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Publication numberUS1887209 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 8, 1932
Filing dateMay 6, 1930
Priority dateMay 6, 1930
Publication numberUS 1887209 A, US 1887209A, US-A-1887209, US1887209 A, US1887209A
InventorsBates Lucas William
Original AssigneeOtis Elevator Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Elevator system
US 1887209 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

W. B. LUCAS ELEVATOR SYSTEM Nov. 8, 1932.

Filed May 6, 1930 III/II] 1 u I u m n I I m I M FIGZ WM (Ba; L-Mm INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 8, 1932 UNITEDQSTAITES.

PATENT OFFICE WILLIAM BATES LUCAS, OF EAST ORANGE, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY ELEVATOR SYSTEM Application filed May 6, i930. Serial no. 450,193.

This invention relates to elevator systems of the type wherein the starting and stopprovided a car gate which safety regulations in many communities require to be closed when the car is in motion with any passenger therein. To insure compliance with such regulations a common practice is to provide a pair of gate-operated contacts in the control circuits of each elevator car, such gate contacts being mounted so that the cir-' suit through them is completeonly when the car gate is closed. The arrangement of the gate contacts in the control circuits in this instance is such that the car may not be set in motion until the gate is closed and the circuit through the gate contacts is completed, and also that, if the gate is opened while the car is in motion, the car is stopped.

It is to be noted that the purpose of the car gate-that of protecting the passengers within the car-fails when the car is in motion with no passengers therein. In such event it may be desirable to permit motion of the car regardless of whether or not the car gate is closed and the circuit through theTgate contacts complete. Such manner of operation .is beneficial, for example, inan automatic push button elevator system having a hand operated car gate for frequently a passenger fails to close the car gate when he leaves, thus preventing subsequent operation of the car by'any intending passenger at any of the other floors until the car gate is closed.

Also, in certain of the elevator'systems which are controlled by passengers within the car and by intending passengers in the halls it may be desirable that the entry of a passenger into the elevator 'car' and his continued presence therein, render thecar unresponsive to control from the halls ,'so that the passenger within the car may retain complete control thereof until he leaves the car. A situation in which such monopoly of the car by the mere entry of a passenger may be desirable may arise a with an automatic push'button elevator system in which the car is provided with a hand operated gate. In such a system it may occur that before a passenger, who has just entered the car and closed the gate after him, operates the 'car button for the floor to which he desires to go, an intending passenger at another floor may operate a hall button which, if such operation becomes effective to control the car, might start it in a direction opposite to that in which the passenger therein desires to go, or at least take such passenger to some floor other than that to which he desires to go,

One of the features of this invention 'is the provision within an elevator car of a light responsive device so correlated with the car control circuits that when the beam of light to which the light responsive device is responsive, is interrupted by the presence of a passenger within'the car, the car gate must be closed in order that the car may be set in motion, but that when the beam of light is not interrupted by the presence'of a passenger within the car, the car'may be set in motion with the car gate open.

Another feature of this inventionis the provision that when such beam of light is interrupted by the presence of apassenger within the car, the; operation of the car may be rendered unresponsive to controls from intending passengers in the halls. 7

Other features and advantages will become apparent from the specification taken in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein one embodiment of the invention is illustrated.

In the embodiment of the invention to" be described, a source of light is mounted on one wall of the elevator .car, near a corner at one-end thereof, and is directed to the opposite wall of the car. 'There a-milrol' i provided to reflect the light beam back to the wall of the car from whence the beam or ginated. The mounting of the source of light is such that the beam therefrom strikes the mirror on the opposite wall non-perpendicularly,'so that as a result thebeam upon its return to the first wall, strikes th1s wall laterally of the light source. Accordingly, mirror is there provided to reflect the beam back to the opposite wall. Other mirrors are provided to reflect-the beam back and forth across the car until it strikes one of these two walls near the other end of the car. At such place there is mounted a light responsive device, for example, a photo-electric cell. -'As a result of this arrangement, a passenger may not enter or remain in the car without obstructing the light beam at one or more places, and thus, without, cutting off the flow of light to the photo-electric cell. The photo-electric cell is associated with suitable electronic and other amplifying devices which are appropriately connected to operate a relay in accordance with the presence or absence of light upon the cell. trol circuits forthe car are arranged to in-. corporate this relay so that, when a passen- The conger obstructs the light beam, the car may not be moved except upon the closure of the car gate, and, if so desired, the hall controls rendered ineffective. In the drawing I Figure 1 is a schematic plan view of an elevator car illustrating the manner of arranging the source of light, the mirrors, and the light responsive device thereon; and

Figure 2 is a diagram of part of a control circuit for an elevator system controlled by passengers within the car and by intending .passengers in the halls, illustrating a preferred manner of correlating the light responsive device to an elevator control system.

