US 1878210 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. G. VINCENT INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Sept. 20, 1932.
Filed Feb. 8. 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet 3mm/tov JESSE E VINCE/v7.
attoznmj Sept., 220, 1932. J. G. vlNci-:NT
INTERAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Sept. 2,0, 1932. J. G. VINCENT INTERNAL coMBUsTroN ENGINE Filed Feb. 8, 1928 5 Sheets-Sheet Patentes sept. 2o, 1932 UNHTE'D STATES PATENT OFFICE JESSE G. VINCENT, DETROIT, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNOR TO PACKARD MOTOR CAR COM'. IPANY, OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, A CORPORATION F MICHIGAN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Application filed February 8, 1928. Serial No. 252,718.
This invention relates to internal combustion engines and more particularly to super chargers and the driving means therefor.
.Other thingsbeing equal, it is well known that an increase in the pressure above atmospheric at which the explosive mixture or charge is introduced into the cylinder of an internal combustion engine will result in an increase'in the power developed by the engine.- Heretofore such increased pressure of the charge entering the cylinder has usually been obtained by means of a supercharging pump or blower continuously driven by the engine and delivering air above atmospheric pressure to the carburetor. Such continuous supercharging pumps or-blowers, however, especially when of the centrifugal type, are objectionably noisy andv at relatively low speeds are substantially ineffective. And in internal combustion engines for motor vei hicles, it is not necessary or desirable to continuousl'y supercharge the engine because the amount-of power normally developed by the engine will ordinarily suice. Consequently, quieter and more efiicient operation may be obtained by so arranging the supercharging pump or blower with relation to theV engine that it may be readily connected thereto or disconnected therefrom so as to intermittently supercharge the engine to obtain more than the normal power developed thereby 'only .when such power is required.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a supercharger for internal combustion engines arranged for connection to the engine and disconection therefrom at will.
Another object ofthe invention is to provide a supercharger for internal combustion engines adapted to be, connected to the engine by an additional or further movement of the actuating means for the carburetor throttle valve. v
Another object of the invention is to provide a supercharger having manually controllable driving means with braking means that will be operated by the disengaging movement of the manually controllable driving means.
A further object of the invention is to provide an intermittent supercharger with means whereby the air inlet to the carburetor is automatically closed to the atmosphere and connected to the supercharger when the latter is connected tothe engine.
Other objects of the invention will appear from the following description taken in connection with the drawings forming a part of this specification, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation of an internal combustion engine embodying the in vention;
' Fig. 2 is alongitudinal sectional view of the supercharger and parts of the engine casing taken substantially on line 2 -2 of Fig. 7;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the control valve of the supercharger;
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are transverse sectional views of the control valve of the supercharger taken substantially on line 4 4, 5 5 'and 6 6 respectively of Fig. 3;
Fig. 7 is aview partly in section and partly in elevation substantially on line 7 7 of Fig. 1, and
Fig. 8 is a transverse sectional view of the supercharging blower taken substantially on line 8 8 of Fig. 2.\
'Referring to the drawings, 10 represents generally an internal 'combustion engine havingV an intake manifold 11, a carburetor 12, an exhaust manifold 13 and a cooling fan 14. The carburetor 12 is provided with the usual throttle .valve 15, controlled in this instance by an oscillating rod 16 operatively connected to a pivoted foot accelerator pedal 17 by means of a connecting link 18.
, The supercharger represented generally at 19 comprises a pump or blower 20, a driving shaft 21, a clutch 22 for connecting the driving shaft to the engine, a brake 23 to stop the pump or blower after it is disconnected from the engine, a pressure responsivemeans 24 for operating the clutch and a controlling means 25 for the pressure responsive means and the supercharger.
