US 1881008 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P. N. WILLOUGHBY 0a. 4, 1932' FLYING MACHINE 1,881,008
Filed Oct. 29, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.1. 3 1 3 l.
//V VE/VTOR Mama/ Oct. 4, 1932. P. N; WILLOUGHBY FLYING MACHINE Filed Oct. 29, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.5.
8 Oct. 4, 1932.
P. N. WILLOUGHBY 1,881,008
FLYING momma Filed Oct. 29. 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig. 6.
1932. P. N. WILLOUGHBY ,008 1 FLYING MACHINE Filed Oct. 29, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Oct. 4, 1932 rEnoIvAL Nnsnrr WILIQOUGHBY, or :BRoAnsroNE, norvsn'r, ENGLAND FLYING MACHINE v Application filed October 29, 1931, Seria1 No. 571,8G2,and in Great Britain November 3, 1930.
- This invention relates toflying machines and in particular to the sha e and formation of the supporting and stahilizing surfaces and it has for its objects a construction which will be more compact for a given weight carried and landing speed ;-which canassume lar e angles of incidence in fii'ghtwithout loss develop into a spiral dive or spin.
According to the present invention it is v proposed to overcome this tendency by constructing the machine with a main plane of high aspect ratio and a tail plane of usual aspect'ratio integrally connected together by sidewings of small aspect ratio, the main plane extending beyond the side wings to an extent approximately equal to half the maximum width of the aperture between theside wings, all surfaces'being suitably cambered for good lift, low drag and stability so that the lift of the whole surface will continue to increase at much larger angles of incidence than is possible with wings as at present con structed without the provision of special devlces.
According to one embodiment of the invention the total supporting surface will ap'prox imate in shape atriangle, having a front wing of considerable aspect ratio joined to a tail plane by means of side wings of small aspect ratio; for example, of less'width in the direction of the span of the machine than the leng'th'of said sidejwings. It is further proposed, according toth s invention to provide supplementary means of aerodynamical control, particularly lateral control, at large angles of incidence corresponding to low speeds, and to this end it is proposed to provide an aeroplaneof the type herein described withsurfaces of small 7 or fractional aspect ratio and to furnish suit- I able means for manipulating said surfaces so thatthey can continue to function as a means of control even when they or the machine to which they are fitted reach large angles of incidence without the use of slots or other supplementary devices.
In the accompanying drawings which illustrate, mainly diagrammatically, an embodiment of this invention as applied to a monoplane by way of examplez- Figure 1 is a front elevation;
Figure 2 is a plan, and, V
Figure 3 is a side elevation;
Figure 4 is a plan of one-half of the lifting surface, on an enlarged scale, to illustrate the cambers at various sections of th lifting and stabilizing surfaces; Figure 5 is a side elevation of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a side elevation of the control mechanism;
Figure 7 is a section on ure 6;
Figure 8 is a section on line 0a% of Figure 6,. and,
Fi ure 9 is a perspective View of the supporting and stabilizing surfaces and the aerofoils for lateral control, diagrammatically i1- line ww of Figlustrating an arrangement of the cables for controllingthe moving parts of such surfaces and aerofoils.
Referring to the drawings, 1 is the main or front plane, the incidence and camber of which may be constant or graded as shown and may be the same or differ from that of the side wings, 2 but in any case sufiicient effectivelongitudinal dihedral must be provided onwthe machine to preserve longitudinal stability; :In order to provide for a degreefof lateral'control and also to improve effic ency the front plane 1 is extended in the a form of wing-tips 3 beyond the junction of the side planes 2 therewithand, if desired,
ailerons 4 may be hinged thereto in known manner or the Wing-tips 3 may be movable as a Whole on a transverse axis, that is, on an axis parallel or .appr Ximately parallel with the leading edge of the front plane. The front. plane 1 between the longitudinal axis and the wing-tip may be so graded in camber as to form a smooth juncture at the points wherethe side planes 2 sweep into said front plane and a similar grading of camber isalso provided for at the point where the side planes sweep into the tail plane 5, as shown by the camber'sections in Figure 4, and the junctures of the side planes 2 with the front plane or with each other at the rear or with the tail plane are preferably radiusedl as a i shown at 6land 7 respectively, Figures 2a1'iid '2 The longitudinal and transverse sections of theside'wings are preferably such that what is commonlyternied the centreof pres- N a sure moves in a stabillzing direction on var ation of incidence and yaw andsuch'move- I ment may be aided by a transverse dihedral.