Referring to the drawing, there is schematically shown in Figure 1 the outline of a car 5 having-an entrance 6. A source of light 7 is mounted on one wall 8 near the front thereof arranged to cast a light beam across to the opposite wall 9 so that'the beam strikes the oppositewall at an angle slightly less than ninety degrees.

A plurality of mirrors 10 are suitably fastened to the walls 8 and 9 so that the beam of light is transmitted from one wall to the other as the beam progresses from the front to the rearof the car. The angle at .which the source of light 7 is directedupon the first mirror upon the wall 9 is such that the distances across adjacent portions of the light beam in its travel from the front to the rear of the car is nowhere large enoughto permit k 11 described above.

a person to be in the car and not obstruct the beam of light in at least one of its cross paths. On wall 8, near the rear of the car,

a magnetic switches employed in the system are designated as follows Throughout the following description these letters as well as other reference num: bers 'will be applied to relate to the 'above enumerated switches, for example, the contacts B are down direction switches.

' The elevator car 5 is raisedand lowered by means of an elevator motor which for simplicity is not shown, as is also the case with a considerable part of the control circuit for the car. The part of the control circuit illustrated in the diagram shows a plurality of hall buttons 12, one for each floor, and a plurality of car buttons 13, one for each floor, for effecting control of the elevator car. The hall and car buttons for each floor opcrate a floor switch F for the corresponding floor. The hatchway door contacts 14 are, for simplicity, illustrated as a single pair of contacts. The gate contacts are designated by the numeral 15. Within the area designated 16 are other various safety switches which for simplicity are here omitted. The stop button mounted in the car is designated by the numeral 17. A floor controller with which this elevator system is provided is designated as a whole by 18. The floor controller comprises switches 20, 21, 22 and 23 for the intermediate floors and terminal switches 24 and 25 for the bottom and top floors respectively.

Assume that the line switch 26 is now closed. The sourceof light 7 thereupon is actuating coil L28 of light responsive switch L is energized. The resulting enga ement of contacts L30 completes a circuit for the actuating coil M31 of the gate by-pass switch 17 which thereupon operates to cause the en-' gagement of its contacts M32 to by-pass the gate contacts 15. It is assumed in accordance with the illustrated positlons of the switches and contacts shown in Figure 2, that the car is stationaryat the third floor, that the hatchway doors are closed, and that the car gate is open. As a result, do'or contacts 14 are in engagement and the gate contacts 15 are disengaged." Assume thatnow an intending passenger at the third floor-opens the hatchway door and enters the car. Immediately he obstructs the flow of light to the photoelectric cell 11 so that as a result the actuating coil L28 of the light responsive switch is deenergized. The resulting disengagement of the contacts L30 causes deenergization of the actuating coil M31 of the gate by-pass switch so that contacts M32'dis engage to relieve the by-pass around the gate contacts 15.

Assume that the passenger who has entered desires to go to the first floor. Should he dopress the first floor car button 13 without closing the car gate, it is to be noted that he is unable to start the car, for the gate con tacts are separated, and no by-pass circuit across them then exists. After the gate is closed and the gate contacts are in engagement, the operation of the first floor ear button completes a circuit from wire 33, through the safety devices 16, stop button 17 actuating coil F35 of the floor switch for the first floor, first fioor car button 13, actuating coil H36 of the car'holding switch, contacts K37 of the non-interference switch, gate contacts 15, to wire 34. The resulting operation of the car holding switch H causes the engagement of its contacts H38 to complete a circuit for a holding-in Winding H40 of this switch. Also, the engagement of contacts H38 causes the energization of the actuating coil 141 of the hall breaking switch. The resulting operation thereof causes the separation of its contacts I42 in the circuit of the hall buttons in order to render them ineffective after a car button has been operated. e encrgization of the actuating coil F35 of the floor switch for the first floor causes the engagement of its contacts F43 to complete a holding circuit for the coil F35 through the actuating coil of the down direction switch B and of the non-interference switch K. This circuit may be traced from wire 33, through safety devices 16,stop button 17, actuating coil F35, contacts F43, first floor terminal switch 24 of the floor selector, contacts A44 of the up direction switch, actuating coil B45 of the down direction switch, actuating coil K46 of the non-interference switch, door contacts 14 and gate contacts 15, to wire 34. (It is assumed that all the hatchway doors are closed so that all the door contacts are in engagement.) The resulting operation of the noninterference switch causes the separation of its contacts K37 to render ineffective both the car buttons and the hall buttons so that the car may proceed to respond to the car button actuated without interference resulting from a subsequent operation of either a car or a hall button. The actuation of the non-interference switch K also causes the engagement of contacts K47 to complete a circuit for a holding-in winding M48 for the gate by-pass switch. The resulting energization of this holding-in winding M48 is of no effect, howeration of a hall button.