Asshown, the pump or blower 2O is the rotating piston type and comprises a casing 26 and a pair of intermeshing impellers 27 keyed to suitable shafts 28 mounted so as to rotate in the casing '26. The shafts 28 are provided with anti-friction bearings 29 and mit@ ' an internal gear 48 having a cylindrical ex are connected to rotate together by means of intermeshing gears 30 splined to the inner ends of the shafts 28. The blower casing 26 is provided with a series of fins 31 to increase the dissipation of heat by radiation and the outer end of the casing has a removable cover 32 secured in place by dowels 33 and bolts 34 in which the anti-friction bearings for the outer ends of shafts 28 are mounted. Suitably secured to the outside of cover 32 as by studs and nuts 35 is an auxiliary cover 36 having asuitable lubricating connection 37 and adapted to retain lubricant therein for the antifriction bearings 29 carrying the outer ends of shafts 28. Gears 30 and the bearings on the inner ends of the shafts are adapted to be adequately lubricated as will presently vappear and to prevent the entrance of lubricant into the casing 26, each end of each shaft is provided with a suitable washer 38 between the shaft and the bearing'. Bothends of the shafts are threaded and carry suitable retaining means for the bearings, washers and gears such as the nuts and Washers shown.
The blower casing has an inlet opening'39 'provided with an elbow extension 40 suitably secured thereto and opening toward the rear of the motor as shown. Upon'rotation of the imnellers 27 within the casing in the direction indicated by the arrows in Fig. 8 it will be apparent that air will be drawn into the casing through the inlet extension 40 and inlet opening 39 and will be forced under pressure from the casing through casing outlet 41 into the carburetor 12 as will hereinafter appear. Secured tothe inner end of casing 26' as by` dowels 42 and studs 43 is an annular member 44 having a cylindrical bearing portion 45 and forming with the inner end of casing 26 a chamber 46. Journaled in the bearing por tion 45 is suitable anti-friction bearings I47 is tension 49 in which is received the splined end 50 of drive shaft 21. Internal gear 48.I
is adapted to drive a pinion 51 splined to one of the blower shafts 28 and preferably formed integrally With the gear 30 splined to the same shaft. Gear 48i is held against endwise or axial movementby means of a plug 52 threaded into the gear end of cylindrical extension-'49 and adapted to bear against the end 53 of drive .shaft 21 and by a washer 54 keyed to the other end of cylindrical extension 49 and bearing againstl bearing 47 and held in place by a nut 55 threaded on the exterior of the extension 49. In order to adequately lubricate the gears 30, 48 and 51 housed in chamber 46 as well as bearings 47, chamber 46 is partially lled with lubricant through a filling opening in casing 26 closed by a plug 56.
Drive shaft 21 is journaled in\.a bearing member 57, having an annular extension 58 providedv on its outer periphery with an annular flange 59. Bearing member 57 is adapted to b'e mounted on the crank case 60 of the engine preferably near the front end thereof as shown in Fig. 1 and is secured thereto with iange 59 betweenthe crank case and annular member 44 in any suitable manner as by studs and nuts. A lubricating duct 62 is provided in annular member 44 and extension 58 for lubricating drive shaft 21 as will presently appear. Rotatably mounted on bearing member 57 is a sleeve 63 upon which is snugly fitted a drive gear 64. Bearing member 57 is provided with inner and outer bushings as shown, the inner bushing having an oil hole registering with lubricating duct 62 and another oil hole substantially in the center of the bushing registering with a short oil duct 65 to provide lubrication f or the outer bushing from the inner bushing.
Gear 64 is connected to the engine crank shaft by means of a chain, not shown, running over a suitable gear or sprocket mounted on the crankshaft. In order to connect gear 64 to drive shaft 21 and thus connect the supercharger to the engine, the clutch 22 is provided. This clutch comprises two sets of interleaved friction discs, one set 66 being splined to an enlarged portion 67 of drive shaft 21 and the other set 68 being splined to the, interior of an annular flange 69 preferably formed integrally with drive gear 64. A'housing for clutch 21 is provided by a boss 70 preferably welded to. timing gear' cylindrical portion 74 of cover 73 and the other set 77 being splined to the cylindrical -extension 78 of a clutch and brake operating member 79 splined as at 80 to the enlarged portion 67 ofidrive shaft 21. It'will be noted that the two sets of interleaved friction discs of the brake are arranged to cooperate eccentrically as may be se'en in Fig. 2.
