US 1879618 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 27, 1932. 1,879,618
WING FOR A-IRCRAFT Filed Nov. 1, 1930 I o o I'll ' I INVENTOR. I JEAN BAPTISTE ICRE l7 10 KM ATTORNEYS.
Patented Sept. 27, 1932 i i UNITED s-TATEs PA E OFFICE" mirrxs'rn man, or new Yoax, N. Y.
wm'e roe AIRCRAFT Application filed November 1, 1930. Serial in. 492,647.
I, a transverse member or members located at a distance below the bottom of the wing so as to form a longitudinal channel or channels between such transverse member and the lower surface of the wing. Again, my 7 invention also comprises a combination of such steps with the fins, 'flaps or scales, and
transverse members, as more fully set forth hereinafter. Other characteristics ofthe invention will appear from the description t, given below and from the appended claims. My present application is a continuation in part of two earlier applications filed by me in the United States Patent Oflice, one on January 22, 1929, Serial No. 334,190, (Patent No. 1,780,298, datedNovember 4, 1930) go and the other on December 2, 1929, Serial No.
410,948. r t i Typical satisfactory embodiments of my present invention are illustrated by the ac:
, companying drawing, in which Fig. '1 is 'a as side elevation of an airplane wing orjplane constructed according to my improvements; Fig. 2 is a partial bottom viewof such wing; Fig. 3 is an enlarged perspective view of a portion of such wing, partly in section;
an Fig. 4 is a detail view of a modification, with parts in section; and Fig. 5 is an enlarged perspective view of a portion of Fig. l, with parts in section.
Except as modified in' accordance with my 45 invention, the wing A maybe of any customary or approved outline and structure, and will generally embody internal bracing (not shown) of any usual or suitable character. The lower surface ofrsaid wing is the one at which differs from the standardshapeand arrangement. According to one feature of my invention, said surface, instead of the customary-continuous curvature, exhibits a series of spaced inclines Af, preferably curved slightly in the longitudinal direction '(direction of flight), the inclination being such that when the craft is flying horizontally each of the surfaces Ahas its front end higher than its rear end, and also higher 7 than the rear end of the next surface A lo- 1 cated in front. Thus the adjoiningends of two surfaces Aare one above the other, in step-like "fashion, and an upright surface or step A" connects such adjoining ends. These steps extend all the way across the Wing;
At the lower ends of the steps A, Iprefer to arrange transverse strips or fins B, substantially in line with the rear end of the surface A located immediatelyin'front, and
rearwardly therefrom. These extending strips or'fins Bare secured in any suitable manner, for-instance by rivets C, and form, with the forward ends of the surfaces A" situated immediately in the rear, pockets D open at their rear ends. The finsfB may be practically rigid, so that they will not move perceptibly in relation to the wing-A, but preferably they are made of elastic'material so that, when the craftis in motion, they may ben'd upwardly as indicated by the dottedlines at the left of Fig.3. VVhilethe craft is stationary, the fins B will assume the practically straight position shown in Fig. 1 and also indicated by full lines inFi 3'.
Even without the use of'the fins stepped formation of the wings lower surface will increase the lifting effect materiallyo'ver that of'a wing having a'continuous longitudinal curvature on its lower surface,
as is customary. A partial vacuum will be created in'the upper angles at theforward ends of the surfaces A as'the wing travels through the air, and this I will result in an upwardpressure of the air rushing into such partial vacuumfrom below. *This lifting effeet is increased considerably when the transverse fins B are employed, the air then rushing into'the pockets D at their rear ends, which furthermore are lower than the front endsof the respective pockets. When the ,fins are ,the
made of elastically flexible material, as I prefer to construct them, the upthrust of the air trying to rush into the pockets D will bend or flex the fins during the forward travel of the craft, as mentioned above, and this will produce a further increase in the lifting effect. v V
The effect of the wings or planes mayalso be increased by providing, on the lower surlower surfaces of the scales will then form a greater angle (normally in an intermediate position, see full lines) with the horizontal than the wing surfaces proper. As the speed increases, however, the springs G will be compressed further and the scales E forced toward and even against the lower surface of the wing, thereby reducing the resistance of the air tothe forward travel of the wing. Instead of using pivoted scales E in connection withsprings G, I may, as indicated in Fig. 4,-e'mploy scales or flaps E rigidly secured at their forward edges as indicated at Fto. the wing, and made of resilient material having a tendency. to open the flaps or scales in the same way that the springs G open the scales E in Fig. 3. In either case P. okets H are formed between the lower surface A of the wing and'the movable flaps E or E, these pockets having, in a certain measure, the same effect as the pockets D above referred to. I c c I While the drawing shows the movable flaps orwscales E or E applied to the lower surface of awing made with a step-like formation onits bottom, I desire it to be understood that this feature of my invention might be applied to aircraft wings of any usual or approved form. WVhen both the step formation and the movable flaps E or E are employed, the said movable flaps will be arranged onthe inclined surfaces A between the upright step surfaces A, As indicated in F ig',2, the flaps or scales ,E are arranged intrans'verse rows, with'thepivots F of the same-row located in alignment; if the form offla'ps shown at E in Fig. 4 is substituted,
