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Publication numberUS1886113 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 1, 1932
Filing dateSep 15, 1931
Priority dateSep 15, 1931
Publication numberUS 1886113 A, US 1886113A, US-A-1886113, US1886113 A, US1886113A
InventorsLutton George E
Original AssigneeLutton George E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic rifle
US 1886113 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


7 Sheets-Sheet ATTO INVE TOR aELuzan BY M G. E. LUTTON AUTOMATIC RIFLE Filed Sept. l5

Nov. 1, 1932,


Filed Sept. l5. 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 G. E. LUTTON AUTOMATIC RIFLE Nov. l, 1932.

Filed Sept. l5. 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 MSM V G. E. LUTTON 1,886,113

AUTOMATIC RIFLE Filed Sept. 15, 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Nov. l, 1932,

w o s MNR KQ Nov. l, 1932. G, E. I UTToN 1,886,113

AUTOMATIC RIFLE Filed Sept. 15, 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 ss r.`

Nov. 1, 1932.

cs. E.l I UTToN AUTOMATIC RIFLE Filed Sept. 15, 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 QQ: S

Patented Nov. 1, 1932 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GEORGE E. LUTTON, OF KALISPELL, MONTANA AUTOKATIC RIFLE The present invention relates to automatic firearms and aims generally to provide an automatic rifle which is 1i ht-weight, ofrelatively few parts and of sim le construction,-

(1) A weight of only eightpounds in a 5 shot .30 caliber rifle;

(2) Impossibility of discharge except when the trigger is pulled;

(3) Impossibility of discharge except when locked; l

(4) Will not jam unless cartridge is very de ective;

(5) Will automatically indicate the fullydischarged or empty magazine condition and will be held open at that time;

(6) May be disassembled with the aid of a tool as simple as a match stick and may be assembled again without additional tools;

(7) The strength and accuracy of the rifle are not affected by the ease with which it is taken down;

(8) Unusual speed of firing action;

(9) Extraordinaryruggednessandstrength of all the parts, especially the bolt;

(10) The magazine is quickly detachable, has a positive feed and is uickly reloadable;

(11) The magazine feeds uniformly when the cartridges therein vary in number;

(12) Has an exceptionally light pulling trigger, thus promotlng accuracy;

13) Is characterized by its remarkably light recoil, fpermitting rapid firing, greater accuracy in ing, promoting the comfort of the user, and obviating deformation of the.

noses of the cartridges;

(14) The barrel cannot shift laterally relative to rearsight due to the way it is guided and held;

(15) The barrel and bolt are locked together during the entire recoil, thus promoting safety;

(16) The striker holds the bolt in locked position at the time of firing;

(17) A novel and easily operated trigger safety;

(18) An instantly removable cover protects the Working parts yet permits inspection and cleaning without recourse to tools;

(19) The stock is of a single piece of wood, which is novel in an automatic rifle;

(20) A neat and handsome a pearance, enhancing the sales value of the ri e;

h (2d1) May be operated automatically or by W In the accompanying drawings showing a preferred embodiment of the invention,

Fig. 1 is a side elevation;

Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation on a larger 9 scale, parts of the barrel and stock being o mitted, the bolt being shown in firing position;

Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the intermediate portion of the gun; on the scale of Fig. 2; 79

Fig. 4 is a top plan view of the stock and frame, on the same scale, the butt end of the stock being omitted;

Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation on a fullsize scale of the intermediate portion of the gun showing the parts as they would appear instantaneously after firing;

Fig. 6 is a view like Fig. 5 showing the parts in partly recoiled position;

Fig. 7 is a view like Fig. 6 but showing 3 the next position of the parts;

Fig. 8 is a view like Fig. 6 showing the next position of the parts, the cocking being completed;

Fig. 9 is a view of the parts of Fig. 8 85 'but viewed from the opposite side of tho gun;

Fig. 10 is a view like Fig. 5 but showing the bolt nearly restored to the firing posi- ,0 tion, illustrated in Fig. 2;

Fig. 11 is a section on line 11-1 1 of Fig. 2 but on the scale of Fig. 5;

Fig. 12 is a section on line 12-12 of Fig. 8;

Fig. 13 is a section through the forward 95 end of the bolt and through the major portion of the barrel extension, the scale being full size;

on a full size scale; o

Fig. is a side elevation of the same 0n the same scale;

Fig. 16 is a top plan view of the same;

Fig. 17 is a front end elevation of the same;

Fig. 18 is a bottom plan of the same;

J Figs. 19, 19 and 19b are different elevations of the Sear, which is a part of the bolt assembly;

Fig. 20 is a full size top plan view of the bolt carrier;

Fig. 21 is an end elevation of the same, on the same scale;

Fig. 22 is a side elevation of the same;

