US 1881420 A
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Oct. 4,1932. -T. B. MUNROE' 4 1,881,420
WALLB OARD AND JOINT MADE THEREWITH I I I Fi'ledMarch 10, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I u meg Oct. 4, 1932. T. B. MUNROE WALLBOARD AND JQEINT MADE THEREWITI-l Filed March 10. 19:50
, 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Gnnentor Gttorneg laid in accordance with this invention; Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate 1n transverse secthe room side;
Patented Oct. 4 1932 I UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE TREADWAY B. MUNROE, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOB TO THE .CEIDTEX COMPANY, I 01 CHICAGOfILLINOIS, A. CORPORATION OF DELAWARE WALLBOAB AND .rontngmnn 'rn'nanwrrn Application and March 1t), 1930; Serial No. 434.725.
This invention relates to wallboard units and joints made therewith having for its object to provide a construction which is simple in parts and more eflicient in use than those heretofore proposed.
With these and other objects in view the invention resides in the novel details of construction and combinations of parts as will be disclosed more fully hereinafter and particularly pointed out in the claims.
Referring to the accompanying drawings forming a part'of this specification in which like numerals designate likeparts in all the views,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a corner of aroom the vertical walls of which have beenprovided with wallboard units made and tional detail modifications of the preferred joint illustrated in Fig. 6; I
- Fig. l'is a sectional view taken longitudinally of a board made in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 5 is a perspective detail view of a section ot a completed wall, clearly showing the manner of laying the wallboard units on studding and the application of plaster to Fig. 6 is a much enlarged sectional view of the preferred form of joint construction between studs I Fig. 7 is another modification of the joint contemplated by this invention; and
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken transverse- 1y of a wallboard unit, this figure and Figure 4 being respectively vertlcal and hori-,.
zontal sections of a unit in position for attaching to studding.
It is well known that walls have heretofore been made .from a plurality of units known as wallboards, plaster boards, etc., but one of the principal objections to said previously known types is thatwhen the finishing coat of plaster or other material is'spread over the surfaces of the .units and allowed to dry,
there occurs a crack in said finish. Thetime at which said finish cracks is not always the same, due to varying conditions such as thickness of the finishing coat, temperature exopening into which the plaster -will flow to tremes, humidity, etc. A curious fact is that i these cracks, in substantially all cases, occur. at 'a joint between two adjacent underlying wallboard units. W U
The reason for this is that each wallboard unit as a whole is incapable of absorbing the maximum of expansion and contraction in. the wall and which therefore localizes at the joints. In other words, the prior known wallboards have been formed as a rather compacted mass so that there is-little or no give in the finished unit, resulting in the unit as a whole stretching and shrinking under the expansion and contraction encountered through changes of temperature, humidity, etc. 1
Heretofore walls have been constructed in sections with joints between the sections formed by a "tongue fitting a complementary recess in the adjacent board to provide a lapping efi'ect. Also joints have beenconstructed heretofore wherein one section has an edge which abuts the edge oi: the next adjacent section. Still further, fiber boards have been proposed 7 having lap joints wherein the tongues are dimensioned and shaped so as to form a recess on one face of the board which, with the similar and complementaryrecess of the adjacent board, provides a groove or increase its thickness at e joint. The pla'ster is thus reinforced'or-proyided with a rib by such construction, the purpose being. to compensate for the buckling of the wallboard without cracking the heavy plaster sheet. This invention extends beyond such heretofore known constructions as will presentlybe made clear. v
The purpose of this invention is to provide a wallboardwhich, while more or less rigid,
,is so constructed that it will yield materiall I Therefore, wallboards formed by felting.
brous stock are particularly brought within the scope of this invention, but other boards such'as plaster'boards and similar substantially rigid constructions may also have them edges formed as hereinafter specified in order to prevent the applied sheets from .bemg. forced apart at their adjacent edges wjthae sultant cracking of the finishing decoration I applied to the room surface of the wall,
which often occurs due to shrinkage-and vibration or settling of the building. In the case of fibrous boards the fibers are first subj ected to preliminary treatment which is sufficicnt to loosen the outer encrusting layers and cementitious material but insufficient to destroy the material characteristics of the fibers such as strength, flexibility, etc. These treated fibers are then formed into a sheet of about one-half inchthickness which is subsequently dried and cut into units of suitable lengths and widths for convenient handling in transportation and commercial use. The dimensions of said units are preferably made as multiples of the standard spacing of framing members in building construction a popular size being sixteen inches by twelve feet.
