key.

may be inserted from the front rather than from the rear of the unit. Such a capability may be of special advantage incases where, for one reason or another, itis necessary 0: desirable to employ strip units so wide that it is inconvenient to reach down behind them properly to place the keys. With this arrangement the units 20, which are illustrated as long strips of the flexible weatherproof material, are provided withopeningsnear the lower edge to form from the strlp as many anchoring tongues as desired, spaced at such intervals as to insureadequate anchoring of that butt or exposed edge. These openings are formed by cutting angularly related andjoined slits 21 and 22 wherever an opening is desired. These slits define upthe building framework. The body of the wardly pointed triangular shaped tongues 23 (most clearly shown in Fig. 6) for receiving the anchoring nails 24, which are driven therethrough into the building framework. Thus the butt edges of. the units are securely anchored down to the building. Following the application of the anchoring nail a small key 25 is inserted from the front of the unit into the opening formed by slits 21 and 22 and, lying over the tongue covers the nail. 75 The keys are preferably formed from the same material as the units and of such size and shape that they maybe readily inserted from the front, will adequately cover the nails therebeneath and will retain themselves "imposition after insertion.

suitable form of key is shown in full perspective at the right in Fig. 6. This key is of generally keystone shape, preferably somewhat pointed at the top to facilitate-its insertion through the opening therefor in the unit body. The lower end is shown pointed for appearance sake only. 'In its mil region the key is formed with two laterally related notches 26 which give it, between 39 those notches, a width slightly less than the I distance between the lower ends of slits 21 and 22. 7

Above and below the notches the width of the keyis slightly greater than the distance between the lower ends of slits 21 and 22. Thus, by slightly-bending the key longitudinally, it maybe temporarily narrowed for insertion through the unit from the front. It is pushed through the opening until its notches 26 register with the base of the tongue 23 whereupon, by slightpressure against the'front side, it may be flattened out to its original width. When flattened the shoulders above and below the notches 26 will engage the edges of the tongue form'- ing opening through the unit and the key is secured against accidental displacement. A

Assuming that the laying of a covering with this style of unit and key is to proceed upwardly from left to right the workman first positions the lower left hand unite-or a convenient length thereof-and applies nails through one or more of the tongues 23 into unit and its anchored tongues then lie flat in the same plane. Then the workman, by pushing downwardly upon the unsecured upper edge of the unit causes the same to bend or flex outwardly away from the wall. as shown at the right in Fig. 6. However. since the anchored tongues cannot follow the curvature of the body of the unit the upper free end of each is separated from the body and a relatively unobstructed hole through the unit is temporarily'opened for the application of the key. A key, slightly bent as previously described, is then pushed upwardly through this opening until its notches 26 register with the base of the tongue. The key is then in position to permanently cover the nail; it is flattened out and the unit is permitted to resume or is pushed back into its original-flat condition and anchored along its upper or top edge in aregion which will be covered by the butt of a unit of the succeeding course. lVhen the unit resumes its flat condition the hole therethrough is effectively closed by the key. This procedure is repeated throughout the layingof the first and succeeding courses until the entire area is covered.

Figs. 7 and 8 show a slightly modified arrangement for key application from the 35 front, wherein it is unnecessary to flex the units to facilitate the positioning of the keys. In accordance with this modification the upwardly pointed tongues 27 are formed in the units as previously described. Keys 28 of substantially U shape are used. The yoke 29 ofthe key forms the nail covering while the legs 30 aflord ready handleszfor applying it. The distance between the legs is somewhat greater than the width of the base of the tongue of a unit while the yoke of the key is made deeper than the length of the tongue so that, when in final position, it will extend above the apex of the opening through the unit, as indicated at the left in Fig. 7.

In using this construction a key is placed beneath the unit with its yoke 29 above the location of the point of an overlying tongue and withits legs at opposite-sides of the tongue as shown at the right in Fig. 7 Then the anchoring nail is driven through the tongue into the building framework. The head of'the nail will draw the free end of the tongue inwardly between the legs of the key and against the building,but, because of the interposed key, the body of the unit can not ollow the tongue. The result is that the upper free end of the tongue will be drawn inwardly out of the plane of the adjacent parts of the unit and the key then may be drawn down over the tongue to cover'the nail, as shown at the left in Fig. 7.. The key is then forced into final position by pulling downwardly upon its legs, which are made long enough to project below the lower or butt edge of the unit so that they may be easily grasped. After the key has been tightly wedged between the tongue and body of the unit a further pull will separate the legs from the yoke and the keywill not project below the lower or butt edge of the unit. Such separation may be facilitated by provlding lines of relative weakness 31 in the region where the legs join the yoke. Indentations or partial cuts will insure the desired result.