Fig. 23 is a rear end elevation of the barrel extension;

Fig. 24 is a side elevation of the barrel extension, showing a small portion of the barrel; Y Fig. 25 is a top plan view of the same;

Fig. 26 is a bottom plan view of the same;

Figs. 27 and 28 are respectively sections on lines 27-27 and 28-28 of Fig. 24;

Fig. 29 is a detail View on the scale of Fig. 5 showing how the parts act to prevent .wf firing if the trigger is held;

y sa

Fig. 30 is a sectional elevation of the frame on a full size scale;

Fig. 31 is a rear end elevation of the same;

Fig. 32 is a top plan view of the same;

Fig. 33 is a side elevation of the guard;

Fig. 34 is a top plan view of the guard;


of guard 47. trigger 48, bolt carrier 49 and handle 50. These parts and their functions will now be described.

The barrel For the most part, the barrel 40 is of standard construction, having the usual screwthreaded connection 52 (Fig. 2) with the barrel extension 41. However, as the barrel is designed to move longitudinally during recoil and to be restored by a powerful spring to its initial position, the barrel has a pair of lugs 53 (Fig. 2) preferably, but not necessarily integral therewith, the function of the lugs being to straddle a rod 54 located within the stock 42, on which the barrel recoil spring 55 is mounted. so that said spring may be compressed by the barrel during recoil. Preferably the lugs 53 fit over a flanged sleeve 56 sldable on rod 54, and the rod 54 is rigidly secured at the rear end, as by screw-threads 57, to the end of frame 43. The forward end 58 of rod 54 is reduced and screw-threaded, as shown, to hold a pair of nuts 59, 60. A fibre or other elastic disk 61 is mounted o`n rod 54 between nut 59 and a washer 62 and serves as a shock-absorbin member when the barrel is returned by spring 55 to the position of Fig. 2. A transverse pin 63 is preferably secured in the stock 42, to exten'd directly over and in contact with nut 59, thereby to hold rod 54 in proper relation to the stock and barrel.

As best shown in Fig. 26, the barrel has a flattened portion 64, on its underside adjacent the barrel extension, which is designed to slide over the upper end of the magazine 44 when the barrel recoils and returns to firing position. At the muzzle end of the barrel, a front sight 65 of standard construction is mounted.

The barrel extension Referring to Fi 23-28 inclusive, the barrel extension 41 as on opposite sides two spaced but very accurately alined longitudinal grooves 66 one groove being at the for- Ward end and the other at the rear end, as shown. These grooves engage complemental ribs 67 (Figs. 5, 11 and 30) integral with the frame 43 and projecting yinwardly of the frame, serving as tracks or guides for the barrel during its longitudinal reciprocation, but preventing an other movement of the barrel relative to t e frame (and relative to the stock, to which the frame is secured). Referring to Figs. 8, 25 and 28, there is an upwardly and forwardly inclined surface 68 leading to the cartridge chamber 69, the function of which is to guide the nose of the cartridge up into the chamber, the cartridge being impelled by a spring actuator (to be described) in the magazine. See. in this con nection, Fig. 5.

The barrel extension has a feeding port 70 at the bottom, through which the cartridges E move from the magazine, and an ejection port 71 at the top through which the cartridge shells are ejected after extraction from the chamber. A pivoted ejector 72 (Fig. 13) on the barrel extension is moved by a spring 73 to impart a kick to the cartrid shell as the barrel moves forward following recoil,

this kick co-operating with the action of anextractor (to be described) on the bolt assembly 45 to turn the cartridge shell upwardly; and the action takes place so rapidly that the shell is thrown out as far as two feet from the barrel before it begins to fall. Due to the position and arrangement of the ejection port, the shells are throwntothe right of the gun, looking toward the muzzle.

As shown in Fig. 9, there is a shoulder 74 on the left side of the barrel extension which engages `with the bolt carrier stop 75 (to be described) pivoted on the frame. The cutaway portion 76 shown in Figs. 24 and 28 is merely to give clearance for the bolt carrier 49.

The bolt assembly The bolt assembly, which is shown in elevanai aan in Figs. 2, s,9,10,14,15, 16,17 and 1e in section in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 12, 13 and 18, comprises a hard steel body which is relatively very heavy and strong, with large wearing and locking surfaces, so that it will have 'locked position by the striker at the time of firing. The bolt is tiltable to be locked and unlocked and is slidable longitudinally to extract and insert the cartridge.

Near its rear end, at the top, the bolt assembly is provided with a transverse shoulder 77 (Figs. 14, 15 and 18) which is slightly beveled forwardly, that is, it makes an acute i angle with the longitudinal axis of the bolt.