The edges of each unit are then acted upon by suitable cutters to form the edges such as shown in Figures 4 and 8 although other outters can be substituted whereby the edge formations shown in Figures 2, 8, and 7 may be provided. Such a board is yieldable, porous, moisture absorbing and free to give under expansion and contraction.
Such a. fibrous board, however, has presented a real building problem of compensating for the expansion and contraction, anti buckling or waving action of the boar without crtcking the plaster secured on the boards at the joints thereof. Particularly'is this so because this type of board readily absorbs moisture and is provided on its faces with a multiplicity of extending fibers constituting a plaster receiving and securing face, which extending fibers serve to securely bond the plaster applied thereto. This fiber board when laid therefore has a differential of shrinkage or expansion of the board at the upper and lower portions thereof as a result of which there is a tendency for the horizontal unsupported edges to move angularly, and this invention is particularly dirooted to the reduction if not total elimination of this positive movement in the edge portions of the boards.
As will be more particularly pointed out later the multiplicity of extending fibers on the plaster receiving face of'these boards securely lock the heavy plaster coating applied thereto. Further the edges of these boards are provided with bevel portions which, when the boards are assembled in the wall construction, constitute V-shaped grooves which form a V shaped plaster rib having an extremely long line of diagonal reinforcement through the plaster at the joints. Since the boards are laid with their long dimension crossing the studding there will be a long line of V-shaped plaster rib extcnding'between and across the studs;
Moisture will ordinarily cause; an outward bulging of the boards when in place, resulting in cracks in the plaster. To overcome bond on the bevel portions of the boards,
causes such bevel to a certain extent to leave the plaster at the V-shaped groove whereby an angular movement of the tongue and recess constituting the joint is permitted without placing any great strain on the plaster. An additional and very important feature of this invention lies in the provision of means to keep the adjoining horizontal edges in contact during such buckling or weaving thereby providing a positively closed horizontal joint between the boards.
In the preferred form of construction the rectangular board 1 has its parallel shorter edges trimmed by cutters as shown in Figure 4, providing an abutting edge surface 2 at each end which is perpendicular to the back face 3 of the board, and oblique surfaces 4 constituting bevels disposed between the surfaces 2 and the front face 5 of the board, said front face being parallel to the back face. In forming the wall of a room the boards are laid lengthwise across the studs 6, which are placed in standard building construction on sixteen inch centers, with the vertical joint between two contiguous boards centered on a stud as clearly indicated in Figures 1 and 5, nails being driven through the edge sections, of each board adjacent the bevels 4 into'the supporting stud, the board being secured to the intermediate studs as indicated at 7.
The boards are laid in horizontal courses starting at the floor, the wall being built up tier by tier toward the ceiling with the vertical joints staggered, as indicated at 8 in Figure 1, thus adding strength to the finished wall, and creating a continuous horizontal oint 9,
The other, or longitudinal, edges of each --board are peculiarly formed so that one edge is trimmed to provide a shouldered recess or rabbet 10 while on the other edge is formed a flange 11. In other words each board has one longitudinal edge formed with a rabbet and the'opposite parallel longitudinal edge formed with a flange, so that, when the units Figure 5. In forming the or flange 12, and
left an extending portion the front face 5 is provided with edge bevels 13 and 14, the former bevel formed on the flange 12 and the latter bevel meeting the inner extremity of the flange 11.
