US 1881826 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 11, 1932. lb, MCQUADE 1,881,826
Filed Dec. 22, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet l a M w Q m I a i n a 1% Q 2 Q L?) 8, Q I h v.) k C I n kl} iii? on azm pfi gizf,
3 g h R g g Oct. 11, 1932. D, MCQUADE 1,881,826
APPARATUS FQR CARBONIZ ATION OF COAL 4 I Filed Dec. 22. 1927 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Oct. 11, 1932. D, MCQUADE 1,881,826
APPARATUS FOR GARBONIZATION 0F COAL Filed Dec. 22. 1927 3 Sheets-She'sl'. 3
- Patented Oct. 11. 1932' UNITED STATES JAMES DORSEY MCQUADE, OF MOUNDSVILLE, WEST VIRGINIA, ASSIGNOR T COAL.
GARBONIZATION COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE I APPARATUS FOR CARBONIZATION 0F COAL .Application filed December 22, 1927. Serial No. 241,850.
as regards the value of the oils thus produced the carbonization should be carried on at a relatively low temperature so as to avoid cracking of the condensible vapors to form fixed gases.
Practical success of this low temperature carbonization commercially depends largely Cal on cost of construction of the apparatus used, its efiiciency and cost of operation.
It is the object of my invention to provide an apparatus which will be simple and relatively inexpensive to construct and operate, will be well adapted for regulation to maintain the temperature required for effective operation and will be highly efiective in use as regards quantity of material treated and quality of the products as well as economy of heating fuel.
With the objects above indicated and other objects hereinafter explained in view my invention consists in the construction and combination of elements hereinafter described and claimed.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a central vertical longitudinal sectional view of an apparatus adapted for coal carbonization embodying my invention.-
Figure 2 is a longitudinal vertical centralsectional view on an enlarged scale showing the right hand or inlet end of the retort.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 Showing the left hand end 017 discharge end tends through a suitable bearing in a head of the of the retort; and
Figure 4 is a detail View of the driving mechanism.
In the drawings 1 indicates a tubular retort, preferably cylindrical, supported near its ends by suitable masonry 'or brickwork 2 within a chamber 3 which is supplied with heat from any convenient means such as a fire box 4, heated by a suitable burner placed in opening 50 leading from chamber 52, the
fire box 4 being supplied with air through passage 53 in which is placed blower 54 and regulating dampers 55 and 56. At one end, at the left in Figure 1, the retort 1 is closed by a head 5 at the centre of which is an opening 6 surrounded by an inwardly extending cylindrical tube 7 adapted to serve as a bearing for an inner tube 8. At its other end, at the right in Figure 1, is a head 9 having an openinglO at its centre surrounded by an outwardly extending tube 11.
The inner tube 8 is arrangedwithin' and preferably is parallel with and concentric with retort 1. At its left hand end it is provided with an inner ring 12 which fits over and has a bearing on the exterior of inwardly extending tube 8. At its other end inner tube 8 is secured to a head 13 which is secured on a sleeve 14 which is provided at its ends with inner rings 15 and 16 adapted to serve as bearings for a shaft 17. On its right hand end this sleeve 14 carries a gear 18. Shaft 17 is provided at its right hand end with a gear 19. i Y
Inner tube 8 is provided on its exterior with a continuous feed or conveyor screw 20 which as the tube is rotated by power applied to gear 18 on sleeve 14 moves the material within the retort 1 from the right hand end of the retort to the .left hand end from which it falls through discharge chute 21 to a conveyor tube 22 in which 1s arranged a screw conveyor 23.
Within the'central opening 6 of the left hand head 5 is arranged a screw conveyor 24 which extends through inwardly extending tube 7 and tube 25 extending to the left from head 5 and carrying hopper 26. This screw conveyor 24 is carriedv on shaft 27 which exto right openings 30 in the wall of the tube at a distance from the discharge end of reinto discharge chute 21.
Near the right hand end of retort 1 is an opening 32through which volatiles set free by heat from the material within the retort may be drawn oft" to-be subsequently subjected to cooling in the usual way to condense such of the volatiles as may be condensible. A. pipe 33 is coiled about the retort within thechamber 3 having .one end 34 connected with any suitable steam supply and having its other end leading into the interior of the retort at 35 near its discharge end for the purpose of supplying superheated steam to the retort to facilitate the driving off of volatiles. v
In operation the material to be treated such as finely divided bituminous or other coal or other carbonaceous or other material in finely divided condition is fed from hopper 26Tby screw conveyor 24 into the interior of the inner tube 8 and as it is thus discharged into this inner tube the screw conveyor 20 engages it and moves it along the interior of this inner tube, to the right in Figure 1, until it reaches discharge openings 31 through which it passes into the space between the exterior of tube 8 and the interior of retort 1. As the material passes into this space it is engaged by'screw conveyor 30 by which it'is fed towards the discharge end of the retort, to the left in Figure 1, to ultimately be dischar e'dthrough chute 21 to conveyor 22 thro gh which it is moved by screw 23 wherever it is desired to store it or make other use of it.