ever, inasmuch as this winding is not strong enough to of itself cause the operation of the gate by-pass switch M; and it is to be recalled that since a passenger is within the car. the actuating winding M31 of the gate bypass switch is not energized. The energization of the actuating coil B45 causes the separation of its contacts B50 to electrically interlock the controls against an operation of the up direction switch. The actuation of the down direction -switch also causes the starting of the car in the down direction, but this is effected through the medium of contacts associated with the elevator motor andother apparatus for simplicity not shown, so these contacts on the down direction switch are not shown.

The car thereupon leaves the third floor and proceeds to the first floor. As the car leaves the third floor, the intermediate switch 23 of the floor controller closes to enable the car to return to the third floor. As the car passes the second floor, the intermediate switches 20 and 21 of the floor controller open and close, respectively, in order to enable the car to return to the second floor. The operation of these switches is of no effect under the assumed conditions of operation as the contacts on the floor switches for the second and third floors are disengaged.

As the car nears the first floor, the first floor terminal switch 24 upon the floor controller opens, thereby interrupting the circuit for the coils F35, B45 and K46. As coil F35 deenergizes, the contacts F43 of the floor switch for the first floor separate in preparation for a subsequent operation. As coil B45 deenergizes, down direction switch B operates to interrunt the circuits controlling the elevator motor to cause the stopping of the car.. As coil K46 deenergizes, the contacts K37 reengage in preparation for a subsequent operation of a controlling button. The separation of the contacts K47 which occurs at this time causes the deenergization of the holding-in coil M48 of the gate bypass switch. Under the conditions of operation assumed, this operation is in this insiance of no consequence. Upon the car coming (0 a stop at the first floor, the passenger within the car opens the car gate and the hatchway door and departs. It will be recalled that the opening of the car gate causes the separa ion of the gate contacts 15. As a result, the circuit for the coils H40 and I41 are interrupted. As the coil I41 deenergizes, the contacts 142 reengage in preparation for a subsequent op- As the coil H4O dcenergizes, the contacts H38 separate in preparation for a subsequent operation of a car button. The exodus of the passenger from the car permits the light beam from the source of light 7 to again fall upon the light responsive device 11. The resulting energization of the actuating coil L28 causes the engagement of its contacts L30 to complete a circuit for the actuating coil M31 of the gate by-pass switch. The gate by-pass switch is thereupon operated and its contacts M32 are brought into reengagement to by-pass the gate contacts 15.

Assume that the passenger, on leaving the car at the first floor, closed the hatchway door but failed to close the car gate. As a result, gate contacts 15 are separated. Further, assume that now an intending passenger at the second floor operates the second floor hall button. In spite of the fact that the gate contacts are now separated, however, the car may be started in response to this operation of the second floor hall button. Thus, the o eration of this hall button completes a circuit which may be traced from wire 33,

through safety devices 16, stop bufton 17,-

actuating coil F51 of the floor switch .for the second floor, second floor hall button 12, contacts I42, contacts K37, and contacts M32, to wire 34. The resultingenergization of the actuating coil F51 causes the engagement of contacts F52, which, by their engagement, complete a holding circuit for the coil F51 through the actuating coils for the up direction switch A and non-interference switch K. This circuit may be tracedfrom wire 33, through safety devices 16, stop button 17. actuating co l F51, contacts F52, intermediate selector switch 21, top floor terminal switch 25, actuating coil A53, contacts B50, actuating coil K46, door contacts 14, contacts M32 of the gate by-pass switch, to wire 34. The energization of coil K46 causes the separation of contacts K37 to render the ear and hall buttons ineffective. The energization of the coil K46 also causes the engagement of contacfs K47. This results in the completion of the circuit for the holding-in coil M48 of the gateby-pass switch. The energization of up direction switch coil A53 causes the separation of the electrical interlock contacts A44. and by means of other of its contacts in circuits not shown, causes the starting of the car'in the up direction. It is to be noted.

that the car is started even though the gate contacts are separated due to the fact that the contacts M32 comnlete a by-pass circut around them. The completion of this bypass circuit is dependent upon the absence of anyone in the car so that the light beam from the source 7 strikes the photo-electric cell 11. Y

As the car leaves the first fioor,'the terminal switch 24 closes in order that the car may subsequently be returned thereto. In the event that in starting the car, or during its subsequent motion, the beam of light should fail or be displaced, as might result from movement of a mirror or a support, so that the beam does not strike the photo-electric cell, it is to be noted that the actuating coil M31 of the gate by-pass switch would be deenergized.

