US 1879410 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 27, 19 w. A. MORRIS ET AL ART OF INSERTING LINERS INTO CONTAINERS Filed Aug. 28, 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEYS p 27, 1932 w. A. MORRIS ET AL 1,879,410
ART OF INSERTING LINERS INTO CONTAINERS Filed Aug. 28, 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEYS Sept. 27, 1932 UNITED STATES PATIENT OFFICE WARREN A. MORRIS, OF WYOMING, AND CARROLL I1. SPANGLER, OI CINCINNATI, OHIO,
ASSIGNORS TO THE PAPER SERVICE COMPANY, OF LOCKLAND, OHIO, A CORPORA- TION OF OHIO ART 0! INSERTING LINERS INTO CONTAINERS Application filed August 28, 1931.
We shall describe our invention in connection with the insertion of lining structures into containers, such, for example, as barrel liners into barrels, it being understoodthat this is an exemplary use and is not limiting upon our invention. A. barrel liner is a baglike structure usually of creped paper, and usually formed from a single blank folded over upon itself and stitched upon a bottom and one side to form a fiat bag. Appropriate seam structures are employed, and, of course, instead of being made of a s ngle blank, the liner may be made of two pieces, with seam structures along the bottom and both sides. The exact construction of the liner is not a limitation upon our present invention.
The problem of inserting any type of liner into a container, and particularly of getting a flat bag-like structure into a round container, such as a barrel, or indeed into any container having a fixed shape differing radi cally from the shape of a flat bag, has been recognized; and attempts have been made to meet it by various expedients. The problem of inserting barrel liners intobarrels is in one aspect the problem of inserting a flat bag into a cylindrical structure in such a way that the bag will essentially conform to the interior surface of the barrel. An ancillary problem arises in connection with the desirability of turning the projecting end of the barrel liner down over the chime of the barrel. If a flat structures is to be placed inside a barrel so as to conform to the inner surface thereof, it is clear that the width of the bag when in flat form must be greater than the diameter of the barrel. This in itself complicates the insertion problem, and additionally there is the difficulty of causing the liner to conform to the round flat bottom of the barrel. One of the expedients suggested by the prior art has comprised the preformation of a flat bag-like structure into a transportable shape having essentially a preformed round fiat bottom, folded back against the flat sides. Thus it has been proposed to place the liner first over a cylindri cal form with a solid flat top, and then by hand to fold the ears of the liner against this Serial No. 560,024.
top, and to crease the liner about the rim of the top, so as to provide a structure having essentially a preformed fiat circular bottom. The liner may then again be flattened, and the disc-like or circular portion thereof folded flat against one of the sides. Another proposal has contemplated the tucking in of the corners and sides of the barrel liner so as to form a structure which, although fiat, is not wider than the barrel. Such a liner may be slipped into a barrel and expanded therein, either by the contents, or otherxise, and when so expanded the inturned corners may be caused to overlie and cover the bottom seam, forming an expansible bottom structure having considerable advantages. These and other expedients involving folding have been successful and have very much simplified the insertion of liners into barrels.
They have, however, obviously involved ad- I ditional expense to an undesirable degree. They have not in some instances simplified the problem of expanding the liner to fill the barrel. Compressed air has been used for this purpose, and has been successful in effecting the expansion aforesaid initially. Its use, however, also involves additional expense, time and inconvenience. The problem is not, moreover, merely one of insertion and expansion. When these two factors have been taken care of, there remains in some instances, the necessity of turning down the projecting portions of the liner over the chime of a barrel. This must be done by hand, and its accomplishment usually, in part at least, destroys the effects of insertion and expansion, previously properly effected.
er, and that the liner is incorrectly expanded to fill the container.
Many liners under old methods of insertion are torn at the point of fold over the chime either at the time of insertion or at the time of loading because there was no definite way of gauging the amount to be turned over. Obviously if too much is turned the liner does not extend entirely to the bottom all around, and when loaded, tearing will occur. If not enough he turned, there will not be suflicient left to completely fold over and cover the contents before loading.