" The slope back of the side wingstogether' with their transverse sections are so arranged as to right the machine following a yaw due o to rolling, and the junction of the side wings mentto the tail plane 5 of elevators 8, rudder 9 and fins 10 of suitable form. The body of the machine is indicated at 1,1, the engines'at 1 Referring to Figures 4 and 'lines'represent ahorizontal or datum surwith thet'ail plane or with themselves may be arranged to assist in this action.
7 Suitable provision is made, for theattach- 12 with under ca'rriages '13 supported by struts in any desired manner. 1
5, the broken face and wherethe base line of? particular camber section coincides with said datum line as at the points 13 it indicates that the un'dersurface of the plane at that point is touching vision'of surfaces'of small orfractional as pect ratio and comprise the aerofoils-f15,'15w formed separately from the wings and located preferably, as'shown in Figures 1, 2 and 9, atfa considerable distance from the longitudinal axis of the'machine towards or beyond each wing-tip. The aerofoils 15, 15m
may :be located aboveoras shown below the K ,7 level of the wings andtheir upper and lower surfaces may each I or both be cambered" or 7 said surfaces may be sensibly flat. The aerofoils are pivotally mountedon axes 16 (Fig ure 9) carried by a suitableyframework '17 secured to the wings, said axes being disposed approximately at right angles to the direc- "tion, oflift and to the longitudinal axis of the machineso that when not in use said aerofoilslie with their surfaces approximately v n vel as desired under the control of the pilot,
horizontal and sothat their incidenceca-n be increased over a wide range either positively The aerofoils are preferably so connected to the control lever in the cockpit that'the incidence of one is increased and thatof the QTocarrythisiintoeffect V wheel'18'is; secured on the end 'of'a spindle other decreased to an equivalent amount by one motion of the control lever or wheel in the usual manner, and the pivotal axis is so disposed relativelyto the chord of either aerofoil as to provide, from the average leverage of the centre of pressure of the forces brought into play such movement, a suitable resistance'atth'e control leverpor wheel, o
c As shown on the drawings, small aspect ,ratio aerofoils' as above describedmay, if desired-,beused incombinati on with wing ailerons of-the usual type. According to one embodiment of this combination, the ordinary wing ailerons may be used;.alo-ne in the fusual manner during flight high and moderate speeds, but may be arranged to be thrown out "ofuse andthe control taken up bythe small aspect ratio aerofoils whenlow speeds or large angles are reached. In this particular embodimentor when small aspect ratiofaerofoilsareused without the ordinary wing ailerons, thesmall aspectratio aerofoils'.
may be set at or near the floatingangle of incidence of approximately 110-, lift Whatever the speed while the machine i'sin lateral trim, so thatfull reserve for change of incidence for purposes of control isalways retained. V a
,- .Anexample of control operating mecha} nism'willnow be described with reference to Figures 6 to 9 of the accompanying drawings. 'A typeofrlateralvcontrol operating mechanism of known form consisting of a control wheel 18 is [provided with jsup-plementary pulleys 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23,-sothat the control maybe by (a) ordinary ailerons alone; (6) ordinary ailerons and small as;
pect ratio aerofoils combined, and "(0) small aspect ratio aerofoils alone. Additional pulleys. or other gear are also provided for adjustmentof the incidence vof both of'the small aspectratio aerofoils together to about their angle ofno lift. 1 i
the usual control 24 'mounted in a bearing provided at the upper end of the control stick 26 and at the "forward end of thisspindle are secured two pulleys 19,20 to;which are: connected the i usual control wires 27,285 attached 'tothe horns 29 and 30 onthe ordinary ailerons 4 by means of which, theyare operated biyfa simple rotative movement of the wheel': 18. in either "direction; lThreefurther pulleys 21, 22 and 23 are mounted, adjacent the-pul ley 20,and;the boss 31 of e'ach ofsaid pulleys is furnished with groovesfor the like 32 to enable samegto beengaged'bysplin'es 33 provided on the forward end of a sleeve 34 which fits over and slides longitudinally" on and around the spindle 24, said splines'bein'g so arranged thatany two adjacent pulleys may be locked together as-desired 'so that the low aspectratioaerofoilslf), 15% can be operated to move simultaneously in similar or differential directions. 