To the outer end of cylindrical extension 78 of clutch and brake operating member 79 is mounted a bearing member 81 vadapted to remain stationary` as drive shaft 21 and operating member 79 rotate. This bearing member 81 is Vanti-frictionally mountedwith respect to extension 78 by means of thrust bearing 82 and is held thereon by means of a Vretaining member 83 secured to extension 78 by means of a thimble or f errule 84 or otherwise. The clutch and brake end of drive shaft 21 is drilled to provide a bore 85 in which is sli dably mounted a cylindrical sleeve A86 open at one end. A coil spring 87 mounted in the bore 85 serves to press the sleeve 86 outwardly of the bore against the end of the cylindrical extension 78 of operating operating rod 106, that a considerable movemember 79. The reduced closed cylindrical extension 7 5 is arranged eccentrically of drive shaft 21 and provides a cylinder 88 in which is slidably mounted a pressure responsive means-in the form of a piston 89, a ainst the inner side of the top of which piston, the bearing member 81 is pressed by means of spring 87. In order to adequately lubricate the clutch and brake andthe rotating parts housed within casing 71, boss and cover 73, the chamber formed by such casing, boss and cover is partially filled with lubricant introduced through a filling opening in crank case 60 adapted to be closedV by a plug 89. Clutch and brake operating member 79 is provided with apertures 90 through which lubricant will flow to the interior of extension 7 8 and the closed end of cyloindrical sleeve 86 is provided with an opening 91 so that bearing member 81, retaining member 83 and the associated parts may be sulfic'iently lubricated.
In order to supply pressure to cylinder. 88 and piston 89, the pressure of the engine lubricating system is utilized. The lubricant under pressure is conducted to duct 92 preferably formed in the engine crank case, thence through a controlling'means such as a valve 25, and a connecting pipe 93 secured by suitable connections 94 and 95 to the valve 25 and cylinder 88. Valve 25 is enclosed in a casing 96 mounted on a suitable base 97 which is lbolted or otherwise secured to the crank case of the engine. This valve is preferably of hollow cylindrical form as best shown in Fig. 3, the open end of which is closed by a plug 98 threaded into the valve, and is provided with a cylindrical operating extension 99 suitably packed against'leakage therearound by means Vof packing 100 adapted to be compressed by a hollow nut 101 threaded into the valve casing. Valve 25 is adapted to be actuated by pivoted foot accelerator pedal 17, and to this end operating extension 99 has mounted on its outer end a sleeve 102 pinned or otherwise secured to extension 99 and carrying a prop'ecting eye '103. Pivotally secured to eye 03 by pivot pin 104 is an adjustable end 105 of an operating rod 106. Pivot pin 104 is provided with`an extension 107 adapted to engage a stop 108 formedoon valve casing 96 and an enlarged portion 109 of eX- tension 107 has an annular groove 110 in the periphery thereof in which is seated the coiled end of a tension spring 111 suitably mounted so as to yieldingly press extension 107 against stop 108 and thus retain valve 25 in its normal or closed position as shown in Fig. 3. Adjustable end 112 of operating rod 106 is provided with an elongated slot 113 in which is transversely and slidablv received a pin mounted on the lower end of an arm 114 so connected to the accelerator pedal 17 as to move therewith. .It will be clear, with the pin and slot connection between arm 114 and ment of accelerator pedal 17 will be permitted before rod 106 will be moved, and that with the two adjustable ends 105 and 112 provided for rod 106, the point in the downward movement ofthe accelerator pedal 17 at which rod 106 will be moved may be adjusted to a nicety, this point being preferably just after throttle valve 15 has been moved to its wide open position.
Valve casing 96 is drilled to y provide a longitudinal conduit 115 and a connecting transverse conduit 116 and as shown in Fig. 3, conduit 115 at the casing base end registers with duct 92 in the crank case of the engine. Valve casing 96 is also drilled inwardly from the base 97 to provide a conduit 117 adapted to' register with a conduit in the engine crank case, not shown. Another conduit 118 is provided to register with this conduit in the 'engine crank case, not shown, and to communlcate with the end of the valve bore in casing 96. .The hollow cylindrical valve 25 provides a valve chamber 119-and the valve itself is provided with a series of apertures to connect, in different positions of the valve, with the conduits in the valve casing. One of these apertures 120 .registers with transverse conduit 116 when the valve is in open position only; another aperture 121 registers with connection94 and hence with connecting pipe 93 when the valve is in open position only; still another aperture 122 in the same transverse plane with apedrkture 121registers with connecting pipe 93 when the valve is in closed position only and another aperture 123 registers with conduit 117 when the valve is in closed position only.
