US 1888601 A
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.LQNG 13m, NEW YORK, A CGRPQBATION YTOWN, AND TQN', NEW Y0, MIGEIOBS '10 BENhIETT-MACK CORPORATION, 03 DQUGLASTQN,
oneness w. BENNETT, or Donates- OF NEW YORK Immersion Bo Erasing.
This invention relates to acompositionof matter, and a method of producing the same, in the form of an emulsion to he applied to the face for shaving purposes.
The object of this invention is to reduce a finished emulsion particularly usetul as a shaving preparation or as a Preparation for the skin which is more eilective for the purpose than reparations now used, thereby increasing e ciency.
With this and other objects in view, the invention consists in the novel composition of matter or emulsion, as well as the novel steps and combination of steps constituting the process h which it is produced, all as will he more ully hereinafter disclosed andparticularly pointed out in the claim.
In order that the precise invention may he more clearly understood, it is said: Form erly, the generally used practice in shaving was to applyto the area to he shaved, 'or make thereon, a lather or foam or soap and water. As a working hypothesis to explain the generally accepted use ofsoap lather in shaving, it may he said that it provided the most readily available material which combined the roperties of softening the hair and furnishing adegree of mechanical support for the same so that it might be cut hy the razor.
purpose belong, therefore to the lathering ty e.
' 'Latterly, emulsions oi the oil-in-vwa'ter type were introduced to replace the soap lather.
These preparations belong to the latherless type, since no foam or lather is produced. As
compared with soap lather, these emulsions appear to have at least as great softening power, and greater supporting power.
@ur studyof the operation of shaving has conclusions 1. The passage 0? the razor over the face is unavoidably conducive to the production of minor abrasions of the skin. These are largeiy of a cutaneous or superficial nature, rather than sub-cutaneous. They are not of such a gross nature as to be visible to the naked eye, in most part, but consist of a multiplicity of small trauma of the skin.
2. Soap is irritating to such abraded or.- 59 traumatized surfaces.
. theory of therein of soap, and
Apgalioation filed Heron 7, 1930. i Serial No. 43%,178.
3. The oil-in-Water latherless emulsions used for shaving usually contain sea and are therefore irritating to such abraided or trau matized surfaces, although somewhat less so than straight soap lather.
4. Shaving with either of the above mentioned types of shafvin preparations is accompanied by rubefactlon and irritation of the skin, which condition persists after the completion of the shaving operation. I
5. It is common practice withfishavers-to allay this irritation and the resulting discomfort by the application of lotions, skin balms or other emollients. f
6. (lur finding as, to the irritating edect of soap on abraded or traumatized skin surface is in accord with the generally accepted selective adsorption.
In the invention now to be described, all the above objections are done away with, as will presently appear. have discovered that shaving preparations may be improved b avoiding the presence y incorporating therein the proper emollients. We have further discovered that a large part of the discomfort and skinirrit'ation connected with shaving i v is avoided or alloyed by the use "of our im- 2. Water soluble synthetics such as diethyl-amino-ethyl-p-amino-benzoate hydrochloride.
3. Dificultly soluble derivatives of henzoic acid such as ethyl-p-amino benzoate, propyl-p-amino benzoate.
- We have discovered that one or more representatives of the above groups may be beneficially used in our improved preparation, but our preferred practice is to use one or more members of the third group, and particularly ethyl-p-amino benzoate, or any ester of amino benzoic acid or derivatives thereof. Using ethyl-p-amino benzoate as a preferred member of this group, we find that it is non-irritant and non-toxic. In support of this, Braun-Harris in Local Anaesthesia (1924 edition) page 111, says This a cut, (ethyl-p-amino benzoate) according to inz and Kobert, is non-toxic and according to the reports of von Noorden and Lingemann can be used for anaesthetic purposes in the same manner as orthoform, relieving pain for a considerable period without the sec-' ondary effects observed following this drug in cases of nervous hyperesthesia of the stomach and ulcus ventriculi. It should be taken ten to fifteen minutes before eating, 2.5 grams being considered the maximum daily dose Injurious secondary efi'ects have never been noticed.
The Dispensatory of the U. S. A., (21st Ed. 1926, pages 83-84) says ethyl amino benzoate is remarkable I among the local anaesthetics first for its comparative insolubility and second for its lack of toxicity Kennel has reported a case in which 40 grains were administered to a patient without apparent ill-effect the anaesthetic effect is almost entirely on the nerve terminals; that is, it has very little effect on the nerve trunks as compared for example to cocaine.
We have discovered that especially ethylp-amino benzoate, when incorporated in our improved emulsionv or preparation exercises suflicient anaesthetic effect to notably decrease the discomforts and irritation attendant upon the ordinary shaving operation, as well as to almost entirely eliminate the distressing after effects.