This shoulder engages a complementary shoulder 78 (see Fig. 7) on the barrel extension 41, as shown in Fig. 5, to effect secure 11i-cking of tbe bolt just before and during tiring. When the bolt is locked, as in Fig. 5, its longitudinal axis lies at an acute angle to the axis of the barrel, as shown, and its forward end is pressed securely against said barrel. Extending longitudinallyy of the bolt,

but at an acute angle to its axis is'a bore 79 for the striker 80, said striker having a reduced shank 81 surrounded bv a coil spring 82 which tends to expand. See also Fig. 5 showing how the striker is constructed. One end of spring 82 bears against a collar 83 held in the bore 79 by a set screw 84 which passes ytransversely through the bolt, while the other end bears against a shoulder 85 on the striker 80, Ithereby tending to project the striker forwardly. The front end of the striker is reduced, as shown, and has a firing pin 86 which rojects through a line bore 87 and strikes t e percussion cap of the cartridge to fire the gun. The total travel of the striker is preferably not over 3/8 in. The

rear end of the striker extends through the bolt and terminates in a shoulder 88 which is relatively heavy and massive and extends down into engagement with the surface 89 (Figs. 6 and 27) of the barrel extension, thus locking the bolt against downward (unlocking) movement. By comparing Figs. 5 and 6, the locking action of shoulder 88 will be clearly understood. Shoulder 88 also limits the forward movement of the firing pin, as its front surface abuts against the rear end of the bolt in the fired position, Fig. 5.

Referring to Figs. 8,10. l5 and 19, it is seen that the bolt has a longitudinal rib 90 on its underside, said rib being provided to engage (with its forward end) the cartridge which is to be inserted in the chamber, as will be understood by referrin to Fig. 8, and also providing a smooth sliding surface to permit the bolt to pass over the topmost cartridge in the magazine when the barrel, barrel extension and bolt move rearwardly as a unit during recoil. This will be understood`b comparing Figs. 5 and 6. Were it .not for ri 90, the nose of the topmost cartridge mi ht engage the surface 68 as the parts recoil, tus deforming the bullet and materially affecting its accuracy. Clearance is provided in the barrel extension for rib 90 by groove 91 (Figs. 8,10, 23 and 27).

Referring to Figs. 12, 13 and 17, it is seen that the forward end of the bolt is provided with a recess 92 so that said end may sur- -round the cartridge rim, as shown in Fig.

5. Recess 92 is open at the bottom to permit a cartridge to pass upwardly from the magazine into the recess. A pivoted extractor 93 is mounted in a groove 94 in the bolt, so that its hardened end may engage the rim of any standard cartridge. The extractor 93 'is held normally lowered by means of spring 95 and plunger 96, the latter engaging the extractor, but obviously spring 95 will yield when the bolt forcibly engages the cartridge at its rim, so that the rim will enter recess 92 and Vbe gripped by the extractor.

Referring to Figs. 13'and 17, the narrow longitudinal slot 97 receives the ejector 72. Obviously as the bolt moves forwardly and also. relative to the barrel extension, the top wall of slot 97 will act as a cam to depress the ejector 72, and said ejector will thus be ready, because of -spring 73, to kick a cartridge shell out of the gun whenever the bolt -is moved back to the position of Fig. 8.

In Figs. 5, 6 and 7, there are shown the fired position, the recoiled position and the recoiled and cocked position of the bolt assembly. It will be observed in these figures that the shoulder 88 has a recess 98 on the underside which ts the upper end of a cocking piece 99 pivoted on a large pin 100 extending transversely through the bolt and projecting outwardly on each side thereof, asv

shown in Figs. 14, 17 and 18. Obviously, when the cooking piece 99 is swung counterclockwise, as viewed in Fig. 6, it will move the striker to the left. A sear`101, shown separately in Figs. 19, 19 and 19", is pivoted on a. small transverse pin 102 in the bolt and said sear has a narrow shoulder 103 which, when engaged with a similar shoulder 104 on the cooking piece. as shown in Fig. 7., will hold the cooking piece against clockwise movement, thus holding the striker cocked.

The sear 101 is operated by the trigger mechanism (to be described) when the rifle 103 from shoulder 104 and permit the striker to be moved by its spring. Inl cooking, the

.is fired. the action being to free the shoulder I Sear, which is always held against the cocking piece by a flat spring 105 (Fig. 14) except when forcibly turned by the trigger mechanism, snaps against the cooking piece as soon as the latter is turned far enough by engagement with a cocking piece cam 106 to be described. Said cam is fixed to the guard47 which will be described later. EngagementJ of the cooking piece with its cam is effected because of the recoil of the barrel with the bolt and because of the action of a cam 107 fixed to the upper rear portion of the frame and acting to depress the bolt. The cam 107 will also be described later.

