US 1882256 A
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m 111, mm. B. F. RANDEL 1,8822% MEANS AND METHOD OF REFRIGERATION Filed April 21, 1951 Patented Oct. 11, 1932 UNITED STATES BO IEOLKE RANDEL, OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA MEANS AND METHOD OF REFRIGERATION Application filed Apri1'21,
My invention relates to means and method of refrigeration and is continuation in part of my co-pending application, Serial N 0. 422,57 9 filed Jan. 22, 1930, on method of 5 refrigeration.
In referring back to application, Serial No.. 422,579, as to a common date of conception and disclosure, I refer especially to the form of apparatus as illustrated in Fig. 6 of said application, which discloses a device in which a liquid, as mercury, is raised to an elevated point and in which a descending column of this liquid is used as a means to compress a refrigerating medium. In Fig. 6, I illustrate a thermodynamic means to elevate the liquid, but it is clear that I may use any other means to perform this work.
In my present application, therefore, I employ other means to raise the liquid motive medium,this means consisting of a suitable mechanical pump. However, any other suitable means to raise the liquid motive medium to a high point, so as to permit this liquid to serve as a compressing means while descending to its initial low point is included. And thls means may be continuous or intermittant as a continuous pump, or as the raising of a vessel after being filled with the liquid to a higher elevation in order to allow said liquid to again fall to the lowerelevation.
Briefly, my invention includes using a descendingliquid to compress a refrigerating medium and the raising of this liquid from the low to the high point to enable same to descend, forming a liquid compression column. This descending column of liquid serves also as a means to produce a lowered pressure on the refrigerating medium.
In the figure, I illustrate in more or less diagrammatic manner one form of my apparatus. The different parts being conventional, detail description is not required.
In the illustration, '1 is a conventional pump causing circulation of the liquid mo- 45 tive medium which may. be mercury or any other suitable liquid,in the illustration indicated below surface A. Any pump may be used and any arrangement to supply this a pump with the liquid motive medium may 50 be arranged for. And pump may be located 1931. Serial No. 531,658.
as indicated or at any other point inside or outside refrigerator.
I have illustrated a conventional centrifugal or' gear pump totally enclosed in the liquid to be pumped. This makes a simple arrangement, as it will permit the impeller to run practically in the. open, enclosed only in the casing and will allow free supply to this impeller without stufiing boxes or other complicated mechanical arrangement.
Pump is driven by motor 9 through shaft 10, and the entire assembly is sealed tight in evaporator 6.
The motive liquid medium discharges through pipe 2 into section chamber 3, thence 65 through compressor and condenser 4 and pipe 5 back to evaporator 6.
If the liquid motive medium is assumed to be mercury, it is seen that the arrangement is a common mercury vacuum pump,
drops of mercury in pipe 4 acting as pistons, pulling vapor from 3, compressing same during the descent to deliver same back to 6.
It is also seen that 'I may produce a very low pressure in 3 by this method and if the vapor pulled in with the mercury from 3 is of such a nature that it may be condensed under a small increase of pressure during the descent in 4, then the discharge through 5 will be a mixture of two liquids,mercury and the liquefied refrigerating medium. Pipe 4, therefore, acts as a combined compressorcondenser, and fins 4a will assist in cooling same suflicient for liquefaction. This compressor-condensor may also be water cooled, and also may be shaped in helical form or coil form, to allow longer flow as required for complete cooling and liquefaction.
