US 1883196 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. l18, 1932. s. wRTz 1,383,196
PROCESS OF REPAIRING MASONRY STRUCTURES Filed Jan. 20, 1930 2 Sheets-sheet 1 y R W# fb. 5 ,47- oem/5V Oct. 18, 1932. L. s. wERTz PROCESS OF REPAIRING 'MASONRY\STRUCTURES 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 20. 1930 YPatented oct. 1s, 193.2
UNITED STATES LoUIs s. wnn'rz, or SHAKER HEIGHTS, omo
i' rnocnss or REPAIRING mAsoNnY srnpc'runns Application led January 20, 1930. Serial No.`422,023.
My invention particularly relates to the repairing of defective areas within masonry structures. These areas may have become defective since the installation of the structure,
due to water leakage or other untoward conditions, or they may have been defective since the time of installation, due to a poor mix, improper pouring, forming of porous areas for various reasons,'etc. Thus, from many causes the interiors of masonry structures become honeycombed with pockets and seamed with leaka e channels, evidences of which upon the sur aces of the structures are no more definite than that there is .surface leakage. Oftentimes, the leakage channels have their source in soil back of the masonry structure and traverse the full width of the structure, encountering and crossing interior ockets'in the route from the rear to the ront of the structure. It is the object of my invention by an improved process and 1mproved means for carrying out the procem, to fill these pockets and channels with grout or other repair material and then to plu thecavity and repair hole through whic the grout has been introduced into the structure.
The claims of this application are limited to that part of my invention relating to the improved process of repairingxmasonry structures.
The annexed drawings and the following description set forth in detail certain steps illustrating. the method of carrying out my ratus by which the process can be carried out, such disclosed steps and apparatus constituting, however, only a few of the various series of steps by which the process may be worked and only a few of the various forms of apparatus vembodyin the principle of the apparatus portion o the invention.
Insaid annexed drawings:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary section of a defective masonry structure, showing various pockets and communicating leakage channels therein, a surface cavity having been formed in the structure by removing the masonry adjacent the surface which has been disintegrated by the leakage, it being innew and improved process and certain appa-v tended to force the repair material into the structure to lill the said pockets and channels in an area adjacent to and back of said cavity;
Figure 2 is a section similar to Figure 1, showing a hole drilled into the' structure through said cavity, a certain expansion shield and bolt beingpositioned at the inner end of the said hole, and a suitable tool applied which is intended to be used for mushrooming the expansion shield so as to cause the latter effectively to close the inner end of-the hole;
Figure 3 is a view showing the expansion shield so mushroomed and the upsetting tool removed; f
Figure 4 is a view of the structure as show in Figure 3, 'after a laterally perforated ipe has been secured to the projecting end ofp the expansion bolt, and after a certain leakagepreventing face plate has been secured over the surface cavity of the structure, and a connection has been made'to a source of repair material; l
Figure 5 is a view after the material has been forced into the pockets and leakage channels;
Figure 6 is a viewafter the repair apparatus has been removed and the hole in the struct-ure has been plugged;
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 2, but showmg a defective masonry structure which it is intended to repair by a method and an assembly of apparatus differing from that utilized in the structure shown in Figure 2;
Figure 8 is a View of the elements shown in Figure 7 after the expansion shield has been mushroomed; I i
Figure 9 is a view showing the connection of a material-feed pipe for furnishing the repair material;
Figure 10 is a view after the pockets and leakage channels have been lled;
Figure 11 is a view after the hole and cavity made in the structure during the repair operation have been plugged;
Figure 12 is a view, similar to Figures 5 and 10, of a section of masonry structure which is being repaired by a method and apparatus which are a combination of the Figure is a fragmentary view of the section of masonry structure shown in Figure 14, 15 after the repair operation has been completed. Referring to the annexed drawings in which the same parts are indicated by thel same respective numbers in the several views, a masonry structure 1 having a front surface 2-'is shown to be honeycombed with various interior pockets 3 and with communicating channels or seams 4 of water leakage which rrun to the surface 2 and discharge over the latter. The location and extent and character of these pockets and leakage channels, of course, are greatly varied, according to the mix of which the original structure was comprised, the manner and climate conditions under which the structure was poured, the location and surrounding environment of the structure, the use to which it is subjected, etc. Assuming that evidences of such defective inner conditions are disclosed by water and moisture on the surface 2, I first chip out the disintegrated material in the area of the surface leak and thus form a cavity 5.