their .f-asteningsF will be located in alignment, as to flaps E of the same row. So. far. as described above, the novel, elements of my invention are directly upon, or immediately adjacent to, the lower. surface of theaircraft wing. Figs. 1', 2, and 5a1so illustrateafurther feature of my invention, in
which supplemental transverse members J, similar in function to the fins B, are located at a distance below the wing A, thus leaving a continuous fore-and-aft channel K between the said lower surface A and the transverse members J. These members, like the fins B and scales or flaps E, E, are preferably apered to a thin edge at their rear portions, as illustrated. The transverse members J are secured in any suitable manner, for instance by stays L, and are shown as located between two of the fins B. However, the members J might be used alone in conjunction with the wing A, that is to say, without the fins B or the scales or flaps E, E, although I should prefer to. use the stepped arrangement, as at A, in any event. The transverse members J might be rigid either in the shape shown in full lines, or in the shape shown in dotted lines, or in some intermediate shape, but preferably at least the rear portion of said members would be made elastic and flexible, so that during the travel of the craft it would move or bend upwardly (as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 5) the efi'ectbeing substantially the same as described in connec-. tion with the fins B and scales or flaps E, E. The rearward thinning of the fins B, flaps E, and transverse members J facilitates their upward flexing. The upper faces of the members J are curved to constrict the channels K forwardly, the flow of air through such channels causing a further increase in the lifting effect.
Various modifications may be made without departing from the nature of my invention as set forth in the appended claims.
1. An aircraft wing the bottom of which has a plurality of surfaces located one in front of the other in step-like fashion and transverse fins extending rearwardly from the rear ends of said surfaces, said fins being elastic so that they may bend upwardly while the craft'is in motion.
2. An aircraft wing the bottom of which has a plurality of longitudinally inclined surfaces located one in front of the other, with the forward end of one of these surfaces located at a higher level than the rear end of the surface immediately in front, and upright transverse surfaces extending between adjoining ends of neighboring inclined surfaces, and transverse fins e)' tending rearwardly at the lower ends of said pivoted about axes transverse to. the wing Q3}? said scales being in vertical registry with a solid portion of the wing surface.
5. An aircraft wing provided onits lower surface, and in vertical registry with a solid portion of suchsurface, with flaps or scales secured thereto rigidly at one end and movable elastically toward and from such lower surface. 1
6. An aircraft wing the bottom of which w has a plurality of surfaces located one in front of the other in step-like fashion, and movable scales or flaps arranged on such surfaces.
7. An aircraft wing the bottom of which s has a plurality of longitudinally inclined surfaces located one in front of the other, with the forward end of one of these surfaces located at a higher level than the rear end of the surface immediately in front, and upza right transverse surfaces extending between adjoining ends of neighboring inclined surfaces, and movable flaps or scales connected with the wing at said inclined surfaces. 8. An aircraft wing the bottom of which as has a plurality of surfaces located one in front of the other in step-like fashion, and 7' a transverse member located between two of such steps and spaced from the lower surface of the wing to provide a longitudinal chanl nel between such lower surface and said transverse member. 7
9. A11 aircraft wing the bottom of which has a plurality of surfaces located one in front of the other in step-like fashion, and at a transverse member located between two of such steps and spaced from the lower surface of the wing to provide a longitudinal channel between such lower surface and said transverse member the upper surface of said transverse member being formed to constrict said channel toward its forward end.
10. An aircraft wing thebottom of'which has a plurality of surfaces located one in front of the other in step-like fashion, and a transverse member located between two of such steps and spaced from the lower surface of the wing to provide a longitudinal channel between such lower surface and said transverse member, the rear portion of said M transverse member being elastically flexible in an upward direction. 7
11. An aircraft wing the bottom of which has a plurality of surfaces located one in front of the other in step-like fashion, and a transverse member located between two of such steps and spaced from the lower surface of the wing to provide a longitudinal channel between such lower surface and said transverse member, said transverse member being tapered in thickness rearwardly.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
JEAN BAPTISTE ICRE.