The objects of our invention are generally to provide means and a method for the correct insertion of liners into barrels, or other structures, whereby the liner is easily inserted, is properly ex anded to fill the container, is caused to con orm to the bottom of the container accurately, is inserted into the container a predetermined depth, whereby the amount of the liner available for turning down around the chime of the barrel is accurately gauged, and whereby this portion may be turned down easily about the chime without disturbing the interior disposition of the liner in the container, and without entraping air between the liner and the container.
t is also an object of our invention to rovide means and a method whereby the a oresaid objects may be accomplished with liners which need not be folded, or given any after treatment whatever, i. e., liners in the form of a fiat bag, whereby the less expensive form of lining structures are made available to all 'uses. Finally, it is an object of our invention to simplify and cheapen the operation of inserting liners into barrels.
These and other objects of our invention which will be set forth hereinafter or will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading these specifications, we accomplish by that process and that certain construction and arrangement of parts of which we shall now describe an exemplary embodiment having to do with the insertion of liners into barrels, reference being had to the drawings which form a part hereof. In these drawings Figure 1 is a perspective view of a form device which we may employ.
Fig. 2 shows the initial disposition of a lining structure over the form.
Fig. 3 shows the'lining structure made to conform to the formed structure and ready for insertion in a barrel.
Fig. 4 shows the disposition of the liner and the form in a barrel.
Fig. 5 shows the liner turned down about the chime of the barrel. 1
Fig. 6 shows the completely lined barrel.
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a form which is ad ustable as to size.
Fig. 8 shows a type of form which by suitable endwise' pressure may be caused to bulge outwardly and conform to the inside of a barrel or other odd-shaped container.
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of another type of de-formable form.
Fig. 10 showsthe form of Fig. 9 as deformed for the "purpose described.
Briefly in the practice of our invention we provide a forming member ada ted to be inserted in the container. Over t is forming member, while it is in a convenient position for manipulation, the liner is placed, and the bottom of the liner is then caused in ways hereinafter to be explained, to assume the desired configuration. Then the liner and the forming device are simultaneously placed within the container, the forming device causing the liner to conform to the interior surface of the container, including the bottom thereof, and to gauge and determine the depth of the insertion. Then while theliner and the form are still in the container, and while the aforesaid relationship of the liner to the container is maintained by the form, the projecting portion of the liner is turned down about the upper rim of the container (e. the chime of a barrel) if desired. When t is is finished, the form is removed from the container and the container is completely lined. It will be understood that our method and apparatus are not restricted to the lining of any particular type of container such as a barrel. The form may indeed be attached to or form part of a filling device for barrels. We shall describe our invention in connection with a separate form, it being understood that we are not limited thereto.
A type of form which we have found entirely serviceable and convenient, and which is inexpensive in first cost and li ht and'convenient to use, comprises a cylin er 1 formed of vulcanized fiber board, or other similar light, relatively thin, but relatively stifl material. The cylinder may be formed, if desired, of a single sheet bent into cylindrical form, with its edges overlapping and secured by metallic or other stitches 2, or by rivets, hooks or snaps. The form of Figure 1 will be shaped to conform substantially to the interior surface of the container. Thus, when the container is a barrel 3, the form will be cylindrical in shape, as shown. It will be of a size suflicient to slip easily within the mouth of the barrel, and it will be of greater depth than the barrel, as shown. If the container were of a different shape, the form would, of course, be such as to conform to the shape of the particular container which it is desired to line. The form, cylindrical in the particular instance described, will preferably be formed about its top and bottom with perforations 4, the purpose of which is to permit the escape of air from the interior thereof. If these perforations, as shown, are placed both at the top and bottom of the form, it makes no difference upon which end the form be set upon a floor, bench, or other supporting surface. The cylinder may, if deemed, have a closed end; but this is not necessary in our invention, and is undesirable unless the end aforesaid be provided with means for the escape of air, as otherwise air will be entrapped in the liner as it is pulled over the form. A perforated closed end may be rovided, if desired, to stiffen the form or or other purposes. An end member of wire mesh, for example, will be serviceable, but as aforesaid, is neither necessary nor preferred. \Closed ends however, make the form less flexible than otherwise. While the plain form of Fig. 1, will be suitable for most purposes, there are instances in which it is desired to insert liners of different sizes into containers of different sizes. Under these circumstances we may provide the type of form shown in Fig. 7, where the body sheet 1a is again bent upon itself to form a cylinder, but is held by a line of separable fasteners 13. Additional lines of separable fasteners 13a, 136, etc. may be provided to permit the making of cylindrical forms of various sizes at will, from the body sheet 1a, Suitable indicia indicating the different standard sizes of barrels or containers to which the form is adapted, may be placed adjacent the respective lines of separable fasteners.