all four edges;
-' However, each rabbet andthe flange com} face 15 of the rabbet is not formed perpendi'e Thus the. room side of the board has similar bevels on i i is (Eli
u arly to the rear face 3 of the board but is cut obliquely thereto to form an edge portion 16 of acute cross-section extending over a portion of the rabbet; Likewise the ex- 5 treme end of the flange 11 is not formed perpendicularly to the plane of the board but is provided with a surface 17 parallel to the surface 15, and since all boards are similarly formed, it will readily be seen that, when the boards are nailed to the studs in a'common plane, the surface 15 ofone board will contactingly coincide with the surface 17 of the .adjacentboard. Further, the inclination of these surfaces will cause a tighter engageward pressure is applied in securing a board of an upper course, the edge 18 of the flange of the upper board being locked in the rabbet of the board therebelow, and the bevels 13 and it forming a V-shaped groove into which the plaster or other decorative finishing coat '25 may extend for reinforcement. The bevels 4: along the shorter sides of the boards provide a similar V-shaped groove forming the reinforcing rib 26 in the plastic wall finish which lies in registry with a stud 6. Therefore it will be seen that this provides a reinforcing rib in the wall finish at the joints between the hoards which overcomes the cracking of said finish at these points. lln this connectionit should be stated that the cutters in forming the bevels i, 13 land M leave these surfaces relatively smooth as compared to the rough faces 3 and 5 with their extending fiber ends. Therefore, the plastic coating will be strongly bonded to the rough face 5 butwill be less strongly bonded on the aforesaid bevels so that, during the expansion and contraction of the boards inthe wall, the beveled surfaces may leavethe reinforcing plastic ribs and thus prevent the transfer of the cracking strains to the plaster.
ln Figure 2 the construction is as hereto fore described with theexception that the combined thickness of the flanges ll and '12 is less than the thickness of the board with the result that two adjacent hoards will have formed at their joint and between said flanges a space 30 into which the plaster or finishing coat 25 may keyingly enter as indicatedlat 31 to additionally hold the plaster coat to the Figure 3 illustrates a joint exactly like that shown in Figure 6 except that instead of a V-shaped plaster receiving groove there is provided a rectangular groove formed by the surfaces 32 and 33 each perpendicular to the face 5 of the board. Also the heretofore dement of the adjoining boards when 'down- 1 that the recess 10 is thus provided with scribed flange 12 has been shortened in length in this modification;
In the form of jointshown in Figure 7 the bevels 13 and 14 are replaced by curved surfaces 34 and 35 respectively whereby the plaster reinforcing rib 36 is strengthened by the elimination of angles between said rib and the main plaster sheet. Also,vin this modification, the plane surfaces 15 and 17 heretofore described are replaced by the curved surfaces 37 and 38 respectively, the chordal plane of each curved surface having substantially the same degree ofinclinationto the plane of the rear face 3 of-the board as the plane of the surface 15 in the form construction shown in Figure 8, whereby a locked joint is assured.
Thus it will be seen that by this invention there is provided a joint between two contiguous wallboards placed in edge to edge relation, which is formed by two flanges, one flange complementally fitting an undercut rabbet formed adjacent the other flange whereby the joint is retained closed under pressures applied transversely to the joint. This particular joint is a lap joint or one wherein the two flanges are formed at the corners of each board as contradistinguished from the well known tongue and groove joint, each flange being formed by a recess cut in the other corner ofthe same edge of the board. Further it is to be particularly noted that the pocket 19 is formed by the sur-. face 15 which extends beyond the limit of said pocket whereby the corner 16 truly projects or overhangs said pocket, all to the end an undercut end.'
lit is obvious that those skilled in the art I may vary the details of construction and arthis application isan improvement-thereof.
What is claimed is 2-- 1., A heat insulating wallboard plaster base of yielding fibrous and moisture absorbable character comprising a plurality of boards set edge to edge, the adjacent edges of the boards being bevelled to form a substantially V-shaped groove adapted to 'receive plaster, the edge of one board being provided with a recess and the edge of the other board being provided with a tongue fitting within the recess the outer end of the tongue and base of the recess complementally relieved to interlock and form a self-sealed heat insulating jointi 2. A heat insulating wallboard plaster base of yielding fibrous and moistureabsorb-- able character comprising a plurality of boards set edge to edge, the adjacent edges of the boards being bevelled to form a substantially V-shaped groove adapted to receive plaster, the edge of one board being provided with a recess and the edge of the other board being provided with a tongue fitting within the recess the outer end of the tongue and base of the recess complementally relieved to interlock and form a self-sealed heat insulating joint, said V-shaped groove being slightly offset relative to said joint.