-From the foregoing description the operation of the supercharger and its associated and controllingmechanisms will be clear. When more power than that normally developed by the engine is desired, all that is necessary to bring the supercharger into action, is for ythe operator to depress accelerator pedal 17 to its limit of travel as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1. During such movement of the accelerator pedal, throttle valve 15 will rst move to wide open positiomafter `which arm 114 moving with the accelerator pedal will move operating rod 106 and rotate valve 25 from its closed to its open position. With valve 25 in its open position. oil under pressure from the lubricatingsystem of the engine will flow through duct 92 in the engine crank case and through conduits 115 and 116 in the valve casing and aperture 120 in the valve 25 into valve chamber 119. From chamber 119, the oil will be forced through aperture 121 in valve 25 into connecting pipe 93 and thence into cylinder 88 where it will force piston 89 outwardly thereof. Movement of piston 89 outwardly will force clutch and brake operating member 79 against the clutch discs and thus connect drive shaftv 21 with the engine through gear .64. Internal gear 48 will thus be driven and in turn will drive meshed gears 30 and rotate the blower impellers 27. Air will thus be drawn into the blower and forced into the engine carburetor through a connection and in a manner presently to be described.
When more than the normal power developed by the engine is no longer required, it is merely necessary for the operator to remove his foot from accelerator pedal 17, or to allow the accelerator pedal to move upwardly suiliciently to permit spring 111 to close valve When valve 25 is in closed position, apertureY 120in the valve will no longer register with conduit 116 in the valve casing and hence oil under pressure 'from the lubricating system of the engine will no longer flow into cylinder 88. As soon as valve 25 reaches its closed position, aperture 122 will register with connecting pipe 93 at the same time that aperture 123 registers with conduit 117 in the valve casing. Thus the oil forced into cylinder 88 when the valve was open will be forced back into the engine crank case by the pressure exerted by spring 87 against piston 89, through pipe 93 and aperture 122 into valve chamber 119 and thence through aperture 123 and conduit 117 into the engine oil sump. But as spring 87 forces piston 89 inwardly of the cylinder, it also forces clutch and brake operating member 79 against the discs of brake 23 and thus the blower will be quickly brought to a stop.
Lubrication of the drive shaft and drive gear bearings is adequately provided for by means of a pipe 124 connected at one end v with conduit 115 in the valve casing and at the other end connected to annular member 44 so as to register with lubricating duct 62. With this arrangement it will be clear that lubricant at engine pressure is always supplied to the drive shaft and drive gear bearings regardless of the' position of valve 25.
Lubricant leaking around valve 25 toward operating extension 99 will be prevented from reaching the outside of the casing by packing 100 and all oil leaking in the other direction will be returned to the engine crank case through conduit 118.
With an intermittent supercharger such as has been herein described, the carburetor air intake is normally open to the atmosphere, but as soon as the supercharger is started, this air intake should be connected directly to the blower and connection with 'the atmosphere cut oli". This is provided for and 'accomplished in the present invention by an exceedingly simple arrangement. Carburetor 12 shown in Fig. 1, has a main air intake 125 and an auxiliary spring loaded valve controlled air intake 126, both main and auxiliary air intakes being connected to the atmosphere and to the blower through a two- .way connecting housing 127. As shown, this housing has a branch 128 connecting with the main carburetor air intake 125 and a branch 129 connecting with the carburetor auxiliary air intake 126. The housing is also provided with a port 130 open to the atmosphere through an elbow 131, the inlet opening of which faces toward the rear of the motor. Another branch 132 of housing 127 is connected to the supercharger or blower casing to register with the blower outlet 41. A valve 133 pivoted within housing 127 at 134 is adapted to close port 130, but is normally held in open position as shown in Fig. 1 by gravity. With the valve 133 in this position, it will be clear that air will be drawn into the carburetor from the atmosphere through port 130. However, as soon as the blower is started, the pressure of the air from the blower will lift valve 133 and force it to closed position, thus closing port 130 and cutting off the flow of air from the atmosphere to the carburetor. Air then reaches the carburetor air intake only from the blower and this condition will continue until the blower is disconnected from the engine, when valve 133 will drop down into open position an d air will be drawn into the carburetor at atmospheric pres ure. Pipe 134 connecting branch 132 of hou ing 127 and the float chamber of carburetor 12 communicates the pressure of the air from the supercharger to the float chamber, so that the liquid fuel and air entering the mixing chamber of the carburetor will be under the same pressure.
