US 1887203 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. W.. HOKE PLAYING CARDS Nov. 8, 1932.
Original Filed April 11. 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 OS? TOAITI l3 20 BYWWZINZVENTOR Mm H. W. HOKE PLAYING CARDS Nov. 8, 1932.
Original Filed April 11, 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 lllllllll I'IILIIIII I l I I I I I l I l I l I l l l Patented Nov. 8, 1932 UNITED s'ra'rlszs WON w. EOKE, NEW YORK, N. Y.
PLAYING CARDS Application filed April 11, 1980, Serial No. 448,283. Renewed August 19, 1982.
This invention relates to playm cards, and has particular reference to car s of the character used in the playing of competitive games, such as auction and contract bridge.
Heretofore the dealing of a series of predetermined hands has been made possible, for example, by providing the backs of the cards with suitable indices indicative of the players, designated for convenience as North South East and West, to whom the cards are to be dealt in the different hands, so that the combined skill of the partners North-South and East-lVest may be determined by comparing the respective part- 13 nership scores with a par value assigned to the respective hands after an expert analysis thereof. 1
Peculiar to the above-mentioned prior practice are many inherent disadvantages, among which the following are of a particularly serious nature: First, a given deck of cards is limited to a relatively few predetermined hands by reason of the fact that the area of each card is sufiiciently large to carry or accommodate only a relatively few in dices, thus making it necessaryjto provide different printing plates for each series in the manufacture, with the result that the cost of manufacturing is highly expensive if not totally prohibitive from a practicable standpoint; second, the inconvenience of dealing the cards to the players has been found to not only distract the dealer but to also result in mental fatigue, due to the effort required in concentrating upon the task of dealing with the view to nronerlv interpreting the indices so as to avoid confusion and insure proper allotment of the cards to the intended players: third, by reason of the fact that the indices heretofore employed have been such as to characterize the backs of the cards, it has been found possible for a-player to mentally note such characteristics'in connection with the respective face values of the cards 1 and thus accurately determine the face values of certain. if not all, cards held by the remaining players. I
The general object of this invention is to overcome the above objections, so that as many predetermined hands may be dealt from a given deck of cards as there are possible different hands in such deck; so :that cards of the predetermined hands may be easily, ac-
curately and expeditiously allotted to the several players without distracting the dealer or subjecting him to mental fatigue; and, so that it will be impossible for a player to determine the face value of any card from an observance of the back thereof.
To the above ends the invention contemplates, for use with a given deck of cards, as many index or selector sheets as there are to be predetermined hands in such deck, each index sheet being provided with fifty-two or p more apertures simulating arrows pointing ,65 each in one of four directions and some of which are located, respectively, in one of two possible positions; the apertures of each index sheet that is superimposed upon a pack of cards, designed for use in the practicing of this invention and having uncolored field areas surrounded by colored background areas, being so related to the colored and uncolored areas of each card in dealing position immediately beneath the index sheet that through only one aperture, namely, the one indicative of the player to whom the card next to be dealt is allotted, will a colored area appear, the cards together'with the respective index sheets being held within a suitable dealing device to facilitate dealing and to insure accurate registration of such index sheet with each card next to be dealt.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from thefol- 35 lowingdescription, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which- Figure 1 is a face view of a templet employed in evolving a design for a master card to be used in photographically producing a standard set of printing plates for printing the designs on the backs of the fifty-two cards of a deck; Figure 2 is a face view of a master card having apartially completed design thereon; Figure 3 is a similar view of the master card with the design completed and ready for exposure in the making of printing plates to be used in the printing of the designs on the backs of the playing cards; Figure 4 is an enlarged fragmental face view ing the mask of Figure 4A superimposed I.
over the station corresponding to the deuce of spades; Figure 4C is a view similar to that of Figure 4-B and showing the mask inked in preparatory to exposure; Figure is a all back view of a card showing the design pro- "duced thereon from a plate resulting from the exposure of the master card of Figure 3 in conjunction with the masks of Figure 4 C; Figure 6 is a face view of an index sheet adapted to be used in the dealing of a predetermined hand so that the cards intended for the several players may be properly allotted; Figure 7 is a view of the obverse side of the index sheet of Figure 6; Figure 8 is a plan view of a dealing device adapted to receive an index sheet and adeck of cards, 'and to'be used in dealing the cards to the players according to the effective indices of such index sheet; Figure 9 is a view in elevation of the dealing device as seen from the right in Figure'8; Figure is a central longitudinal sectional view taken on line 10-10 of Figure 8; and Figure 11 is a transverse sectional view taken on line 11-11' of Figure 8.