2 The bosses of the'pulleys 21, 23 are formed so that when the splined sleeve3j4 is out of engagement therewith said pulleyswill rotate freely on the spindle 24 and sleeve 34 respectively; the pulley 22 is at all times in engagement with the splines on the sleeve 34. .To the rear end of the sleeve '34 is secured a bar, wheel or other device 35 the ends or peripheryf36 of which are arforemost pulleys 21, 22 are locked together by the splined sleeve 34 and to this end a collar37 is secured to the sleeve 34 adjacent the rear face of the pulley 23, a seoondcollar 38 being slidably mounted on the sleeve with a coilfspring 39 of suitable strength locatedbetween the two collars, the loose collar 38being arranged to bear against the bearing in which-the sleeve 34 is slidably mounted. a j
Suitable means are provided for preventing anyendwise movement of the spindle 24 apart from the control stick 26, and such means may consist of a bar secured at one end to. the control stick, the other being shaped to enable it to engage with the forward end of the spindle 24 as shown. The bosses of the several pulleys arearranged to bear against each other or suitably formed thrust bearings may be interposed between each boss. Endwise movement of said pulleys may be prevented by the provisionof an arm 40% secured to the control stick 26 or to thearm 40 as shown.
-The method of connecting up the various 7 control wires for the aeroioils 15, 150a will now bedescribed with particular reference to Figure 9. The aerofoil 1520 is controlled by ion the single wire 41 whichis secured to the pulley 22 at '42, the free endsbeing secured fore and aft of the aerofoil. The aerofoil 15 is controlled by the single wire 43 secured to and connected to the controlwire 43 at the points 47.
The method or operation of the controls is" as follows :The ordinary ailerons 4 are controlled by the wheel 18 acting on the pulleys 19 and20 as-above described. The aerofoils l5 and 1500 are actuated differentially by locking togetherthe pulleys 21 and 22.
As it willbe necessary in certain circumthe bar 35 is drawn rearwardly towardsthe wheel 18 againstthe'action of the spring 39 so as to withdraw the splines 33 from en- 7 gagement with the grooves in the pulley 21 and atthe same time lock together the pulleys 22 and 23. If the bar 35 and thereby sleeve 34 is now turned to a point on the dial indicated by the arm on the sleeve, the aerofoils will bemoved simultaneously in the sa'me 'direction to the requisite extent and when this is set the sleeve 34 is allowed to return under the influence of the spring to its normal position so that the aerofoils may be adjusted differentially. i V
If said aerofoils aftersetting are not required for difierential use suitable means are provided for locking the sleeve against rota tion. in the neutral position as set. Alternatively said aerofoils may be required for differential use alone, in which case the suitable means are provided for locking the spindle against rotation in an arranged neutral position.
The rudder and fins may, if desired, be duplicated and the rudder and elevators are actuated and controlled in the usual manner.
It will be understood that the low aspect ratio'aerofoils may, if desired, be used as airbrakes for which purpose their incidence when not differentially deflected may be reset, as above described, to a considerable positive or negative angle thereby considerably increasing the drag, after which they may, if desired, be operated differentially.
It will also be understood that the invention is not limited to the particular method of operation or control as above described as various of the selective adjustments above described may be dispensed with.
The plan form of the low aspect ratio aerofoils may, in general, approximate to the rectangular shape, but they may, if desired, be of elliptic or other desired form, and as regards their aspect ratio, the spanmay be less or somewhat greater than the mean chord. :The upper and lower surfaces may be cambered longitudinally, or transversely or both for increasing efiiciency. The aerofoils may be attached to the wings by double tripod erections and pivoted as above described at their sides, or they may be pivoted within their spans.