The projecting endsof pivot pin 100 fit in" \--The bolt carrier 49 is shown alone in Figs. 20, 21 and 22 and one of its functions is to transfer some of the shock of the recoil to a spring 110 (Figs. 2 and 5) housed in the butt end of the stock. The bolt carrier 49 is slidable with respect to the frame 43, which is rigidly secured to the stock. The primary purpose of the bolt carrier is to move the bolt up to lock the bolt; and whenever the bolt carrier is moved relative to the bolt, it must move the bolt up until the shoulder 77 engages shoulder 78 on the barrel extension. Compare Fig. 10 showing the bolt returned but not locked, and Fig. 2, showing the bolt locked and the gun ready to fire.

It should be explained at this point that cam 107, which unlocks the bolt, is effective for this purpose only when the gun is operated automatically. When the gun is operated by hand, using handle 50, the cam slots 108 act both to lock and unlock the bolt,

and cam 107 serves as a stop and assists in the cocking operation. This double action of cam slots 108 is because handle 50 is directly connected to the bolt carrier and thus reciprocation of the bolt carrier is effected by manual power.

The spring 110 not only absorbs part of the recoil, but what is more important, shoves the bolt forward, this action occurring after the barrel and barrel extension have been returned by the barrel recoil spring. Compare Figs. 8 and 10. The final upward movement of the bolt, as just explained, is effected by cam slots 108 as the bolt carrier nears its extreme forward position (compare Figs. 10 and 5).

Referring to Figs. 31, 32 and 9, it is seen that the frame is provided on opposite sides with straight longitudinal ribs 111 which extend inwardly to provide guides for the slidable bolt carrier 49. The latter has longitudinal grooves 112 (Figs. 9, 21 and 22) to receive ribs 111. The lower ribs 111 and the upper ribs 67 for guiding the barrel all co-operate to greatly strengthen the thin shell of the frame 43, as will be understood after examining Figs. 30 and 32.

As shown in Figs. 2 and 5, the connection between spring 110 and the bolt carrier is made by means of a cross-bar 113 rigidly connecting the opposite sides of the bolt carrier together (see also Fig. 22), said cross-bar having a recess 114 receiving one end of a rod 115 which extends into a recessed plunger or spring follower 116 slidable in a tubular housing 117 set in the butt end ofthe gunstock. Within housing 117 is the coil s ring 110 which tends to move the spring .fol ower 116 forwardly, the other end of said spring being restrained by a plug 118 fixed to the-` houslng. Access to these parts may be had through a recess 119 in the butt and closed by an ordinary butt plate 120. Obviously spring 110 tends to move the bolt carrier forwardly to the extreme forward position of Figs. 2 and 5 and will hold it in such position until the recoil of the barrel carries the bolt back, and hence the bolt carrier back, because of pin 100 and slots 108.

The tendency of spring 110 is to move the bolt upwardly (because of the cam slots 108 and their action on pin 100), and when the bolt is in the position of Fi 8, any u ward ush on the rear end of theolt woul cause inding at the front end, which barely projects into the barrel extension. To. hold the bolt down when in the position of Fig. 8 and until it assumes the position of Fig. 10, a'

bolt lock 121 is provided on the bolt carrier, said bolt lock consisting of a member pivoted as at 122 upon the bolt carrier and having opposite ends which engage shoulders" 123 cut into the rear face 88 of the bolt. See Fig. 14, and for such enga ement, Fig. 8. The upper end of the bolt loc has a nose 124 which engages the top of cross bar 113 (Figs. 8 and 22), thus limiting outward movement of the bolt lock. A plunger 125 and coil spring 126 (Fig. 5) set in cross bar 113 tend to hold the bolt lock in the position of Fig. 7 or Fig. 8, while depressed, as in Flgs. 5, 6 and 10).

As shown in Figs. 20, 21 and 22, the bolt lock on the bolt carrier has an arm 127 rigidly secured thereto and extending downwardly so as almost to contact with the guard.

cam 128 (Figs. 9, 10 and 34) fixed to the guard is engaged by the lower end of arm 127 when the bolt carrier moves forwardly from the position of Fig. 8 to that of Fig. 10, thereby to move the bolt lock so that shoulders 123 are released, thus permitting the bolt to be moved upwardly by the cam slots 108. It will be clear that the bolt of Fig. 10 will be moved into locked position permitting said lock to securin handle 50 to the bolt carrier.

bolt carrier.

T he frame The frame and the bolt carrier are shown separately from the other parts in Figs. 30, 31 and 32. Frame 43 is generally rectangular, having the guiding ribs 67 and 111 already described, also a longitudinal slot 132 through which passes a bolt 133 (Fig.

e rod 54 or the barrel recoil spring is also essentially a part of the frame, although removable therefrom because of the screwthreaded end which fits in the front cross member 134 of the frame. Said front cross member 134 is cut out, as shown at 135 in Fig. 32, to accommodate the forward end of the magazine, thereby serving as one of the guides and holders for the magazine.