In producing the designs for the backs of the fifty-two cards of apack to be employed in the practicing of this invention, it is necessary to provide a like number of printing plates, inasmuch as the designs differ from each other, although the differences'are so slight and are so characterized by the general designs of the cards as to preclude the possibility of detection, except after tedious study, necessitating, for example, accurate linear measurements of certain portions of the designs and careful comparisons of the measurements noted.
The fifty-two printing plates are photographically produced, on a reduced scale,
from a single master card in conjunction with'masks to be hereinafter more particularly described, the master card being preferably several times larger than the respective cards of the deck. The design of this master card is produced with the aid of a ginal zone for the reasons hereinafter stated and the remaining openings being positioned relatively to each other, as ones best judgment may dictate, in view of the relation of card identification numbers to card values aca cording to a suitable station schedule, such as follows:
- Station schedule cud denominations Spades Hearts Diamond: Clubs The first step in producing the master card is carried out by placing the templet 16 upon the card in exact registration therewith, whereupon, with a suitable instrument such asa pencil, a circle is described on the card at one end thereof through each of the openings of the templet. Having completed the describing of this series of circles, the templet is turned end-to-end on themaster card, whereupon a second series of circles is-described with the'aid of the templet while it is in exact registration with the master card, the second group of circles being a duplication of the first set, with the result that thus far the design on the card at one side of the transverse medial line thereof is a duplicate of the design thereon at the opposite side of such line.
In proceed ng further with the evolution of the intended design of the master card, one or more, as desired, of the circles described with the aid of the templet are enclosed within definite field-areas by drawing lines around the selected circles, as shown in Figure 2. In this connection, it may be remarked that While it is intended that the such line, thus introducing a further safeguard against detection of card values by observing the backs of the cards, inasmuch as such slight discrepancy in design tends to cast an element of doubt in the mind of an observer with respect to the accuracy of any observation that he may attempt to make.
Proceeding further with the evolution of the design of the master card, all background areas enclosed within the border line 17 of the card are inked in, whereupon the circles within the field-areas are erased, thus producing the finished master card, shown in Figure 3, ready for succemive exposures in connection with certain masks, hereinafter more particularly described, as-steps in the production of the necessary fifty-two rinting plates to be employed in printing t e re-- spective designs on the cards of the deck.
Before exposing the master card in the process of producin printing plates to be used in printing the fty-two cards of a deck, the above station schedule, wherein are assigned certain identification numbers to the respective cards, is taken into consideration. From this schedule, it will be noted that numbers ranging from one to seventy-six are assigned to the fifty-two cards of a playing deck and that in each suit, cards of the order of the two spot to the eight spot, inclusive, are assigned a single identification number and that the remaining cards of the several suits are each assigned two identification numbers, thereason for assignment of single numbers to cards of the lower denominations and for the assignment of two numbers to cards of the higher denominations being hereinafter more particularly explained.
With the above schedule in mind, let it be assumed that the first exposure of the master card 15 is with the view to producing the printing plate for the back of the card, the suit of which is spade and the denomination of which is the deuce. Since the identification number of the deuce of spades is one, the station on the master card corres onding to opening number one of the temp et 16 is determined by placing the templet on the master card and describing a circle through such opening upon the field-area of the master card while the templet is in exact registration with that card, whereupon the templet is turned end-for-end and the same procedure is carried out to determine a similar station on the other side of the transverse medial line of the master card by describing thereon a corresponding circle. The circles indicating these stations are shown within the field-areas A of Figure 3.