.ger has operated a car button.

The gate by-pass switch is maintained'in its operated position, however, by means of the holding-in winding M48, with the result that the contacts M32 are maintained in engagement and the car continues in motion. As the car approaches the second floor, the intermediate switch 21 upon the selector opens, thereby interrupting the circuit.for coils F51, A53 and K46. As the result of the deenergization of the coil A53 of the up direction switch, the car is stopped at the second floor. The deenergization of the coil F51 of the floor switch for the second floor effects the separation of its contacts F52 in preparation for a subsequent operation. As a result of the deenergization of the coil K46, the contacts K47 separate to deenergize the holding-in winding M48, and the contacts K37 engage in preparation 'for a subsequent operation of the control buttons. The intending passenger at the second floor may then open the hatchway door and enter the car.

If desired, the entry of a passenger into the car may be made to render the hall buttons ineffective, even before the entering passen- This may be effected by providing the gate by-pass switch with a second set of contacts M54 which may be inserted in the hall button circuit as shown by the dotted lines in Figure 2. When these contacts M54 are so provided, it is to be noted that when no one is within the car, the actuating coil M31 of the gate bypass switch is energized and the contacts M54 are in engagement. As a result, the hall buttons are then efi'ective to control the car. As soon as a passenger enters the car, however, the actuating coil M31 is deenergized and the contacts M54 separate. The hall buttons are then ineffective to control the car.

It is to be understood that the adaptation of the invention is not limited to the specific type of elevator control sysem with which it has been described above, but that it is capable of use in many other types of elevator systems. Furthermore, the invention is not limited to the provision of a. single light source and a single photo-electric cell upon the elevator car. Thus, for example, a plurality of light sources may be arranged upon the ear to actuate one or more photo-electric cells, the arrangement being such, however, that in the event that the light to any cell is interrupted, the contacts of the light responsive switch L disengage. Also, the illustrated manner of mounting the mirrors and the other equipment upon the car is intended as sche matic. For example, although in practice the mirrors may be mounted directly upon the .car walls, as illustrated, in certain installathe car enclosure. In addition, the height from the floor of the car at which are mounted the source of light, the mirrors, and the light responsive device is variable. The height should always be such, however, that some portion of the body of a passenger within the car is bound to obstruct the light beam. Inasmuch as children frequently use apartment house elevators, it is considered preferable to place the equipment in such elevators from e'ghteen inches to two feet above the floor, but this placement is subject to alteration when special conditions prevail and in other types of buildings.

It is also to e understood that, although radiation within the visible frequenciesi. e., lighthas been employed in the embodiment of the invention described, it is within the scope of this invention to employ radiations lying partly or wholly within the invisible part of the frequency spectrum.

As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

1. In an elevator system; an elevator car; a source of light mounted upon a wall of said car and arranged to cast a beam of light across to an opposite wall; a plurality of mirrors arranged upon the walls of said car to transmit said light beam back and forth across the car, said light source and said mirrors being so arranged that a passenger within the car obstructs said beam at at least one .of its paths, a photo-electric device mounted upon said car so that said light beam falls upon said device after being reflected back and forth by said mirrors, switching mechanism having contacts in a circuit affecting the operation of said car, and means responsive to the operation of said photo-electric device to cause the operation of said switching mechanism.

2. In an elevator system; an elevator car having a gate for the entrance thereof; means for controlling the starting, running and stopping of said car; means responsive to the position of said gate to render said controlling means ineffective to start and run said car until said gate is closed to bar said entrance; a source of light arranged to cast a light beam from one side wall of the car across the car enclosure to another side wall thereof so that the light beam is adapted to be obstructed by a passenger in said car; a light responsive device mounted in the path of said light beam after it traverses the car enclosure means responsive to the striking of said beam upon said light responsive device to render said gate operated means ineffective; and means responsive to the starting of said car, when no passenger is in said car and said gate is open, to maintain said gate operated means ineffective while the car is running so that in the event said light beam fails to strike said light responsive device after the car starts, the car is not stopped as the result of such light failure.