Again, in some instances it will be desired to provide a type of form which is expansible or deformable to fit the inside of an oddshaped container, like a barrel. Under these circumstances we may provide a type of form which by endwise compression will bulge to achieve this purpose. One such form is shown in Fig. 8, where the upper and lower edges of the'cylinder are formed by circular wires'or rods 14 and 15, to which are attached a plurality of upright, flexible stays 16, hinged to the wires or rods. When endwise pressure is brought to bear on this form, as may be done after the insertion thereof into a barrel, the form will go outwardly as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 8, and will cause the liner completely to fill the barrel and conform to the bulge thereof, as may in some instances be desirable, before the projecting end of the liner is turned down about the chime of the barrel.
In Fig. 9, we have shown still another type of deformable form. In this instance we again employ upper and lower rings 17 and 18, or rod, wire, or the like, and the body of the form is made up of crossed and interlaced sets of wires 19 and 20, which run in the cylindrical surface diagonally to the axis of the cylinder. Endwise pressure upon this type of structure will likewise cause it to bulge outwardly intermediate its ends, the angularity of the wires changing to permit this variation in shape. In both Figs. 8 and 9 there should be a slight outward bulge initially made in the form to insure an, outward bulging in practice.
In the initial step,
as illustrated in Figure 1, the cylinder is p ced upright upon a supporting surface. As explained hereinabove,
over the form 1, as will of necessity be the-* I case if the liner is of the proper size for a container in which the form 1 may be placed. It will be understood, of course, that the ordinary barrel liner is stretchable at least in a Widthwise direction. Not only will the form be longer than the interior depth of the container, but it will also be preferably longer, or at least not shorter than the effective length of the liner itself. This, while not an unavoidable limitation, permits the liner to be pulled down tightly over the form. The liner will normally be of greater effective length than the depth of the container, both for the purpose of providing material to be turned down about the chime of the container or up around a loading spout, and also to allow for sufiicient material in the liner to cover the contents of the container after it shall have been filled.
Pulling the liner down over the form, as illustrated in Figure 2, tends to cause the liner to assume a cylindrical shape, closed at one end. Since the liner will usually be in the form of a flat bag, this operation also causes the lower corners of the bag to extend up as ears indicated at 6 and 7.
In the next step, the liner is made suitable, upon its bottom portion 8, Figure 3, (the liner in Figures 2 and 3 being in up-ended posi tion) for the act of insertion. This may be accomplished by knocking over the ears 6 and 7, or otherwise disposing of these ears by folding or tucking, telescoping, or the like, so that the liner and the form may enter the mouth of the barrel or container without obstruction. The easiest procedure is merely to knock the ears 6 and 7 over upon the bottom, by a rapid hand operation.
The liner is itself now in the form of a cylinder, shaped substantially to fill the container into which it is to be placed The form and the liner (indicated broadly at 9) are next up-ended and placed within the container 3, where it will be seen that the side walls of the liner now conform substantially to the side walls of the container (the bulge of the barrel being neglected,) and the bottom is completed in flat circular shape by being made to conform to the bottom of the container, a bottom crease 5 being forced substantially exactly to conform to the oriphery of the bottom head of the barre It will be seen also that the liner has been inserted into the barrel a predetermined depth, so that the projecting portion 11 of the liner, extending above the chime 12 of the barrel, is accurately gauged as to height.
While the form 1 still holds the linerin 10 the aforesaid relationship with the container, the projecting portion 11 of the liner is turned down about the chime of the container, as shown at 11a in Figure 5. In this way the operation of turning down the liner is prevented from disturbing the relationship of the liner and the container, so that at the end of the turning down operation the liner still is completely inserted within the container, and the bottom thereof rests upon the bottom of the container. The liner will now be completely inserted without entrapping air or disturbin one side'while the opposite side is being fo ded over the chime, and the form 1 may be withdrawn therefrom, leaving the completely lined barrel as shown in The sequence of operations is extremely rapid and easy, and does not require skilled labor. It is not necessary that the form be set upright upon a surface, but this has been found to be most convenient while the liner is being pulled thereover. The operator pulls the liner over the form, knocks down the ears on the liner, places the liner and form in the barrel, or other container, turns down the projecting portion of the liner about the chime thereof when desired, and withdraws.
the form, all in less time than is r uired in older methods for the insertion o a liner into a barrel and the proper initial expansion therein. The cost of pro-treatments of lining structures, such as interfolding, is obviated, and the liner is so accurately positioned within the container that there is no danger, upon the subsequent filling of the container, of the rupture of the liner.
