US 1876667 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 13,1932. GUNNlSON 1,876,667
CHANDELI ER Filed Jan. 15, 1930 M ZINVENITORT ATTORNEYJ Patented Sept. 13, 1932 PATENT OFFICE FOSTER GUN'NISON,
OF BRONXVILLE, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR T0 COX, NOSTRAND AND GUNNISON, INC., A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK cmivnamna Application filed January 15, 1930. Serial No. 420,837.
This invention relates to lighting fixtures and has particular reference to chandel1ers of the reflecting or indirect lighting type.
The principal object of this ElIlVtEIltlOIl s to provide a chandelier which is simple 1n construction, lnexpensive to manufacture,
and one which presents a pleasing appearance, efficient and effective illumination, and which diffuses light in all directions and so that no shadow is cast. This and other objects of this invention are obtained in a preferred embodiment comprising a plurality of polished annular rings of generally conical section and progressively increasing diameters mounted in spaced relation upon a stra pframe suspended from a hanger, which is fitted with a socket for the insertion of an electric light bulb. The bulb is suspended within the generally cone-shaped chandelier thus formed, the light from this bulb being reflected from the top surface of each ring upon the bottom surface of the next higher ring to be then deflected downwardly and outwardly without glare and without direct rays from the bulb.
The new chandelier, constructed in the manner described, is rigid and strong, and the scope of its use is wide. For example, if illumination of high candlepower is desired, a large bulb is employed with, the maximum number of effective reflecting rings, and when a smaller bulb of less intensity is employed, a fewer number of reflecting rings is used. Thus the same chandelier may be employed to .suit different requirements, whereby a most desirable situation is obtained wherein a small number of the same parts are supplied for assembling chandeliers of all sizes and to suit any requirement.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference is made to the accompanying drawing, in which Figure 1 is an axial section of the chandelier of this invention as seen along the line 11 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 2 is an exterior view of the same; and
Fig. 3 is a cross-section taken along the line 33 of Fig. 1 and illustrating the manner of assembling the parts of the chandlelier.
In this drawing, numeral 10 designates a triangular block of metal upon the flat sides of whichare soldered or otherwise secured the three metal straps 11. A tap screw 12 secures the decorative metal tassel 13 to the bottom of block 10, this tassel 13 being preferably nickel plated or otherwise finished.
The straps 11 are stepped at properly spaced intervals, as at points 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, to receive the reflectors in slightly overlapping relation, and these steps are provided with apertures for receiving screws, rivets, or other fastening members, except thatthe top end step 18 is tapped for the reception of chain ring 19. Although three straps 11 have been illustrated and described as a convenient and effective number for making a rigid chandelier structure, any number of such straps may be employed.
Supported upon the flange oftassel 13and encircling block 10 and the bottom ends of straps 11 is the bottom cone 20 preferably spun of sheet aluminum or formed of other suitable material. This bottom cone 20 may be uncoated and polished, or wholly or partly coated with enamel or other material which is in turn polished to varying degrees. In a preferred form, the outside surface of metal cone 20 is enameled to provide a light-colored matte surface, and the inner surface is enameled in very light color and is highly polished, and the outer bead or rim B is left uncoated, and the metal surface thereof is highly polifshed to provide a mirror-like reflecting surace.
Secured at their inner or lower edges by screws or the like to successive steps 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of straps 11 are the annular reflector rings 21, 22, 23, 24 and. 25, respectively. These reflector rings increase progressively in'size from ring 21 to ring 25, and their spacing upon straps 11 increases in proportion to their size, i. e., the spacing between upper reflector rings 24 and 25 is greater than that between lower rings 20 and 21. Also, the spacing of the reflector is such that the lower edge of each lies slightly below the upper edge of the reflector next below, so that no direct rays of light emerge from the chandelier.
These reflector rlngs 21 to 25 inclusive, like bottom cone 20, are preferably spun to shape from sheet aluminum, and are provided with polished enamel inner surfaces, matte enamel outer surfaces, and polished metal beads or rims. The generally frustro-conical shape of these reflector rings makes them individually rigid. and strong although, because of the thin gauge sheet metal of which they are formed, they are very light. The rolled or curled beads or rims B at their outer edges make these reflector rings especially strong at this point in addition to providing a finish for the edge, and also procure a novel illuminating effect which will be described later.
The chain rings 19 at the upper ends of straps 11 are preferably threaded into the lower rim of ,top reflector ring 25, whereby they serve a double purpose as chain rings and fastening means between straps 11 and reflector ring 25. To these chain rings 19 are secured the three chains 26 whose opposite ends are secured to chain hooks 27 mounted upon the lower end of hanger 28, which is suspended from the ceiling in the usual way.
The electric light bulb 29 is screwed into socket 30 of hanger 28 and is positioned in the center of the conical structure formed by the reflector rings 20 to 25, inclusive, arranged as described. The rays of light issuin from the bulb 29 are reflected from the poTshed inner surfaces of the reflector rings to the matte outer surfaces of the next higher rings as indicated by the arrow in Fig. 1, in connection with reflector rings 22 and 23. The same light reflecting action takes place on the other reflector rings except that the light reflected from the top surface of upper ring 25 does not impinge upon another reflecting surface of the chandelier, but is directed upwardly and outwardly, nor are any rays of light directly reflected from the under surface of bottom cone reflector 20.