The rear upper end of the frame carries the bolt-unlocking cam 107, best shown in Figs. 7, 9 and 35. This cam has a rearwardly and downwardly sloping cam surface which, as will be clear from the foregoin is engagedrby the sloping rear end of the olt when the barrel recoils, to unlock the bolt from the barrel extension, an action which is shown in Figs. 6, 7 and 8.

-The bolt-unlocking cam has a centering pin 136 provided with 'a shoulder 137 into which a pin 138, pressed upwardly by spring 139, engages to lock the cam against longitudinal movement, yet permitting removal of the cam by hand when it is desired to remove the bolt. Surrounding the centering pin 136 and interposed between the cam 107 and the frame is a fibre disk 140 which absorbs some of the metallic shock and jar occurring when the bolt strikes the cam. The recess 141 in the cam gives room for the shoulder of the striker, as will be understood from Fig. 7. A notch 142 35) at the top of cam 107 centersthe cam y engagement with a pin 143 projecting from the frame. Thus the cam cannot lbe assembled with the frame in any position but the right position.

As shown in Fig. .31, the frame 43 has a hole 144 in the rear end into which the forward end of the tubular spring housing 117 fits, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5. vThe recesses 145, 146, 147 are provided principally to reduce the weight of the housing, while recess 148 gives clearance when removing the bolt.

Pivoted at an intermediate point on the left side of the frame is the bolt carrier stop 75, the pivot of which is indicated at 149 .gages notches in the underside of (Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10). The function of this lever is to hold the bolt carrier back when the barrel goes forward, an action clearly shown in Figs. 7 and 8. The stop 75 is tripped by engagement with surface 74 (Fi 9) when the arrel extension is almost al the way forward so as to release the bolt carrier, whereupon the bolt carrier is moved by its spring to the position of Fig. 10. A flat spring 150, best shown in Figs. 5, 8 and 30, is held by pins 151 152 on the frame and bears against the stop to hold the rear end thereof normally depressed so that that end may engage the bolt carrier as shown in Fig. 8.

The guard and trigger mechanism The guard 47 is shown separately in Figs.. 33 and 34 and comprises a thin steel late .which is secured by screws to the stoc as from cam 106 is a Y` short pin which is received within a slot 158 (Fig. 5) in the trigger so that said trigger bar is confined to back and forth movement. A spring 159 (Fig. 5) on a pin 160 having a tapering head 161 (engaging an abutment 162 on the guard) provides meansfto hold the trigger normally advanced, as in Fig. 2, the position at the moment of firing being illustrated in Fig. 5. Secured to the trig er by a rivet 163 is a trigger bar 164 slida le over the upper (inner) surface of the guard. See Figs. 33 and 34. A spring 165 secured to the rear end of the trigger bar bears against a pin 166 projecting laterally from the trigger, the result being that the trigger bar at its forward end is normally held down. Said forward end carries an upstanding arm 167 (shown in Figs. 2, 8, 9 and 10 and in dotted lines in Fig. 11) having an inwardly pro-` jecting extension 168 designed to engage with the projection 169 on the sear (see Figs. 2, 17 and 19) when the trigger is pulled, thereby to trip the striker, as previously explained, and discharge the firearm.

The trigger has a safety device shown in Figs. 5 and 33 and consisting of a slidable pin 170 passing transversely through. the trigger and engageable with a stop 171 fast to the underside of the guard when projected on the right hand side of the trigger, thereby to prevent the trigger from being moved if pulled. A spring-pressed plunger 172 en- (pin 170 to hold the same in either projecte or retracted position. The pin is pushed from the left end when the safety is to be put on, and ushed from the right when the safety is to released.

The magazine The magazine 44 is best shown in Figs. 2, 5 and 12 and comprises a metallic shell having a capacity preferably of four cartridges 173, a follower 174 within the shell tending to force the cartridges upwardly. The follower 174 is pressed upwardly by a spring plun er 175 reciprocable vertically in a cham r 176 at the forward end of the magazine, the spring 177 on said plunger engaging a horizontal wall 178 fixed to the walls of the chamber 176. The lower end of plunger 175 engages one end of a. lever 179 pivoted as at 180 to swing vertically within the magazine, the other end .o'f lever 179 pressing upwardly against a pin 181 to which the buttons 154 are secured, said pin passing throu h slots 182 in the opposite si e walls of t e magazine. Thus, t e pressure from spring 177 is transferred to 1n 181. Between pin 181 and the follower 17)4 is a pair of U-shaped levers 183, 184 each pivoted at one end to the side walls of the magazine, the pivotal axis 185 of lever 183 being at the rear end of the magazine near the bottom and the pivotal axis 186 of lever 184 being at the forward end, also near the bottom. It will be clear that each U-shaped lever is pivoted by means of its free ends being passed through apertures on oposite sides of the magazine. The loop end o each lever 183, 184 bears against the underside of follower 174, the arrangement being such that both ends of the follower are pressed upwardly because of the pressure transmitted to the U-shaped levers through pin 181.