It will further be understood that the invention isnot limited to the approximately V triangular form ablove described asit may be I with the main and tail r trapezium-form.
found practical to-increase thefdistance between the rearward ends .of the low aspect ratio planes, so! that theymay approximate The invention maybe applied to aeroplanes,
, seaplanes or flying-boats of the'monoplane or 7 having an engme mounted there1n,ma1n and multiplane type;
-' 'Wh'enuthe low; aspect. ratio 5 aerofoils; are
used inconnectionwithsea-planes or flyingboats havingthe supporting and stabilizing nished with a keel ,or step or be otherwise cambered main and tailplanes, rudders andv b elevators for supporting said body, ailerons shaped tolmake same suitable to act'as floats;
VVhatIclaimis: j ;1 a V V 1'. A fiyingmachine comprising a body,
* hinged tosaid main planes, a control wheel in said body, means connectlng saldwheel VWltll sald-allerons 1n comblnatlon-wlth fixed cambered supporting surfaces of small aspect ratioconnecting'the main planes-with the tail planes, supplementary meansiof aerodynamt cal lateral control comprising aerofoils of small aspect ratio,.located at a dist-ancefrom the longitudinal axis on 'eachside of the machineand means, connecting said aerofoils with the control Wheel so that the control of the machine may be elfectedby ordinary aile I rons alone, by ordinary ailerons and small aspect ratio aerofoils combined and by small aspect ratio aerofoils alone.
ing an engine mounted therein, main and tail I planes, rudders and elevators for supporting saidbo'dy, ailerons hinged to said main planes,
a control Wheelin said body, means connect ing said wheel with said ailerons in combina- I tionwith fixed supporting surfaces of small aspect ratio connectingt-he main planes with I V the tail'p lanes, sothatthe total: fixed supporting surfaces approximate a triangle, supplementary means of'aerodynamical lateral control'comprising aerofoils of small aspect ratio,
located at a distance from the longitudinal I alone, by ailerons and small aspect ratio aerofoils combined and by small aspect ratio aero--.
foilsalone. H V
3., A. flying machine comprising a body,
' cambered main and tail planes, rudders and v elevators forv supporting said body, ailerons hinged to said planes, acontrol wheel in said'body, meansconnecting said wheel with said ailerons combined with fixed cambered supporting surfacesof small aspect ratio connecting the main planeswith the tail planes,
- supplementarymeans of aerodynamical lateralcontrol comprising; aerofoils ofsmall asr planes, a rectangular 2. Afiying machine comprisinga body haw;
p ect ratiolocated at a distance from the longitudinalaxis on eachside of themachine towards the wing tips, aerofoils and means con-,
necting said aerofoils with the ailerons and control Wheel sothat the angle of incidence of the aerofoils and-ailerons simultaneously.
4. A flying machine comprisinga body tail planes, rudders and elevators forsupporting' said body, aileronshingedto said main planes, a control wheel in'said body, means connecting said .Wheelwith said ailerons, fixed supporting surfaces of small aspect ratio connecting the main planes with the tail planes, so that the totalfixed supporting surfaces approximate a triangle, supplementary means of aerodynamical lateral control comprising aerofoils of small aspect ratio, the
span of which is less than the mean chord,
located at a distance from thelongitudinal axis of the machine towards the wing tips, means connecting said aerofoils. with the ailerons hinged to the main planesand means connecting said aerofoils with the control wheel so that the angle ofincidence of the aerofoils and ailerons may be adj uste-dsimultaneously; V
- 5. A flying machinecomprising a body hav ing. an engine mounted therein, fixed and movable surfaces of normal aspect ratio for supporting said body, a control wheel in said body, 'meansconnecting saidcontrol wheel withicertain of the. movable supporting surfaces, combined with fixed supporting surfaces; of, small. aspect ratioiconnecting the may be adjusted fixed front supporting surfaces with'the fixed supporting surfaces approximate a triangle,
supplementary movable means of aerodynam- 1cal lateral control. comp-rising surfaces of smallaspect ratiolocated at adist'ancefrom the longitudinal axis of the machine and means connecting said surfaces with the conifixed and movable surfaces of normal aspect ratio for supporting said body, a control wheel in said body, means connecting said control whee-l with certain-of the movable supportingsurfaces combined with fixedisupe porting surfaces of small aspect, ratio connecting the; fixed front SHPPOItlIlgSHlfflCt-ZS with the fixecl tail supporting surfaces, supplementary movable means of aerodynamical -tailsupporting surfaces so that the total fixed lateral control locatedlat a distance from the longitudinal axis on each side of the machine and means connecting said surfaces with the control wheel so asto enable the angle of incidence of oneof said surfacesto be increasedand that of the other decreased-to an equivalent amount. 7 v e p 7. A flying machine comprising a body having an engine mounted therein, fixed and ratio aerofoils so that the angle of incidence body, means connecting said control wheel with certain of the movable supporting surfaces combined with fixed supporting surfaces ofsmall aspect ratio connecting the fixed front supporting surfaces with the fixed tail supporting surfaces so that the total fixed supporting surfaces approximate a triangle, supplementary movable means of aerodynamthe longitudinal axis on each side of the ma- V chine beyond each wing-tip and means connecting said surfaces with the control wheel so as to vary the angle of incidence of said aerofoils simultaneously in the same direction. 7
8. In a heavier than air flying machine the combination of main planes of usual aspect ratio with lifting surfaces of small aspect ratio comprising. a cambered front plane of considerable aspectratio joined to a tail plane by means of cambered side planes of small aspect ratio, supplementary means'of' aerodynamical lateral control at large angles of incidence comprising surfaces of fractional aspect ratio located at a distance from the longitudinal axis on each side of the machine and means for controlling said low aspect may be varied as desired.