Referring now to the process and apparatus illustrated by Figures 1 to 6inclusive, 4 I drill a hole 7 rearwardly from the cavity v 5, several of the leakage channels 4 which contribute to the disclosed wet surface condition presumably being tapped by this hole 7. Through this hole 7 andby means now to 4-5 be described and in the manner outlined, I force repair material into the structure 1 so as to fill all ofthe channelsl 4 which drain into the hole 7 and all of the pockets 3 communicating with said kchannels 4. In carrying out Athis repair operation I make use of a standard .expansion shield andlcore, such as a bolt or an equivalent device, for blocking the innerend of the hole 7 In the process illustratedin Figures'2 to 6, inclusive, the repair material is ,forced through the side walls of the hole' 7. The expansion shield and core, in these figures, comprises a bolt section 8, Figure 2, having a fiared end 9 and surrounded by a sleeve' 10 of soft lead having a beveled end surface 11 -which is alignedwith the bolt end 9 and a beveled end surface 6 engaged by a beveled surface 13 upon a second lea-d shell 12 of a harder nature than the comparatively soft shell 10. By means of any suitable tool,
such as the U-shaped anvil 14, and a hammer, the hard lead section 12 is pounded down upon the soft lead section 10 so as to mushroom this soft lead section down into a form such as shown in Fi ure 3 whereby 70 the inner end of the hole 7 is completely plugged. The outer end of' the bolt 8 is externally threaded and upon this thread I se cure the inner end of a pipe section 15, Figure 4, which is of such a length as to project outwardly from the hole 7. This pipe 15 is provided with a multiplicity of perforations 15 in that portion of the pipe which is contained within the hole 7. It will be noted that the diameter of the pipe 15 is con- 80 siderably less than that of the hole 7 so that a space 16 in this hole surrounds the pipe 15, through which space the repair material can pass and thus ind entrance to the various leakage channels 4 which drain into the 85 hole 7.
In order that the repair material may not break through that part of the surface of the structure 1which is adjacent the cavity 5 I rovide a leakage-preventing face plate 90 17 o a size such as to cover the opening to the cavityl 5 and tightly clamp this face plate 17 against a sealing rubber washer 17 seated against the surface 2, by means of a nut 18 which cooperates with an eXternally- 95 threaded portion 19 upon the outer end of the pipe 15. A union member 20 also secured to the threaded end'- 19 of the pipe 15 serves to connect the pipe 21 for the repair material which is obtained from the pressure tank 22. The repair material is forced into the pipe 15 and outwardll through the perforations 15 by any suitab e pressure means but preferably this forcing operation is effected by air pressure. 105
After the repair material has been forced into the structure 1 to an extent such that the latter will take no more of the material,
indicating that the channels 4 and the pockets 3 communicating therewith have all been 110 filled, and the space 16 surrounding the pipe 15 and the communicating portion of the cavity 5, have also been thus filled, then the pressure a paratus is disconnected and the pipe 15 an the plate 17 are backed oil the bolt 11 8, the union member 20 being utilized for turning the pipe 15. A suitable masonry plug 23 is then inserted in the hole left by the pipe 15, the expansion shield and bolt 8 thus eing left in the repaired structure, all as shown in Figure 6.
In the method and form of device illustrated in Figures 7 to 11, inclusive, instead of utilizing the bolt 8 as shown in Figures 2 to 6, inclusive, as a core for the expansion 125 shield, I utilize a pipe section 24 which is split at one end and spread into the tapered form plainly shown in Figure 7, the greatest diameter of this spread end being substantially equal to that of the hole 25 formed inthe 130 masonry structure. A soft lead shell 26 and a hard lead shell 27 are utilized in the manner hereinbefore described with reference' to Figures 2 and 3, the front Wall of the split end of the pipe section 24 serving as a backing block upon which to effect the mushrooming of the expansion shield. Then an openended tubular but otherwise imperforate pipe section 28, Figure 9, is secured to the outer end of the pipe, 24. Inasmuch as the repair material in this form'of device is forced completely through the pipe 24 and discharged from the inner end thereof, there is no necessity of providing a leakage-preventing face plate for the surface of the structure adjacent the cavity 5, since the resistance to the passage of the repair material to the front of the structure would. be more than that interposed by the channels 30 Whlch discharge into the inner end of the hole 25. Afteras much repairA material as possible has been forced into the structure 1, the pressure apparatus and the pipe section 28 are disconnected and removed and the hole 25 and cavity closed by a suitable masonry plug 31, Figure 11.