It will be observed that slots 182 have af wavy or sinuous form, so that pin 181 will vary its distance from the pivotal axes 185, 186 as it travels up through the magazine as the magazine is em tied. The result is that the spring first ears more strongly against lever 183, so that, as shown in Fig. 5, when the magazine is full the forward end of follower 174 is raised higher than the rear end, thus com ensating for the cumulatiye effect of stac ing a number of tapering cartridges, all `pointing in the same direction, within the magazine. Thus the follower 174 lies fiat against the underside of the lowermost cartridge, when the magazine is full, and pushes upwardly uniformly. As the magazine discharges, the follower 174 and pin 181 rise, and the effect of the spring will be varied until, when the last cartridge is in the magazine, the follower will be practically horizontal (or parallel to the bottom of the magazine) pressing the last cartridge upwardly with uniform pressure. The cartridges are held against direct upward vside wall of the magazine.

movement by the shaped lisp atv the top edges of the sideV walls of the magazine, as is known in the art and hence not specially illustrated. However, as will be understood from Fig. 8, when the bolt moves forwardly, it engages the rear end of the topmost cartridge and moves it far enough to release it from the restraining lips of t-he magazine, and the nose of the cartridge, guided as above described, enters the cartridge chamber, the rear end of the cartridge entering the recess in the end of the bolt and being thrust home bythe bolt.

It will be clear that the buttons on the o posite sides of the magazine serve as ind@- cators, showing whether the magazine is full, partly full or empty; also these buttons assist in filling the magazine, as the follower may be depressed more easily if the buttons are pulled down as the cartridges are inserted. It is desirable to provide means other` than the buttons to indicate when the magazine is empty, and in accordance with the 1nvention I provide means actuated by one of the buttons to hold the gun o n when fully discharged. Referring to ig. 9, there 1s shown a lever 187 pivoted to the frame as at 188 near its forward end, said lever having a spring 189 housed in itsgforward end and engaging the top of a shoulder 190 on the cross member 134 of the frame. Spring 189 holds the rear end of lever 187 down except when said lever is engaged by the magazine button and raised, as shown m Fig.`9. The rear end of lever 187 is cut out, as shown, and is alwa s in contact with pin 130, but the arc of the cutout portion is larger than the curvature of pin 130, so that slight up and down movement of lever 187 is permitted. When the lever 187 is uppermost, as in- Fig. 9, its rear en'd projects high enough to be engaged by the end of the bolt carrier to prevent said member from moving forwardly to lock the bolt. Hence as long as the magazine is empty, the gun will not close, i. e., assume the position of Fig. 2.v

The magazine is designed to be quickly inserted and removed by hand, and a releasable latch is employed to hold it upon the frame. See Figs. 9, 33 and 34. The latch 191 is pivoted as at 192 on the guard at one side of the opening through which the magazine is inserted, and has a thumb-piece 193 to effect disengagement, as well as .a latch-piece 194 engaging the shallow groove 195 (Fig. 7) in one A spring 196 on the latch presses against a vertical pin 197 fast to the guard and thus permits the latch to yield and be restored to latching position when the thumbpicce is pressed and then re leased.

F -1'1'6 control by trigger pull only One ofthe features of a rifle embodying my invention is that the trigger must be pulled llO for each shot. This prevents complete discharge of the magazine by unintentionally allowing the finger to rest too long on the trigger. Referring to Fig. S29, the trigger is shown pulled all the way back and the trigger bar is shown tilted upwardly (because the trigger is still held), the projection 169 on the Sear having engaged under the extension 168 of the trigger bar as the bolt rises to locked position. The rifle cannot now be discharged. If, however, the user releases the trigger, it will slide forward because of 1ts spring 159, and the trigger bar will swing downwardly because of its spring 165, whereupon thc parts will assume the firing position (Fig. 2).

' The stock The stock 42 is preferably of one piece of wood. and serves as a. support for the guard and frame, the other parts being supported on the frame as previously described. There is nothing to be gained by a detailed description of the stock.