3. In an elevator system; an elevator car having a gate for the entrance thereof; means for controlling the starting, running and stopping of said car; means responsive to the position of said gate to render said controlling means inefi'ective to start and run said car until said gate is closed to bar said entrance; a source of light mounted upon a wall of said car and arranged to cast a beam of light across to an opposite wall; a plurality of mirrors arranged upon the walls of said car to transmit said light beam back and forth across the car, said light source and said mirrors being so arranged that a passenger within the car obstructs said beam in at least one of its paths; a photo-electric device mounted upon said car so that said light beam falls upon said device after being reflected back and forth by said mirrors; means responsive to the striking of said beam upon said photo-electric device to render said gate operated means ineffective; and means responsive to the starting of said car, when no passenger is in said car and said gate is open, to maintain said gate operated means ineffective while the car is running so that in the. event said light beam fails to strike said light responsive device after the car starts, the car is not stopped as the result of such light failure.

4. In an elevator system; an elevator car; means for causing lines of light to traverse the interior of said car in a pattern such that the vertical projections of the various lines on the floor of said car define a number of small areas in none of which a person may stand without obstructing at least one of said lines of light; switching mechanism having contacts in a circuit affecting the operation of said car; and light responsive means responsive to the interruption of any of said lines of light to cause the operation of said switching mechanism.

5. In an elevator system; an elevator car having a gate for the entrance thereof; means for controlling the starting and stopping of said car; means responsive to the position of said gate to render said controlling means ineffective to start said car until said gate is closed to bar said entrance; means for causing lines of light to traverse the interior of said car in a pattern such that the vertical projections of the various lines on the floor of said car define a number of small areas in none of which a person may stand without obstructing at least one of said lines of light;

WWHMULM. m, r

means for rendering said gate operated means inefl'ective to prevent starting of said car; and light responsive switching mechanism responsive to the interruption of any of said lines of light to render said last named means inefiective, so that said gate must be closed to bar said entrance, when any of said lines of light is interrupted, before said car may be started.

10 6. In an elevator system; an elevator car; hall buttons controlling the starting of said car; car buttons controlling the starting of said car; means for causing lines of light to traverse the interior of said car in a pattern such that the vertical projections of the various lines on the floor of said car define a number of smallareas in none of which a person may stand without obstructing at least one of said lines of light; and light responsive means responsive to the interruption of any of said lines of light for rendering said hall buttons ineffective to start said car so that a person enterin said car may have exclusive control thereog 7. In an elevator system; an elevator car having a gate for the entrance thereof; means for controlling the starting and stopping of said car; means responsive to the. position of said gate to render said controlling means ineffective to start said car until said gate is closed to bar said entrance; light emitting means causing lines of light to traverse the interior of said car in a pattern such that the vertical projections of the various lines on 55 the floor of said car define a number of small areas in none of which a person may stand without obstructing at least one of said lines of light; and light responsive means effective only when all of said lines of light are continuous for rendering said gate operated means inefi'ective to prevent starting of said car, so that said gate must be closed to bar said entrance, and thereby actuate said gate operated means, before said car may be started in the event said light emitting means fails, or said light res onsive means fails, or any of said lines of lig t be interrupted.

In testimony whereof,I have signed my name to this s ecification.

' 1AM BATES Lucas.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2753464 *Aug 11, 1950Jul 3, 1956Republic Steel CorpMethod and apparatus for inspecting tinplate
US2776733 *Jun 2, 1955Jan 8, 1957Westinghouse Electric CorpElevator systems
US2853158 *Jul 13, 1956Sep 23, 1958Elevator Construction & ServicClosure control mechanism
US2953219 *Dec 24, 1954Sep 20, 1960Westinghouse Electric CorpDoor control apparatus
US3025406 *Feb 5, 1959Mar 13, 1962Flightex Fabrics IncLight screen for ballistic uses
US3168164 *Oct 3, 1962Feb 2, 1965Elevator Specialties CorpElevator photo-cell by-pass control
US3367450 *Mar 3, 1967Feb 6, 1968Westinghouse Electric CorpTraffic supervisory apparatus
US3746863 *Mar 15, 1972Jul 17, 1973Exotron Ind LtdLight curtain control for a switch
US4347438 *Mar 9, 1981Aug 31, 1982Richard SpielmanLight transceiver device
US5644111 *May 8, 1995Jul 1, 1997New York City Housing AuthorityElevator hatch door monitoring system
US6050369 *Oct 7, 1994Apr 18, 2000Toc Holding Company Of New York, Inc.Elevator shaftway intrusion device using optical imaging processing
Classifications
U.S. Classification187/392, 250/215, 187/280, 250/206, 250/221
International ClassificationB66B1/34
Cooperative ClassificationB66B1/3476
European ClassificationB66B1/34D