In evaporator 6, the heavy mercury flows down into mercury well at bottom to again be transferred by pump 1, while the lighter liquefied refrigerating medium floats on top up to a level B. Due to the loweringof the pressure :in 3 and in communicating pipe 8, .7 this liquid in 6 will vaporize and produce. lowering of temperature. Pipes 7 are, introduced to assist in heat transfer and are constructed similar to cooling pipes of large electric transformers. Other arrangement may of course be made for rapid heat ex- 10G change. The evaporator 6 may be enclosed in refrigerator 11, or may be connected with the space to be cooled in some conventional manner. I Suitable refrigerating mediums in my ap paratus are such as have small differencesin a high and low pressures. Water, for instance, would be a suitable medium, having a vapor pressure of 0.00886 lbs. at 32 degrees temperature and 0.696 lbs. at 90 degrees tempera- .ture. The apparatus is .filled with necessary quantities of mercuryand water. All air is evacuated, producing a vacuum, and the apparatus then sealed. The apparatus then operates under'a pressure difference of approximately 0.68 lbs. per square inch, which is readily obtainable by a liquid column of mercury.
Other suitable mediums A are C H Cl Z Z, Z BO, and CS2,
etc. All these substances may be liquefied at say 90 degrees temperature and a few pounds absolute pressure andmay be vaporized at a low pressure easily obtainable .25 pump.
I'claim: 1. A method of refrigeration, the employment of'a liquid column to compress a refrigerating medium and condensing said medium during compression,-both compression and condensation taking place in a common chamber.
2. A method of refrigeration, the employment of a liquid column to cause compression and expansion of a refrigerating medium, condensation of said medium taking place simultaneously with the compression and in a common chamber.
4o raising a liquid motive medium to an elevated position, allowing the said liquid" to fall to a lower position and toutilize the energy of the fall of the said liquid to cause circulation of a refrigerating medium from a lower to a higher pressure and condensing the said refrigerating medium during its compression.
4. In a refrigerating apparatus, means to raise a liquid motive agent from a low to a higher position; means to permit said liquid to mingle with a vaporized refrigerating v agent at-its higher position; means to permit by a mercury,
33. A method of refrigeration comprisingcompression and condensing said agent simultaneously with compression and in a common chamber.
6. In a refrigerating apparatus, an evap orator containinga liquid refrigerant and a liquid motive medium, a pump means connected with said evaporator to force said motive medium through a communication means from said evaporator to the suction end of a compressing means, other communication means for vaporized refrigerant from said evaporator to the said suction end of said compressing means, and wherein the said suction end, the said liquid motive medium and the said vaporized refrigerant mingle, so then the said compressing means, wherein said motive medium is permitted to descend and compress said vaporized refrigerant, said compressing means being fitted with cooling means to cause condensation of said refrigerant during compression, and connected with said evaporator so as to return both the said motive medium and said conde'nsed refrigerant to said evaporator.
7. Compressing a refrigerant by a descending column of a motive liquidmedium, condensin said refrigerant during its compression ischarging both refrigerant and 'the said motive medium to an evaporating space, separating said liquids from each other in said evaporating space, the specific gravity of the motive medium being greater than the specific gravity of the liquid refrigerant, evaporating said refrigerant insaid evaporating space,,and forcing said motivemedium to the compression space to again compress the refrigerant.
-8. A process of refrigeration comprising the compression of a refrigerant vapor by a descending column of a liquid motive medium, condensing said refrigerant vapor to hquid state during said compression and discharging both said liquid medium and said liquefied refrigerant to an evaporating space. 9. A process of refrigeration comprising evaporating a refrigerating medium, compressing and condensing said refrigerant medium simultaneously in a combination compression and condensing space, the compression being caused by a descending column of a motive liquid medium and the condensation by the removal of the heat of compression and vaporization during said compression. 10.- An evaporating space, containing a liquid refrigerant and a liquid motive medium, pump means in connection with said evaporating space to'cause motion of said motive medium, a suction space, communication means between said pump means and said suction space for flow of said motive medium, communication means between said suction space and said evaporating space for flow of refrigerant vapor from said evaporating space, compression space in connection with said suction space to allow said motive medium to descend and cause compression of said refrigerant vapor with cooling means in connection with said compression space to permit cooling and liquefying of said refrigerant vapor during its compression and communication means between said compression space and said eva orating space to return both the liquefied re rigerant and said motive medium to said evaporating space.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at San Diego, California, this 17th day of April, 1931. BO FOLKE RANDEL.