Each of the stations thus established is then covered with a mask, such as is shown in Figure 4A, which overl es the field-areas that are grouped about the station-enclosing areas A and are indicated in the case of one of such stations bythe reference characters B, C, D, E, F, and G, the outline of such group of field-areas beneath the mask of Figure 4B being indicated respectively by dotted lines therein. These masks are of a suitable material, such as paper, and are uncolored, as in the case of the enclosed fieldareas of Figure 3, except for a colored area or location 18 on each, which is the same size as the respective stations over which these masks are to be placed. In placing the masks over the stations, care is to be exercised in establishing exact registration of their colored areas or locations with such stations to insure proper functioning of the master cards in producin the desired printing plate. With the masks t us positioned, lines 19, as shown in Figure 4-B',' are so drawn thereon as to meet and blend with the contour of the underlying field-areas B, C, D, E, F and G at the edges of the masks and at the same time, in effect, elongate or otherwise modify the contour of such areas, whereupon the area intermediate the colored area 18.and the lines 19 of each mask is blackened, .as shown in Figure 4-C. Thus it will be appreciated that when photographing the master card 15, with the masks thereon and modified as in Figure 4C, the same photographic efiect is obtained as though the field-areas grouped about the selected stations were modified, as
explained, and the spaces intermediate such stations and such areas were blackened. As a result of photographing the master card 15, together with the masks thereon as described, a printing late may be obtained which will produce the design shown on the back of the card in Figure 5, viz., the design for the deuce of spades.
The printing plates for the remaining cards of the spade suit up to and including the eight of spades and the cards of the heart,
-in producing a printing plate to be used in printing the design on the back of a card of a denomination higher than the eight spot, for example the nine of spades, to which is assigned identification numbers 29 and 30, the templet 16 is employed in connection with the master card as previously described to determine the location of stations 29 and 30 at both sides of the transverse medial'line. Inasmuch as two stations are established in connection with this card at each side of the transverse medial line of the master card, two pairs of masks are employed in making the exposure incident to the-production of the necessary printing plate. The procedure with these masks is the same as that described in connection with the two masks employed in connection with the exposure incident to the production of the printing plate to be used in producing the design on the back of the deuce of spades. With a printing plate resulting from an exposure of the master card 15 in conjunction with the two pairs of -masks thus employed, the design peculiar to the nine of spades may be produced, wherein there will exist two blackened areas at each side of the transverse medial line thereof corresponding to the stations 29 and 30 which were determined by aid .of the templet 16 prior to aflixing the masks to the master card 15 and rior to modifyin such masks so as to, in efi ect, modify the fie d-areas surroundin such stations. W
rom the above, it will be understood that the procedure incident to the roducton of printing plates to be emplo e in print ng the designs on the backso the remaining cards of the spade suit, namely, ten 5 t to ace, inclusive, and the cards in the, or er of the nine spot to and including the ace of the heart, diamond and club suits is the same as that described in connection with the plate to be used in printin the design on the back of the nine of spa es. v
It is to be noted that of the one hundred and four openings in the templetonly seventy-six are employed in determining stations, thus leaving openings Nos. 77 to 104 to serve a useful purpose in connection with the index sheets, to be hereinafter more particularly described. Moreover, it will be understood from the above station schedule,
when considered inconnection with the temple t l6-and the manner in which it is em-- ployed to determine the .stations for the respective cards, that no two cards'of a playing deck will be duplicated in so far as locations of stations are. concerned, and that, therefore, an index sheet may be employed to indicate during a'deal to which of the players the respective cards are to alotted. The indices of each sheet thus emplo ed are prearranged with regard to the statlons of the respective cards andare so dis osed with respect to direction that they wil function, in cooperation with the several stations, to individually indicate the player to whom each card of the deck,over which the index sheet is held, is to be allotted.
In Figures 6 and 7, is shown an index sheet 20 which is of the character hereinbefore mentioned and is preferably made of celluloid. This index sheet is of the same size as the cards employed in the practicing of this invention and is adapted to be introduced, together with a pack of such cards, into a dealing device, hereinafter more particularly described, where it is held against displacement on the top of such pack of cards as they are dealt one-by-one. In order to facilitate dealing of the cards, the index sheet is provided at one end with an oval shaped opening 21, through which the dealers thumb may engage the successive cards as they present themselves in dealin position beneath the index sheet with their faces down.
For each deal, one index sheet is employed to make possible the dealing of pre-sele'cted M hands according to the intended allotment of 6a the several cards the respective players,
strumentality, such as a multiple punch and die not shown, and are so located with respect to the stations on the respective cards used in practicing this invention that a dark or back-ground area of each card will be visible through only one of the arrows. Moreover, these arrows are so directionally disposed that theywill indicate to which of the layers, North, East, South and est, the respective cards are to be dealt, the effective arrow in each instance being the one through which ap ears the darkened or background area of t e card about to be dealt.