The cocer Detachably mounted on the frame is a cover 46. Figs. 2 and 3 show the cover in place, and Figs. 4 and 32 the frame with the cover removed. The cover is preferably slidably interlocked with the frame, and hence the frame on each side has an undercut shoulder 198 (Figs. 31 and 32) with which the lower edges of cover 46 interlock. The cover is placed on the frame so that its front edges engage the two grooves formed under shoulders 198 and then is slid forwardly until it covers the frame completely except for the slot 199 through which the shells are ejected. A spring-pressed latch 200 (Figs. 30, 32) on the frame projects laterally outwardly at one side to engage in a complementary aperture in the cover, the aperture being so located that the cover must be completely positioned before it is latched. When the cover is to be removed to inspect or clean the gun, the user merely depresses latch 20() by the end of a match or the like, whereupon the cover may be removed by sliding it rearwardly.

At-the rear end of the cover, a rear sight 201 is mounted. This may be a peep sight, or an open sight of conventional construction, or the illustrative sight I have designed for the rifle of the present invention. It will be observed that the position of sight 201 is conduclve to accuracy and control of fire, the sight being well to the rear.

From the above description of the parts and their operation and co-operation, it is believed that any one skilled in the art to which this invent-ion pertains will understand the complete operation of the rifle as a whole, and hence a detailed description of the operation is omitted. f

Obviously, the present invention is not restricted to the particular embodiment thereof herein shown and described. Moreover, it is not indispensable that all the features of the invention be used conjointly, since they may be employed advantageously in various cambinations and sub-combinations.

What I claim is 1. An automatic rifle comprising, in combination, a stock; a frame secured to the stock; a recoiling barrel reciprocable on the frame; a recoil spring carried forwardly of the frame and compressed by a projection on the barrel when the barrel recoils; a bolt normally locked to the barrel; a bolt carrier; means to unlock the bolt as the barrel reaches the limit of recoil movement; a pin projecting laterally from the bolt; cam slots on the bolt carrier receiving the opposite ends of said pin; and a spring housed in the stock and adapted to move the bolt carrier forwardly to effect locking of the bolt by the action of said cam slots on said pin. v

2. In an automatic rifle, the combination of a magazine; a bolt carrier; a. bolt; a barrel; cooperating means on the bolt carrier and bolt to effect locking of the bolt when the bolt is returned to firing position; a bolt carrier latch; and means on the magazine which engages said latch to move it into such a position that the bolt carrier and hence the bolt is prevented from being returned to firing position.

3. In an automatic rifle, in combination, a frame; a barrel; a barrel extension having a sloping locking shoulder at the rear top p0rtion; a bolt havin r a complementary shoulder and locked by said barrel extension against the barrel; and cams for automatically unlocking and locking the bolt as the barrel is reciprocated; said unlocking and locking causing a swinging of the bolt with respect to the barrel extension; the unlocking cam being fixed to the frame and the locking cam being movable relative to the bolt when the bolt is almost at the locked position thereby to swing the bolt upwardly.

4. A safety automatic rifle having a bolt; a striker; a trigger; a barrel; afbarrelv extension to which the bolt is locked; a frame; and a stock; means to prevent release of the striker when the trigger is held durin automatic action of the rifle until the tri ger is released and then pulled, and coactin means on the striker and barrel extension o prevent pulling of the trigger unless the bolt is locked.

5. An automatic rifle having a stock, frame, barrel, barrel extension, bolt and striker; the bolt being locked to the barrel extension; and coacting means on the barrel extension-and the striker to hold the bolt in locked position at the time of tiring and until the striker is rccocked.

6. An automatic rifle comprising, in combination, a frame having upper and lower longitudinal guides; a barrel; a barrel extension having means Slidably engaging the upper guides; a bolt; a bolt carrier slidable on the lower guides; and springs acting independently on the barrel and bolt carrier to move cach forwardly.

7. An automatic rifle comprising, in combination, a recoilin barrel; a barrel extension; a bolt reciprocabIe and swingable relative to the barrel to be locked and unlocked on the barrel extension; means for temporarily holding the bolt back when the barrel is restored to its initial position; other means for restoring the bolt to its initial position; and locking means to hold the bolt down when i the farthest position of recoil.

8. An automatic rifle comprising, in combination, a recoiling barrel; a barrel extension; a bo1t-carried by the barrel extension and locked to and unlocked therefrom auto matically; a bolt carrier; a latch automatically engageable with the bolt carrier to hold it back momentarily when the barrel goes forward; and means on the barrel/extension engaging with said latch to effect release of the bolt carrier as the barrel reaches its normal position.

- 9. An automatic rifle comprisin in combination, a recoiling barrel; a barre extension; a bolt carried by the barrel extension; a bolt carrier; a latch automatically engageable with the bolt carrier to hold it back momentarily when the barrel goes forward; means on the barrel extension engaging said latch to effect release of the bolt carrier as the barrel reaches its normal position; a cam for automatically unlocking the bolt during recoil; a spring tending to move said. bolt carrier back to normal position; and co-operating means on the bolt carrier and bolt to effect locking of the bolt when restored nearly to its initial locked position, the spring supplying the energy for the actual locking of the bolt.