- Another advantage is that our invention will permit of'inserting two liners one inside the other, which is sometimes the practice and wherein our invention is doubly advantageous over old methods. This will be understood without particular illustration or description.
Having thus described our invention, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. A process of lining containers with lining structures of essentially different initial shape, which comprises providing a form to enter a container and conform substantially to the interior thereof, pulling a liner over said form, inserting said form and said liner into said container, and withdrawing said form.
2. A process of linin containers which comprises providing a orm of a size and shape to enter a container, and substantially to conform to the interior walls thereof, pulling a llner over said form, conforming said liner to the shape of said form, inserting said liner and said form in said container, and withdrawing said form.
3. A process of lining containers which comprises providing a form of a shape and size to enter acontainer and conform substantially to the interior surface thereof, pulling a liner over said form, inserting said liner and said form into said container, whereby the depth-of insertion of said liner and the conformation thereof to the interior surface of said container is gauged, said liner being of greater effective depth than the interior depth of said container, whereby a portion thereof projects from the open edge of said container, and turning down Sflld projecting portion about the open edge of said container, thereafter removing said form. i
4. The process of lining containers which comprises providing a form of a size and shape to enter a container and substantially to conform to the interior surfaces thereof,
ulling a flat bag liner over said form, wherey the lower corners of said liner project as cars, knocking over said ears, inserting said liner and said form in a container, and withdrawing said form.
5. The process of lining containers which comprises providing a form of a size and shape to enter a container and substantially to conform to theinterior surfaces thereof, pulling a flat bag liner over said form, whereby the lower corners of said liner project as ears, disposing said ears so that said liner may enter said container, insertin said liner and said form in a container un er pressure suflicient to form a substantially flat bottom on said liner against the bottom of said container, and withdrawing said form.
6. A process of lining containers which comprises providing a form of a size and shape to enter a container and to conform substantially to the interior surfaces thereof, )ullinq a flat bag liner over said form, where- I y said liner is caused to conform to the shape of said form, the lower corners of said liner forming projecting ears, knocking over said ears, inserting said form and said liner into a container, and while said form is within said container, turning over a projecting portion of said liner about the upper edge of said container, afterward withdrawing said form.
7. A device for use in lining structures comprising a form of a size and shape to fit within a container, said form being of greater effective depth than the interior depth of said container, and having open ends, and a series of air-release perforations adjacent the end of said form.
8. A device for use in lining barrels comprising a cylindrical form ada ted to enter a barrel and substantially to con orm to the interior surfaces thereof, and being of eater depth than the interior depth of said arrel, said form made of a sheet of flexible but relatively stiff material'bent and fastened in c lindrical shape.
9. A'device for use in lining barrels comm prising a cylindrical form ada ted to enter a barrel and substantially to con orm to the interiorsurfaces thereof, and being of reater depth than the interior depth of said arrel, said form made of a sheet of flexible but relatively stifi material bent and fastened'in cylindrical shape said form having 'a series of air-release per orations about the upper and lower edges thereof. i I
. 10. A process of lining barrels :which com- 29 prises providing a form ada ted to enter the mouth of abarrel and substantially to conform to the interior surfaces thereof;
placing a flat bag liner over said form, whereby sai liner'is caused to assume a substan- 95 tially cylindrical shape substantially circular u on the top, and with projecting ears forming the lower corners-of said liner, disposing said ears t permit the entry of said liner into said barr 1, and inserting said liner and said form in said barrel, whereby said liner is caused to conform closely to thebottom head of said barrel, folding over a projecting portion of said liner about the chime of said barrel, and withdrawing said form. 11. A process of linin containers with lining structures of essentially different initial shape,-which comprises providing a form to enter a container and conform substantially to the interior thereof, dpulling a liner over 40 saidform, inserting sai form and said liner into said container, and withdrawing said form, and repeating this operation with a sec- 0nd liner to form adouble lining 12. A process of-linin containers which comprises providing a orm ofa size and shape to enter a container, and substantially to conform to the interior walls thereof, pul ing a liner over said form, conforming said liner to the shape of said form, inserting said liner and said form in said container, and
withdrawing said form, and repea' operation with a second liner to form a cubic WARREN A. MORRIS. I CARROLL L. SPAN GLER.