The grouping of the arrows and the respective directionalfidisposition of the same, s own in Figure 6, is representative of card distribution according to the followin effective arrow schedule, wherein are emlp oyed identification numbers according to t e sta- In reading or interpreting the arrows as they become effective one by one during the dealing operation, .it is to be taken into account that such,arrows 'as point down, to the left up, and to the right, reference being had to Figure 6, are res ectively indicative of players designated, or convenience, as South, West, North and East.
Referring to the index sheet of Figure 6, it will be noted that sixty-one arrows are employed. Of these arrows only fifty-two are effective with regard to stations, there being one effective arrow for each card to be dealt. The remainin nine arrows are located more or less at ran om about the two side borders and the upper end border of the index sheet, their locations being in correspondence with o nings 77, e0,e4,es,94,97,9s,100 and 103 o the templet 16. The directional dispositionof these infiective arrows is without consequence, in so far as card allotment is concerned inasmuch as no one of them will at any time register with a darkened or background area of the cards as they are dealt, and hence they ma point 'allin one direction or in another, alt ough' it is referred that they vary in this respect. e're it may be well to remark that the reason these arrows never function to indicate the direction of a deal is because they lie in a zone outside of, the outermost dotted line, shown on the templet 16 in Figure 1, which zone contains only openings numbered 77 to 104, inclusive, no one of which numbers is assi ed to a I card, as is obvious from an inspection of the the effective arrows of the index sheet. In
this connection, it may be pointed out that while the ineffective arrows function to stimulate uncertainty in such an attempt at identification, the element of doubt is further intensified by reason of the fact that the directional disposition of the outermost arrows of the effective group changes with the different index sheets, with the resultthat their locations appear to shift with each successive deal, thus subjecting an observer to what, for certain intents and purposes, are everchanging locations of the arrows.
While it is believed that the above described provisions will suflice in establishing an element of doubt, regarding attempts to identify cards by observing positions and relative positions of the effective arrows of the index sheet, an additional precaution is taken in this connection by assigning only cards of relatively low denominations, namely, the two spot to the eight "spot, inclusive, of the several suits, to the outermost portion of the effective-station area, reference being had in this connection to the above station schedule in connection with the area or zone lying intermediate the two dotted lines appearing on the templet 16 in Figure 1. The theory prompting this assignment of low face values is based on the fact that it is reasonable to suppose that a dealer would exert but little, if any, effort in an attempt to identify cards of a more or less trivial nature in so far as face values are concerned, this being especially true in view of the ever present element of doubt resulting from the factors promoting uncertainty, as above described, in the mind of one bent on observation for the purpose of card-value detection. On the other hand, it is reasonable to expect that a dealer, if inclined at-all to attempt identification, would exert his efforts in this connection with the view to identifying cards had to the above station schedule in connection with the numbers appearing within the innermost dotted line on the templet 16 of Figure 1, which will establish their respective stat ons well within the border of the respectrve cards,.so that the effective arrows denoting the intended allotment of the cards of higher values will come well within and towards the center of the index sheet. though it is believed that this expedient will suffice to forestall all attempts at identification of the cards of the higher denominat1ons, there is employed, nevertheless, a further expedient which serves as a safe ard in this connection and resides in the f dt that cards of the higher denominations, reference being had to the above station schedule, are
each assi ned two numbers, from which two stations fbr each of such cards are developed, it being noted that the arrow for these respective two-station cards may appear on each index sheet at one of two possible positions, by reason of the fact that each arrow concerned with the dealing of cards of such higher denominations may appear at one of two possible positions on each index sheet, and the positions of such arrows relative to one another may be different for each index sheet, thus rendering detection, with regard to such denominations, impossible.
Preparatory to punching the effective as well as the ineffective arrows for the respective index sheets, a punch set-up schedule is formulated, the following one being by way of example and employed in the production of the-index sheet of Figure 6.