Figs. 9 to 11 show how keys in the formof stripsmay be used to cover the anchoring nails and also afford an appearance of mortar joints in simulation of brick work. In

this type of construction the units 35 are in the form of strips of any appropriate length. The anchorage receiving tongues are formed therein by providing openings in the-form of pairs of vertical parallel slits 36 interconnected by horizontal slits 37. The lower ends of slits 36 terminate above the. lower or butt edge ofthe unit and therefore provide a plurality of tongues 38, the upper ends of whlch are free and the lower ends of which are integral with the body of the unit; The number of and spacing between tongues may be varied to suit the particular conditions to be met. In order toafford the appearance of mortar joints and brickwork the lower edges of the units are handed with a stripe 39 colored, in any desired manner, to give the requisite contrastor color-in simulation of mortar. The lower ends of the vertical slits terminate at or slightly below the upper slightly from its tongues. Next the key strip.

is placed behind the body of the unit and over or in front of the tongues and the unit is laid back against the framework and nailed thereto along the upper edge in a regionwhich will be" covered by the unit of the next succeeding'course. The key strip therefore serves not only to cover and-conceal thebutt anchorages of the units but also to provide the vertical bands of contrasting color which simulate the vertical mortar joints of brickwork. By having the bases of the tongues join the'body of the unit .at or slightly below the upper edge of the band of contrasting color along its butt, it is assured that there will be the proper registration to simulate brickwork when the key strip hasbeen wedged down against the bases of the tongues. Figs.12 and 14 sliow an arrangement using astrip key of contrasting appearance to provide alternately different areas of about the same size. Here the unit 45 of strip form has its vertical tongue-forming slits 46, which are interconnected by horizontal slits 47, spaced further apart so that alternatep areas of the unit and a contrasting key strip 48 are exposed. The paired vertical slits 46 and associated interconnecting horizontal slits 47 form relatively wide tongues 49 through which the anchoring nails 50 are driven and over which lay relatively wide sections oftlie key strip to cover and conceal the nails and provide corresponding areas of a different shade, color or other contrasting effect.

Figs. to 17 show how a part of one unit 6 may act as the anchor concealing key for an adjacent unit. Accordingto. this arrangement each unit 55 has, a tongue forming opening adjacent one end. This opening is produced by angularly related'slits 56 and 57 10 which define an upwardly pointed triangular shaped tongue 58 for receiving the'buttanchorage.- The opposite corner of the unit is cut away to form a notch 59 which permits that end of the unit to be inserted behind the opposite'tongued end of the adjacent unit in the same course but with the tongue of the adjacent unit at the left covered thereby. In

applying this construction of covering to aoverlie the tongue of unit a, and serve as the key covering the nail, and to wedge between that tongue and the body thereof so that its left edge is anchored in place by the overlying unit in the same course. The laying of subsequent units in the same and following courses prooeeds in the same way, the tip edges thereof being nailed to the framework in regions which .will be covered by the units of the next higher course. To prevent the tearing ofthe units at the ends of the tongue forming slits, those slits ,may. be caused to terminate in slightly enlarged holes 61 which will serve the desired purpose.

Figs. 19 and 20 show a modification particularly adapted for concealing the anchorages when units are applied in vertically. disposed strips. Each unit 65 has tongue forming openings arranged along one edge. These openings are in the form of slits 66 which extend from one edge (the left edge in the units shown) inwardly a'suflicient distance to accommodate the keys. Eachkey 67 1s a separate rectangularly shaped piece of material like the material composing the units. These slits form a series of tongues 68 along the edge of the unit and through" which the anchoring nails 69 are driven into the framework. In applying this type of unit the placement of the anchorages proceeds from the bottom upwardly. Thus a nail is driven through the lowermost tongue to anchor it to the building. Then a key 67 is applied edgewise about midway of its length into the lowermost slit-.66, the upper part of the key lying beneath the tongue immediately above the one just anchored and the lowerqpart thereof overlying the tongue just anchored and covering the nail. Next a nail is driven through the second tongue fromthe bottom and through the upper part of the key therebehind into the building'framework, -This second nail anchors the second tongue and also the first key. This procedure is repeated until the entire strip is secured. By overlapping the unslitted. edge of a unit by the slitted edge of the adjacent unit one vertical row of anchoring nails will serve to anchor the adjoining edges of two units.

Having thus explained the nature and several typical embodiments of my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by United States Letters Patent is as follows:

1 A building covering comprising a plurahty of units, each consisting of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material provided with an opening which forms a tongue within the boundaries of the units near the butt edge thereof, a metal anchor applied through each tongue from the exposed face thereof and into the building framework, and a key of ma.- terial like the unit overlying each tongue to cover the anchorage.