10. An automatic rifle comprising, in combination, a. barrel; a barrel extension having a beveled or sloping locking shoulder at the rear top portion; a bolt having a complementa shoulder to be locked against said barrel an barrel extension; a frame on which the barrel extension is slidable; a cam fixed to said frame and engageable b the bolt to unlock the bolt from the barrelextensionand means to automatically lock the bolt when restored substantially to its'initial position.

11. An automatic rifle comprising in combnation, a barrel; a barrel extension having a beveled or sloping locking shoulder at the rear top portion; a bolt having a complementary shoulder to be locked against said barrel and barrel extension; a frame on which the barrel extension is slidable; a cam fixed to saidl frame and engageable by the bolt to unlock the bolt from the barrel extension; a bolt carrier slidable on the frame; a spring urging said bolt carrier forwardly; and means on the bolt engagin said bo'lt carrier 35 to effect locking of the bo t when it and the bolt carrier have been moved forward by `the spring, said spring supplying the energy of the actual locking of the bolt.

12. An automatic rifle comprising, -in combination, a recoiling barrel; a frame on which the barrel reciprocates; a cover for said frame beneath which the barrel moves; said cover having throughout its length a sliding, interlocking connection with the frame; and a spring operated latchon the frame and engageable with the cover for holding the cover -in frame-closing position.

13. A magazine for automatic rifles, in combination, a hollow body; a follower within the body; a pair of levers pivoted to the 8 0 body at opposite ends at low points; a pin engaged b said levers and guided by slots on opposite sides of the body; a lever engaging under the pin; and a spring passing against one end of said lever\to move the other end against said pin.

14. A magazine for automatic rifles oomprising, in combination, ahollow body; a follower within the body; a pair of levers engaging the follower on the underside at opposite ends, saidlevers being pivoted to the body at opposite ends thereof and at low points; a pin engaging said levers and guided y slots on opposite sides of the body; a lever engaging under said pin; a spring pressing against said lever to move it against said pin; the aforesaid slots being so shaped as to cause the spring to ress unevenly upon the opposite ends of the follower to compensate for the taper of the cartridges in the body.

15. A magazine for automatic rifles comprising, in combination, a hollow body; a follower within the body; a spring withinpthe body; mechanism interposed between the v spring and the follower to transmit the en. 105 ergy of the spring to the follower; and means acting on said mechanism automatically to vary the pressure of said sprin at opposite ends of the follower as the fo lower moves upwardly in the body.

16. A safety device for the triggers of rifles comprising, in combination, a pin movable transversely through the trigger and having two grooves therein at spaced points;

a sprlng-pressed plunger engageable with .11.5 either groove to hold the pin in one of two positions, said plunger being movable longitudinally of the` trigger at right angles to said pin; and a fixed stop adjacent but to one side of the trigger with which the pin engages when the pin is thrust out at the corresponding side of the trigger.

In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my own, I have hereto afiixed my signature.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2418946 *Aug 15, 1942Apr 15, 1947Remington Arms Co IncBreech bolt lock for firearms
US2555379 *Jun 7, 1946Jun 5, 1951Simpson Clarence EBreechblock lock for firearms
US3039366 *Dec 14, 1959Jun 19, 1962Imthurn Elmer RTarget pistol with breech bolt locking mechanism
US3183618 *Jun 11, 1964May 18, 1965Flewellen Lloyd JRecoil and stabilizing mechanism for a rifle
US5827991 *Dec 12, 1995Oct 27, 1998Fn Herstal S.A.Fire arm with moveable barrel
US6164000 *Nov 3, 1998Dec 26, 2000Steyr-Daimler-Puch AktiengesellschaftRepeating rifle with magazine adapter
US8397623Jan 14, 2009Mar 19, 2013Geoffrey A. HerringRifle and kit for constructing same
U.S. Classification89/138, 89/154, 42/18, 42/75.1, 89/166, 89/164, 89/148
International ClassificationF41A9/41, F41A15/00, F41A5/00, F41A19/32, F41A15/12, F41A9/00, F41A35/00, F41A35/02, F41A3/32, F41A19/00, F41A19/34, F41A17/46, F41A5/02, F41A17/38, F41A17/00, F41A3/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41A35/02, F41A3/32, F41A9/41, F41A17/38, F41A19/34, F41A5/02, F41A15/12, F41A17/46, F41A19/32
European ClassificationF41A17/38, F41A19/34, F41A3/32, F41A5/02, F41A35/02, F41A15/12, F41A17/46, F41A9/41, F41A19/32