In the method and form of device illustrated in Figures 12 and 13, a pipe vsection 32 is both open-ended and perforated. The inner open end 33 is split and tapered similar to the showin of the bolt 24 in Figure 7, and the side wa l is formed with perforations 34, similar to the showing of the pipe section in Figure 4. The applying of the repair material is similar to the method shown in Figures 4 and 5, and the repair material thus applied effects a repair operation Jequivalent. to a combination of the repair operations shown in Figures 6 and 11. Then the pressure apparatus and the`pipe section 35 and face plate 36 are disconnected and removed, and a in Figure 13. v
In the method and form of device illustrated in Figures 14 and 15, a deep hole 38 is drilled in the masonry structure 1, which hole, of course, intersects many of the leakage channels which contribute to the leaky'con tion which is. evident upon the structure surface 2. Then a pipe section 39 having a split flared end 40 Whose extreme end portion is of substantially the same diameter as that of the hole 38 isforced into the h`ole"38 a substantial distance, and the outer projecting end thereof is split into a plurality of sections 41 which are bent inwardly so that they clamp against the.solid surface`2 and thus prevent the pipe section 39 from being driven into the hole 38 when the expansion shield lead members 42 and 43 are mushroomed down into the position shown in Figure 14.
The outer end of the pipe section 39 is internally screw-threaded so as to detachably connect with a pipe section 44 which receives repair material from a supply pipe 45. The
plug 37 inserted, as shownl repair material is forced into the hole 38 and into the intersecting channels 4 and communicatingfpockets 3 through the open flared inner end o the pipe section 39 to effect the repair operation plainly shown in Figure 14. Then the pipe section 44 and the pressure apparatus are disconnected and removed, the flanged sections 41 of the pipe section 39 are pinched off, and a plug 46 inserted, to cornplete the operation, as shown in Figure 15.
I am not aware that heretofore defective masonry structures have been repaired by forcing grout into the body of the structure to lill the pockets and the leakage channels therein. I am aware that structures which have `become spaced at the rear from a soil or other backing, by reason of shinkage and other' causes, have been improved and strengthened by means of repair material which has been'forced. through holes made in the structures for the purpose, the repair material thus reaching the spaces to the rear of the structures so as to thus provide within said rear spaces masonry coatings or backings or surfaces for 'the structures. I am not aware, however, that masonry structures, whether or not spaced from a rear soil or other backing, have been interiorly repaired by forcing grout or other repair material through leakage channels back to the source of said channels and by the additional filling of the pockets lying adjacent to said channels and principally those pockets which are in open communication with the channels.
It will be understood, of course, that a suitable number of the described repair operations will be effected according to the number and extent of the leaking areas which are in- .and pockets.
What I claim is 1 ,1. The process of repairing masonry structegrated masonry adjacent the surface of the structure to form a repair cavity; forcing filling material into 'the masonry structure through any channels draining into said repair cavity to ll said channels and any communicating pockets; and then plugging the repair cavity.
2. The process of repairing masonry structures which consists, in removing the dis integrated masonry adjacent the surfacev of the structure to form a repair cavity; forcing filling material into the masonry structure through anychannels draining into said repair cavity to fill said channels and any communicating pockets, While preventing the escape of such material from the entrance to said cavity and the adjacent surface portion tures which consists, in removing the disinof the structure; and then plugging the repair cavity.
3. The process of repairing masonry structures which consists, in removing the disintegrated masonry adjacent the surface to form a cavity; forming a repair hole in the structure communicating with said cavity;
`positioning a tubular material conveyor 1n I said repair hole; forcing filling material into the conveyor and into any openings in the' masonry structure adjacent the discharge passage from the conveyor to fill said openings; and then removing the conveyor and plugging the cavity and repair hole.
4. The process of repairing masonry structures Which consists, .in removing the dis-` integrated masonry adjacent the surface to form a cavity; forming a repair hole in the structure communicating with said cavity; positioning a perforated tubular material conveyor in said repair hole; forcing filling material into the conveyor and through the perforationsthereof and into any openings in the masonry structure communicating with said repair hole to fill said openings While preventing the escape of such material from the structure surface adjacent said cavity;
and then removing the conveyor and plugging the cavity and repair hole.
5. The process of repairing masonry structures which conslsts, in forming a repair holein the structure intersecting a leaking surface portion thereof; positioning in said repair hole an open-ended tubular material conveyor; forcing filling material into theconveyor and through the open end thereof and .into any openings in the masonry structure communicating with the repair hole, to fill said openings, While preventing the escape of such material through the repair hole toward the structure surface around the conveyor; and then removin the conveyor and plugging the cavity ma e in the structure by the conveyor.
Signed by me this 18th day of January,
. Louis s. WERTZ.