Punch set-up schedule To condition the die preparatory to punching the index sheet of Figure 6, a punch is placed in each of the punch sockets hearing I a single card identification number according to the above punch set-up schedule, one punch being placed in each socket corresponding to the card identification numbers ranging from the two spot to the eight spot, inclusive, of the several suits. Also, as to of an honor value and possibly as low as the the respective remaining cards, only one nine spot; but, in so far as cards of such values, namely, the nine spot to and including the ace of the several suits are concerned, they are assigned numbers, reference being punch is. employed, and this is introduced into either one or the other of its possible sockets, the one selected being in accordance with the effective-arrow schedule as will ap- 6 v I a.
ment of the cards during the dealing operation WhlGlI is carried out with the 811d of such sheet. Concerm'n the set up of the inactive punches numbers '57, 80, 84, 88, 94, 97 Q9, 100 and 103, which correspond tothe inactlve arrows of the index sheet, the same procedure is 2 carried out as with the active punches so. that the inactive arrows of \the master sheet will appear thereon as intended both as to their locations and their directional dispositions. 1
In Figures 8 to 11, is shown a dealing device 24, hereinbefore referred to, adapted to receive an index sheet, such as the one'indicated by the numeral 20, and a deck of cards desi ed for use in the practicing of this invention. This dealing device 24 is preferabl made of celluloid, and includes a top 25,
si e walls 26 and end walls 27. The top 25 is provided with a window 28 through which all of the arrows of the index sheet may be viewed, and is formed with an opening 29, adapted to register with the Jo ening 21 of the index sheet. Carried by t e top 25, at the inner face thereof, is a button 30, which is adapted to cooperate with a notch 31 formed in the index sheet so as to positively retain the same within the dealin device as the cards are ejected one-by-one t rough an elongated opening or slot 32 formed in one of the side walls 26 adjacent the to 25, the cards being ejected b the dealers t umb as the dealing device is lield in the palm of the hand. As to the openin or slot 32, it is to be noted that its width a ually increases-from a point 'midwa 0 its length towards the ends thereof an that its normal widthat'the narrowest part thereof is slightly less than the thickness of a card. Due, however, to
the more or less resilientnature of the ma terial, namely, celluloid, from which the deal ing device is made, the marginal portion 25a of the top 25 adjacent to or overlyingthe" slot will yield upwardly underslight pressure exerted thereon incident to the dealing operation carriedout for each card, thus increasing the width of the slot with the result that the card being subjected to a lateral.
dealing thrust at the time the slot is widened is ejected without permitting lateral displacement ofthe immediately underlying card. Thus, it will be appreciated that the cambered portion of the side wall 24 immediately r with the marginal portion 25a of the top 25 as a card-restraining means, which becomes ineffective with regard to lateral displacement of the u permost card incident to the respective dea ing operations. Further concerning the slot 32, it has been determined by experience that a gradual increase in width from a point intermediate its ends towards opposite ends thereof enables the device to effectively employed with cards that may bemore or less distorted. 7 From the construction of the dealing device 24, it will be appreciated that the index sheet may be readily introduced into the same from the open end thereof and locked in position preparatory to the introduction of a deck of cards with their faces down so that the backs of the cards, as they present themselves in dealing position, willlie flat against 35 the underneath side of the index sheet.
From the description of the evolution of the designs for the several cards of a deck and the description of the method employed for -piaoducing the co-related index sheets,"it will readily understood that as each card presents itself in dealing position below the index sheet, one and only one of the arrows provided on that sheet will register with a station contained within a colored or back ground area of such, each card and that such arrow will indicate, according to its directional disposition, to which of theplayers, North, East, South, West, the card about to be dealtis to be alloted, the outmay be such indicia as is deemed expedient and this is likewise true with regard ,to the back of-each index sheet. On the face of the index sheet herein shown, information is imparted to the effect that partners North and South, as well as East and West, are not vulnerable, and the dealer is indicated as being the player South. On the back of such sheet, the handicap may be indicated. 1371 as, for example, 201 at auction bridge and 420 at contract bridge, both" in favor of players, North and South. It is desirable tha. this information shall be withheld from the parties at play until the hand has beenplayed,
and for thls reason the printed matter regarding this information is reversed, so as torender it ille ible except by careful observation, If desire each index sheet-may be provided on its obverse side with a series number in 1' association with the name of the editor of the hand represented h each such index sheet, as, for example, Series umber 5 by John Doe, and maybe further provided with other in- 7 formation, as for example the section in that for the back of 1m particular series and the number of the hand represented by such index sheet in that section.