' 9. In a heavier than air flying machine the combination of main planes of usual aspect ratio with lifting surfaces of small aspect ratio arranged to approximate in shape a triangle, said surfaces comprising a cambered front plane of considerable aspect ratio joined 7 to a tail plane by means of cambered side planes of small aspect ratio, wingtips on said front plane extending beyond the junction of the side planes therewith and movable on a transversely disposed axis, supplementary bored side planes of small aspect ratio, wing tips on said front plane extending beyond means of aerodynamical lateral control at large angles of incldence comprising a low aspect ratio aerofoil-loca-ted at a distance from the longitudinal'axis on each side of the machine towards the wing tips and means for controlling said low aspectratio aero foils so that the angle of incidence may be varied as desired. 1
10.1113, heavier than air flying machine the junction of the side'planes therewith and movable on a transversely disposed axis, supplementary means of *aerodynamic al lateral control at large angles of incidence comprising. surfaces of fractional aspect ratio 10- .cated-ata distance from the longitudinal axis on each side of. the machine towards the wing tips and below the level of the front plane,
maybe varied as desired.
.11. A flying machine comprising a body having an engine mounted therein, main and tail planes, rudders and elevators for supporting said body, ailerons hinged to said main planes, fixed supporting surfaces of small aspect ratio connecting the main planes With the tail planes, supplementary means of aerodynamical lateral control comprising aerofoils of small aspect ratio, a control mechanism in said body comprising a control shaft, a wheel secured on said shaft, a plurality of pulleys mounted on said shaft, means connecting certain of said pulleys to the ailerons and aerofoils and means for locking certain of said pulleys together so that the control of the machine may be by ordinary ratio aerofoils combined and by small aspect ratio aerofoils alone.
' 12. A flying machine comprising a body having an engine mounted therein, main and tail planes, rudders and elevators for support ing said body, ailerons hinged to said main planes, fixed supporting surfaces of small aspect ratio connecting the main planes with the tail planes, so that the total fixed supporting surfaces approximate a triangle, supplementary means of aerodynamical lateral control'comprising aerofoils of small aspect ratio, the span of which is less than the mean chord, located at a distance from the longitudinal axis of the machine towards the wing tips, a control mechanism in said body, comprising a control shaft, 21. wheel mounted on one end of said shaft, a pulley secured on the other end of said shaft and means connecting said pulley with the ailerons on the main bebyordinary ailerons alone, by ordinary ailerons and small aspect ratio aerofoils combined and by small aspect ratio 'aerofoils alone.
' 13. A flying machine comprising a body having an engine mounted therein, fixed and movable surfaces of normal aspect ratio for supporting said body, a control mechanism in said body, means connecting said mechaapproximate a triangle, supplementary movable means of aerodynamical lateral control With thecontrol mechanism so as to. control i the angleof incidence of said .surfacesi '14. Afiying machine having zumain plane oft-high aspect ratiogand a tail plane of usual c v aspect ratio integrally, connected tcgethen 7 by side Wings ofsinallaspect ratio, the Whole :being continuously cambered; the main plane extending beyond the side Wings to" an eX- tentapproximately equal toihalf th'egmaximum Width of the. aperture between'th'e side wings PERCIVAL rigsni'r wumucnei i 1