The products of combustion from fire box 4, in which may be burned any solid or gaseous fuel, passing about retort 1 heat it to such temperature as may be desired. When the material to be treated is coal or other carbonaceous material carrying volatiles which are to be driven off and saved the retort is preferably heated to'about 750 degrees F., thou h the heat ma be higher or lower as may e found desira le. The heat of the retort is conducted or radiated to a greater or less extent to the inner tube 8 and serves to preheat the relatively cool material introduced at its inlet end, at the left in Figure 1, by screw conveyor 24 so that it will be discharged into the space between the exterior of the inner tube and the interior of the retort heated to a temperature at which n moisture and more or less-of the lighter volatiles will begin to pass off.
For most satisfactory operation the material discharged into the space between the exterior of the inner tube and the interior of the retort should be about sufficient in volume to fill this space to about the level of the axial centre of the retort, the material being thus in contact with the lower, and most highly heated portion of the retort. The inner tube is preferably rotatedto cause its screw 30 to feed the material towards the discharge end of the retort intermittingly by a movement in which the inner tube, carrying the feed screw, is rotated first in onedirection, say to the right, through a definite arc, say 45 degrees, then in the other direction, to the left, through a less arc, say 30 degrees, then again to the right through an arc of 45 degrees, and so on. In this way the material is moved forward and back on the heated interior surface of the retort butis moved forward, that is, towards the discharge end, further than it is moved back so that it ultimately reaches the discharge chute, the material thus being in constant contact with the heated wall of the retort for a much greater period of time than if moved continuously in a forward direction. The superheated steam supplied from the coil 33 aids in driving off volatiles. I
Any form of driving mechanism for rotating inner tube 8 so as to effect the movement of the material in the retort as above described may be used. A convenient means for this purpose is shown in Figure 3 and in this construction 40 indicates a shaft driven by any convenient means and carrying gear 41 and pin disc '42; 43 indicates a shaft parallel with shaft 40 and carrying gear 44 equal in diameter with and in mesh with gear 41 and also carryingpin disc 45 corresponding to pin disc 42. Pin discs 42 and 45 are each provided near their peripheries with holes 46 each adapted to receive a pin 47 which serves as a gear tooth to engage gear teeth of agear 48 on shaft 49 parallel with and midway between shafts 40 and 43. The teeth of gear 48 are in mesh with the teeth of gear 18 on sleeve 14 on the left hand end of which is secured head 13 on which is secured the right hand end of inner tube 8. The pins 47 on pin discs 42 and 45 are so arranged that when the pins on one of these discs are in engagement with the teeth of gear 48 those of the other disc are out of such engagement. By this arrangement it will beseen that power applied to shaft 40 to rotate it continuously in one direction will cause gear 48, and through its engagement with gear 18 will cause sleeve 14 and inner tube 8, to rotate intermittingly first in one direction and then in the other, and the number of pins 47 on the pin disc through which gear 48 is caused to rotate inner tube 8 in the direction to cause conveyor screw 20 to move the niaterial'in retort 1 towards the discharge chute 21 will be so proportioned to the pins on the other pin disc that the material will be moved in for- I ably provided with a bracket 60 extending to I claim is the left in Figures 1 and 3, having its under surface adapted to slide on a plate 61 supported on a suitable I beam 62, the right hand end of which extends into the left hand brickwork or masonry column 2. The right hand end of the retort is secured by uprights 63 to I beam 64, the left hand end of which extends into the right hand brickwork or masonry support 2,
The lower end of delivery chute 21 is provided with a flange 65 entering an annular trough 66 carried by the casing of the horizontal conveyor tube 22, this trough being filled with water to form a water seal.
It will, of course, be understood that other means for eflecting the intermittent rotation of the conveyor screw 20 than that above described may be used.
The conveyor screw 30 within inner tube 8 may be rotated continuously or, if preferred may be rotated intermittingly.
While the apparatus as above described is particularly adaptedand intended for use in extracting volatiles from coal so as to leave a product free or nearlyfree from volatiles and adapted for use as a fuel or for other purposes, it may be used for freeing sand or other finely divided material from water.
Having thus described my invention, what 1. The combination of a tubular retort having a discharge opening at one. end, an inner tube arran ed within the retort extending longitudinally thereof, and rotatable therein and having a discharge opening leading to the retort at a distance from the dis-- charge end of the retort and having an inlet opening at a distance from its dischar e openin ,meansfor supplying material to e treate to, the inlet end of the inner tube, means for moving the material so discharged into the inner tube to its discharge end, means for rotating the inner tube intermittingly, means carried by the inner tube for moving the material so discharged into the retort from the discharge opening of the inner tube from the point of discharge to the dischar e end of the retort and means for heating tfie retort. r
2. The combination of a non-rotatable tubular retort having a discharge opening at one end, an inner tube arranged within the retort extending longitudinally thereof and rotatable therein and having a discharge opening leading to the retort at a distance signature.
charge end, means for rotating tlhe iriper tube y t e lnner intermittin'gly, meansccarrie tube for moving the material so discharged into the retort from the discharge opening of the inner tube from the point of discharge to the discharge. end of the retort and means for heating the retort.
. In testimony whereof, I hereunto afiix my JAMES DORSEY MQ UADEQ from the discharge end of the retort and having an inlet opening at a distance from "its discharge opening, means for supplying material to be treated tothe inlet end of the inner tube, means for moving the material so discharged into the inner tube, to its dis-