3. A heat insulating wallboard fibrous base of yielding fibrous and moisture absorbbase of yielding fibrous and moisture absorbable character comprising a plurality of boards set edge to edge, the longitudinally disposed edges of the boards being bevelled to form a substantially V-shaped longitudinally disposed groove, the edge of one board being provided with a recess and the edge of the other board being provided with a tongue fitting within the recess the outer end of the tongue and base of the recess complementally relieved to interlock and form a self-sealed insulating joint, the abutting vertical edges of said boards being also bevelled to provide a vertically disposed groove.
5. A wallboard of yielding fibrous nature having an edge formed with a protruding flange at the bottom thereof and with a bevel extending from the inner end of .the flange rearwardly to the top of the board, and the opposite edge of the board provided with a rabbeted portion forming a recess on the under side thereof and having formed on its upper side a bevelled portion extending from the top of the board rearwardly to the end.
of said rabbeted portion, the base face of said rabbeted recess and the end face of said flange being complementally relieved for interlocking engagement respectively with complementing flanges and rabbeted recesses of adjacent boards.
6. As a new article of manufacture a board having at its opposite edges recesses respectively facing in opposite directions at opposite sides of the board thereby forming on each edge an extending flange, the inner end of one of said recesses being undercut to form a pocket, and the end of the flange on the opposite edge of the board complementally formed with respect to said pocket.
7. As an article of manufacture a-plaster base composition fiber board un1t having opposite edges provided with reinforcedfianges respectively facing in opposite directions at opposite face sides of the boards, said edges being provided with bevelled portions on the outer face of the board, one bevelled portion extending from the end of one flange, the other extending from the base of the other flange, said flanges being adapted to complement similar flanges of other boards when set edge to-edge to form a heat insulating joint, one of said flanges relieved from its end toward the. adjacent board face, the other flange having formed at its base a complementing recess,
8. A plaster basewall board unit having oppositely bevelled eiid edges and oppositely bevelled side edges, one of the side edgeshaving a rabbet therein and the otherside edge having a flange thereon, the rabbet at its base and said flange at its en'dcomplementally relieved to provide a locked joint with a similarly formed board when said boards are set edge to edge.
9. A plaster base wall board unit provided around all the edges thereof with a bevel on the front side of the board,'whereby when the boards are applied with the edges in consaid board having one a rabbet and the other a flange on the rear side of the board, said rabbet at its base relieved inwardly from the adjacent board face and said flange at its end complementally relieved and engageable with similar portions of an adjacent board to form a closed joint unyielding when plaster is applied thereover.
10. A plaster base wall board unit having oppositely bevelled side edges, the side edges having a rabbet in one edge and a flange on,
the other, said rabbet at its'base relieved inwardly from the adjacent board face, and the flange at its end complementally relieved and fashioned for interlocking engagement with a flange and a rabbet of a similarly formed board when set in edge to edge rela tion.
11. A wall comprising a pluralityof adjoining plaster receiving board units having lapped joints comprising overlapping portions of reduced thickness along the opposite edges of the units, recesses on the outer side along said joints and plaster applied to the outer sides of the units and filling said re cesses to form added thickness of plaster at said joints, the underlying lap edges of said units relieved from their ends toward the adjacent unit face to enter complementally relieved portions of adjacent units and be wedgingly engaged, whereby the joints remain closed during the application 'of the plaster as well as under boa-rd yielding ini 12. An insulated wall comprising spaced studding members, plaster receiving fiber board units adapted to prevent the passage of heat applied and securedv edge to edge thereto, each board adapted to form with the adjacent boards lap joints extending across and between saidstudding, said lap joints I comprising complementing flange and rabbet portions on-the edges of adjacent boards, the edge of an underlying flange relieved at its end inwardly to the adjacent board face, the
' rabbet at its base complementally relieved to provide coactingv Wedging portions whereby the passage of heat is further prevented at all said joints, recesses on the outer side of said boards along said joints and a plaster sheet applied to the outer sides of the boards and filling said recesses, to form added thickness of plaster at said joints, whereby there is produced a plasterreinforced structure.
13. A plaster base comprising a series of plaster receiving board units adapted to be arranged adjacent to each other in the same plane, and having roughened outer surfaces for holding a sheet of-plaster applied to the base, each of said boards being provided at opposite edges with reverse flanges adapted to overlap and complement similar flanges of adjoining boards, the under flange of each board unit having a reduced end portion interlocking with a complementing recess formed at the edge of the adjoining board.
In testimony whereof I aflix m signature,