In order that the driving chain of the supercharger may be tightened to compensate for wear, the entire supercharging unit including the blower, drive shaft, clutch and one set of discs of the brake is adapted to be pigotally moved with respectto the engine an.'v the carburetor. To this end, a stud 135 is mounted in crank case about which bearing member 57, annular member 44 and the entire blower are adapted to pivot as a unit. Flange 59 of bearing member 57 and annular member 44 are each provided with a pair of registering elongated slots 136 adapted to receive bolts 137 for clamping the supercharger unit in adjusted position. To provide for the relative movement of the blower casing 26 and the branch 132 of connecting housing 127, flange 138 of branch 132 is provided on opposite sides with a pair of elongated slots 139 in which clamping studs 140 are adapted to move during adjustment. Each pair of studs 140 is provided with a combined washer and spacing member 141.
As the drive shaft 21 is moved relative to the movement of 'one set of discs of the brake to the other set is made possible by the eccentric mounting of the movable set 77 with respect to the stationary set 76, and it will be apparent that the brake will be unaffected by such adjustment because the total area of braking surface in any adjusted position of the supercharger will remain substantially constant. Ample space is provided between boss 70 and the outer-most parts of the clutch assembly to provide for the adjustment just described, and 'the eccentric relation of piston 89 and bearing member 81 will offer no difficulties for such adjustment.
The intermittent supercharger thus provided is so arranged for cooperation with the engine that it may be readily connected thereto the instant more than the normal power developed by the engine is required, as in accelerating, hill climbing, or .ultimate speed, and may be as readily disconnected from the engine the moment such excess power is no longer required. The connection of the supercharger to the engine and its disconnection therefrom is entirely controlled in a most simple manner merely by the operation of the foot accelerator pedal. And since the supercharger is normally disconnected from the engine, the noise incident to the operation of supercharging blowers will be present only when excess l power or more than the power normally developed by the engine is required, and such noise will be quickly eliminated when the normal power developed by the engine will suiiice. Further, it will be apparent that the power consumed in the operation of `a supercharger adapted to be driven at intervals only during the operation of the engine as 1n the intermittent supercharger of the present invention will be far less than that consumed by asupercharger. adapted to run continuously with the motor. And the compactness, adequate lubrication of all moving parts so as to provide long life, ready accessibility for adjustment or repair and simplicity of operation and construction will be readily apparent.
It will be understood that various forms ci' the invention other than those described above may be used without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent, 1s:
l. In an internal combustion engine, in combination, a supercharger, a carburetor, a throttle valve for the carburetor, a clutch between the supercharger and engine, means agtuaied by the pressure of the engine lubri- Lnt for operating the clutch, means controlling the flow of lubricant to said pressure actuated means, and a single manually said controlling means and said throttle valve.
2. In an internal combustion engine, in combination, a supercharger, a carburetor, a throttle valve for the carburetor, a clutch between the supercharger'and engine, piston lubricant for operating the clutch, a valve for controlling the flow of lubricant to the piston means, and a single means for controlling the actuation of said valve and said throttle valve.
3. In an internal combustion engine, in combination, a blow-er, a shaft for driving the blower, a clutch between the shaft and the engine, a brake spaced from the clutch and having relatively fixed and movable members, a member slidably mounted on the shaft having a` portion extending between the clutch and brake, said member carrying the movable members of the brake and means for sliding said member on the shaft to alternately engage the clutch and apply the brake.
4. In an internal combustion engine, in-
from the oil pressure system to the pressure actuated means and another position of the valve permitting oil to iiow from the pressure actuated means to the oil reservoir for the engine, said valve being connected for actuation by the actuating means for the throttle valve of the carburetor.
.5. In an internal combustion engine, in combination, a carburetor having a throttle valve and an. air inlet, a blower' connected to the carburetor inlet and adapted to be operated by the engine at a predetermined position of the throttle valve, said inlet having a port opening to the atmosphere, a valve for the port normally closing the blower connection and open to connect the inlet with the atmosphere and adapted to close the air inlet by the pressure of the air from the blower when the blower is operated.
In testimony whereof I afiiX my signature.
J ESSE Gr. VINCENT.
- operable means for causing actuation of both v means actuated'by the pressure of the engine j