It will be seen that the angles of incidence and reflection of the rays of light from source 29 increase from the lower cone reflector 20 to the upper'ring reflector 25, i. e., the light issuing from the chandelier is directed in all angular directions to produce complete and uniform diffusion of the light. Thus no glare is produced, nor are any shadows cast. As shown in Fig. 2, the several reflectors are arranged rigidly in parallel relation, the lower edge of each reflector being slightly below the upper edge of the next lower reflector, whereby a symmetrical and pleasing chandelier structure is obtained and the interior construction and lamp are hidden from view, so that no direct rays of light emerge from the lamp between the reflectors.
The highly polished metal beads or rims B of the reflectors 21 to 25 and bottom cone 20 diffuse the light issuing between the reflectors in such a way that the matte outer'surface of the reflector next above will appear to be luminous. This adjacent arrangement of surfaces having a different surface polish creates a shading effect not heretofore obtained and makes the metal chandelier appear to be made of glass without involving the objectionable eatures of glass. The louvre-like arrangement of the reflectors provides a flue through which air may freely circulate, a certain amount of air circulation being in-- duced by the heat of the light bulb 29, whereby the settling of dust on the reflecting surfaces is diminished.
As illustrated in Fig. 1, the chandelier is arranged for a high candlepower source of illumination, such as a 500- or 1000-watt incandescent bulb 29, and substantially the maximum number of reflectors, namely six, are employed,'whereby the most eflicient and effective illumination is procured. When a smaller chandelier of less candlepower is desired, the upper reflector ring 25 may be omitted and a smaller incandescent bulb, say 300 watt, is employed. In this arrangement, the supporting straps 11 are shortened to steps 17, and the light bulb 31 lies in the position shown in phantom in Fig. l, the chandelier then having five reflectors, reflector ring 24 being the top one. Similarly, when a smaller bulb 32, say 200 watt, is employed, the straps 11 are shortened to step 16 and reflector ring 23 is the top one, and when a still smaller bulb 33, say 150 watt, is em ployed, straps 11 are shortened to steps 15 and reflector ring 22 is the top one. Thus, the same set of parts may be employed for making either large or small chandeliers for greater or less illumination.
It will therefore be seen that this invention provides a chandelier which is effective and eflicient, and whose scope of use is wide because of the arrangement and duplication of parts. While a preferred embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described herein, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereby, but is susceptible of many variations in form and detail within its scope.
1. In a lighting fixture, the combination of a plurality of like annular reflectors of sizes progressively increasing from bottom to top, a plurality of straps connecting said reflectors together at their inner edges in spaced relation to form a hollow conical structure, means securing the converging lower ends of the straps together, a member on said means supporting an additional reflector independently of the straps, a hanger, a plurality of members connecting this structure to said hanger, and a source of light mounted within the central portion of this structure.
2. In alighting fixture the combination of a plurality of annular reflectors of progres-.
sively increasing; sizes secured together in spaced relation, and a source of light within these reflectors, the outer edges of these reflectors being curled downwardly and having relatively high reflectivity, and the lower surfaces of these reflectors having a matte finish of relatively low reflectivity.
3., In a lighting fixture, the combination of a plurality of annular reflectors of progresssively increasing sizes secured to ether n spaced, relation, and a source of lig t withm the conical structure formed by said reflectors, the outer edges of said reflectors being curled downwardly and having relatively high reflectivity, the upper surfaces of said reflectors having a relatively lower reflectivity than the edges of said reflectors, and the lower surfaces of said reflectors having a relatively lower reflectivity than the upper surfaces of said reflectors.
4. In a lighting fixture, the combination of a plurality of like annular reflectors of progressively increasing sizes, a plurality of straps converging together at one end and each ri 'dly secured to the inner edge of each re ector to form a hollow conical struc ture, means for rigidly securing together the converging ends of said straps, and means a connected tosaid other means for supporting an additional reflector independently of said stra 5. In a lighting fixture, the combination of a plurality of like annular reflectors of progressively increasing sizes, a plurality of straps converging together at one end and each ri 'dly secured to the inner edge of each re ector to form a hollow conical structure, means for rigidly securing together the converging ends of said straps, and a decorative member secured to said other means for supporting an additional reflector by its in! ner edge in telescoped relation with the adj acent reflector, said first named means being hidden by said additional reflector.
6. In a lighting fixture, the combination of a plurality of like annular reflectors of sizes progressively decreasing from top to bottom,
a plurality of straps rigidly secured together at their lower ends and flared upwardly to engage said reflectors and space them a art, a member secured to the lower ends 0 the straps, a lower reflector supported by the member independently of the straps and externally. thereof, a hanger, and supporting means connecting the upper end of each of said straps to said hanger.
In testlmony whereof I aflix my signature.