While only one form of the invention is herein shown and described, it will be understood that various modifications may be resorted to, as, for example, with regard to the master card, the index sheets, the dealing device, and the designs for the backs of the respective cards, as well as with regard to the method of producing the master card, the index sheets, and the several printing plates for the backs of the cards of a deck, without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the following claims.
What is claimed is:
l. The combination with a deck of imperforate playing cards, each having its back surface divided into field-areas and background areas, of an index sheet adapted to be ositioned on said cards and having indices indicative of card allotment and so related to one of said areas on each card that one of said indices is rendered optically active in association with such one area to indicate card allotment when the index sheet is positioned on the card provided with said such one area.
2. The combination with a deck of imperforate playing cards, each having its back surface divided into field-areas and background areas, of an index sheet adapted to be positioned on said cards and having indices simulating arrows and directionally disposed to indicate card allotment and so related to one of said areas on each card that one of said indices is rendered optically active in association with such one area to indicate card allotment when the index sheet is positioned on the card provided with said such one area.
3. The combination with an index sheet having indices simulating arrows and directionally disposed to indicate card allotment, of a deck of imperforate playing cards on which such sheet is adapted to be placed, each card having its back surface divided into field-areas and back-ground areas so related to one of said indices that one of said areas,
namely, a back-ground area is rendered opticall active in association with said one of sai indices to indicate card allotment when the index sheet is positioned on the card provided with said one of said areas.
4. The combination with a deck of playin cards, each having its back surface divide into field areas and back-ground areas, of a plurality of index sheets, any one of which is adapted to be placed on said cards, each index sheet corresponding to different preselected hands and having indices indicative of card allotment and so related to one of said areas on each card that one of said indices is rendered active in association with such one area to indicate card allotment when the index sheet provided with said one of said insaid one of said areas.
5. The combination with a plurality of index sheets corresponding respectively to different pre-selected hands and each havin indices indicative of card allotment, of a eck of playing cards on which any one of such sheets is adapted to be placed, each card having its back surface divided into field-areas and back-ground areas so related to one of said indices on each index sheet that one of said areas, namely, a background area, is rendered active in association with such one of said indices to indicate card allotment when the index sheet provided with said one of said indices is positioned on the card provided with said one of said areas.
6. The combination with a deck of imperforate playing cards, each card having its back surfaces divided into field-areas and back-ground areas, of an index sheet adapted to be positioned on said cards and having ineffective indices in association with a plurality of effective indices indicative of card allotment and so related to one of said areas on each card that one of said effective indices is rendered optically active in association with such one area to indicate card allotment when the index sheet is positioned on the card provided with said such one area, the ineffective indices being positioned in a bordering relation to the effective indices and serving to forestall index-sheet-identification by observation.
7. The combination with a deck of playing cards, each card having its back surface divided into field-areas and back-ground areas of which areas only one is effective on certain cards at opposite ends thereof and of which areas a plurality are effective on certain other cards at opposite ends thereof, of an index sheet adapted to be positioned on said cards and having indices grouped in one of a plurality of possible orders and indicative of card allotment and so related to one of said effective areas on each card that one of said indices is rendered active in association with such one area to indicate card allotment when the index sheet is positioned on the card provided with said such one area.
8. In combination with a. deck of playin cards and an index sheet bothcharacterized according toclaim 1, a dealing device having walls between which such index sheet and such deck of cards are adapted to be held, one of such walls being provided with a slot through which the cards may be ejected oneby-one as they assume dealing position bencath such index sheet, and means for locking said index sheet against displacement during the ejection of the cards.
9. In combination with a deck of playing cards and an index sheet both characterized according to claim 1, a dealin device including a top and having walls tween which walls such index sheet and deck of cards are adapted to be held, one of such walls being provided with a slot through which the cards may be ejected one-by-one as they assume dealing position beneath such index sheet, said top being provided with an opening to facilitate ejection of the cards, and havin a yieldable portion adjacent said slot adapted to function in cooperation with the adjacent Wall as restraining means for normally retaining the uppermost card of the deck against displacement.
In testimony whereof, I have afiixed my signature to this specification.
HAMPTON W. HOKE.