2. A building covering comprising a plurality of units, each consisting of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material provided with an opening which forms a tongue free of the body of the unit at one end but integral with the body of the unit at the other end, a metal anchorage applied through each tonguefrom the exposed side of the unit and into the building framework, and a key of material like the unit overlying each tongue to cover the anchorage. I

3. A building covering comprising a plurality of units, each consisting of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material having slits therethrough to form atongue near the butt edge thereof within the boundaries of theunit, a metal anchorage applied through each tongue from the exposed side thereof and'into, the building framework to attach individually the butt of each unit to the framework, and a key of material like the unit overlying each tongue to cover the anchorage thereof.

4. A building covering'comprising a plurality of units, each consisting of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material having an opening therethrough which forms atongue within the boundaries of the unit near the butt edge thereof, each tongue being free of the unit at one end and integral with the unit at the other end, a metal anchorage applied through each tongue into the building framework, and a key of material like the unit lying behind the body, of the unit and over the I plementary slits to form a tongue from the opening therethrough which forms a tongue within the boundaries of the unit near the butt edge thereof, a metal anchorage applied through each tongue from the front surface thereof and into the building frame work, and a key of material like the unit insertable into the'tongue forming opening of each unit to cover the anchorage and held in place by the edges of said opening.

7. A building covering comprising a plurality of units, each consisting of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material having diverging slits therein to form a triangular shaped tongue near the butt edge thereof, a metal anchorage applied through each tongue to secure the same to the building, and a key of material like the unit insertable through the hole in the unit defined by the tongue to overlie the tongue and cover the metal anchorage.

8. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible weatherproof materialhaving complementary slits therein to form a tongue which may be anchored to the framework to hold the unit thereto, and having a readily removable portion which forms a key to overlie the tongue. and cover the anchorage.

9. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible weatherproof material having complementary slits therethrough to form an anchorage receiving tongue within the boundaries of the unit, and having a readily removable portion which may be detached and used to complete the finished appearance of the unit when laid.

10. A building covering unit composed of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material havlng complementary slits therethrough to form a triangular anchorage receiving tongue which may be freed from the body of the unit at one end but at the other end is permanently integral with the body of the unit near an edge thereof, and having one corner readily removable so that it may be detached and used to cooperate with the slits to cover the tongue and its anchorage.

11. The combination with a'building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible weatherproof material having within its boundaries an anchorage receiving tongue which may be partly separated from the unit to form an opening therethrough, and a metal anchorage applied through the tongue to assist in securing the unit to a building framework, of a key composed of material edge, said slits forming a tongue which at one end is integral with the sheet near the butt thereof and at the opposite end separable from thesheet, a metal anchorage applied through' each tongue to secure the same and the butt of the corresponding unit to the underlying building framework, and a key composed of material like the unit insertable through the hole in the unit left by the separation of the tongue to overlie the tongue and cover the anchorage.

13. A building covering comprising a plurality of units, each consisting of flexible weatherproof material having an exposed butt edge and a group of slits therethrough diverging toward but terminatingshort of the butt. edge, said slits forming a pointed tongue which at its larger end is integral with the sheet near the butt thereof and at its pointed end is separable from the sheet, a metal anchorage applied through each tongue into the underlying building framework to secure thereto the tongue and the butt of the corresponding unit and a key composed of material like the unit insertablethrough and engaged by the edges of the hole through the unit left by the separation of the point of the tongue to overlie the tongue and cover the anchorage thereof.

14. A building covering comprising a plurality of units, each consisting of a sheet of flexible weatherproof material provided with an opening therethrough, a metal anchor applied through each unit near the opening therethrough and into the building framework, and a key of material like the unit projecting through and held in place by the edges of the opening through the unit and overlying the anchorage to conceal andprotect the same against weather. 1

In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name this 6 day of October, 1931.

JAMES E. BLACK.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2991592 *Dec 31, 1956Jul 11, 1961Rauen Math WMetal siding with integral nailing tabs
US3921358 *Nov 15, 1974Nov 25, 1975Gaf CorpComposite shingle
US5426902 *Jun 10, 1991Jun 27, 1995Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US5660014 *Feb 10, 1995Aug 26, 1997Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US5901517 *May 9, 1997May 11, 1999Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6195951Nov 17, 1998Mar 6, 2001Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6305138Oct 18, 2000Oct 23, 2001Certainteed Corp.Composite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6523316Oct 23, 2001Feb 25, 2003CertainteedComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US20120066984 *Sep 19, 2011Mar 22, 2012Thompson Michael JRoofing system and method thereof
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/543, 52/559
International ClassificationE04D1/22, E04D1/12
Cooperative ClassificationE04D1/22, E04D1/125
European ClassificationE04D1/12D, E04D1/22