In order to prepare our improved shaving preparations, we proceed in the following manner:
A fat phase is prepared by melting to gether at 112 degrees cent. 9 to 12 parts of stearlc acid, 6 to 8 parts of cocoanut oil, 6 to. 8 parts of parafline'wax, and 0.15 to 0.20 parts of zinc stearate. The mixture is cooled to 75 degrees cent., and 0.8 to 3 parts of ethyl-p-amino benzoate dissolved therein. The temperature of the mixture is then lowered to -65 degrees cent.
'A water phase of the following composition is then prepared. 5.5 to 7.5 parts of glycerine, 0.8 to 1.1 parts of borax, 0.3 to 0.4 parts of ammonia, are dissolved in 56-75 parts of water. The temperature is raised to 50-60 degrees cent. This water phase is gradually added to the above fat hase, the utter being continuously and t oroughly stirred in a; manner to assist in emulsification, all in accord with practices familiar and well known tov those skilled in the art of emulsion making;- A perfume consisting of 2 gms. of a bouquetperfume, 1% s. of bay oil, and 1 gm. of menthol may fiadded to the finished emulsion, to the extent of 0.2 to 0.25 part.
We may substitute other local anaesthetics in the above emulsion or we may use two or more in combination. Thus for example.
we may take the above emulsion which is anaesthetic or has local anaesthetic properties, and in order to make the anaesthetic properties more pronounced, we may add one or more local anaesthetics to the already anaesthetic emulsion. Or the extra anaesthetic may be added during the process of making. For instance We may use propyl p-amino benzoate in combination wlth ethyl-p-amino' benzoate, or we may use a member or members of the other groups or types as benzoyl-l-ecgonine methyl ester or di-ethyl-aminoethyl-p-amino benzoate hydrochloride. The emulsion ma be made as strongly anaesthetic as desire as for example the use of 5 per cent of ethyl-p-amino benzoate causes almost complete anaesthesia of the skin. With di-ethyl-amino-ethyl-pamino-benzoate hydrochloride or benzoyl-lecgonine methyl ester, much-smaller quantities are required.
While the above formula is our. preferred composition, it is obvious that those skilled in the art of emulsion making may vary the proportions of the in edients as much as fifteen percent in eith r direction, without substantialy altering the properties of the resulting emulsion, and hence without departing from the spirit of our invention. It is also evident that one skilled in the art may substitute for some of the constituents other substances of similar pro erties, with the result that emulsions w1ll e produced having the novel properties which we have discovered, as will be more fully pointed out in the claim. To illustrate, stearic acid may be substituted by an equivalent amount of other fatty acids, e. g. palmitic. Oocoannt oil may be substituted by other vegetable oils of approximately the same melting point, e. g. palm oil. For parafline, there may substituted other waxes of approximately the same melting oint, e. g. spermacetti. Zmc stearate may be substituted by any agent tending to produce an emulsion of the waterin-oil type, as for instance the oil-soluble soaps, e. g. magnesium oleate. For ethyl-pamino benzoate there may be used other nontoxic local anaesthetics, e. g. other members of the group of difiicultly soluble derivatives of benzoic acid, as propyl-p-amino benzoate, or members of the other groups glven above, as for instance diethyl-amino-ethyl-p-amino-benzoate h drochloride. Glycerine may be substituted by glycols of suitable properties, e. g. ethylene glycol. Borax may be subbe m 1,88a,eo1
stituted by other soluble alkali borates, e. g. potassium or ammonium borate. For ammonia there may be used an equivalent quantity of asubstituted amine, e. g. one or more of the ethanol amines.
An emulsion of similar appearance may be made from the above formula, omitting the zinc stearate; or omitting the agent for emulsifying water in oil, but we have found that such an emulsion lacks the peculiar quality or body which the presence of the water inoil emulsifier confers, and this property we have found advantageous in shaving preparations. This novel property persists in our improved emulsion, not only in the mass, but more especially when the emulsion is spread out and worked onto the area to be shaved.
The oilin-water emulsifying agent is furnished by the inter-action of the ammonia with the stearic acid. It is pointed out that the calculated ratio of acid to base in the water phase shows 10-15 ercent excess of boric acid over the stochiometric ratio as orthoborates. We have discovered that the emulsion is stabilized by the addition of borax. In other words, if the borax is omitted the emulsion loses ammonia progressively, becoming unstable, with a loss of properties.
It is to be noted that the emulsion'made by our preferred formula is a double emulsion and contains both water-in-oil and oilin-water emulsifying agents, with an excess of the latter, furnishing a medium which will obviously take up either oil or water to an extent, without serious change in the property of body or viscosity. This furnishes an agent, therefore, which will take up both oil and water which may surround the hair, and still furnish superior supporting power to hold the hair for the shaving operation.
- Our improved preparation is used in the same manner as the oil-in-water types referred to above. It is spread over the wetted surface to be shaved and worked onto this area. The shaving is done with a wetted razor.
Menthol is used in our preparation as a perfume. .We do not claim its use, being aware that shaving preparations have'been made containing menthol in suificient quant ty to stimulate the nerves for the perception of cold and by so doing tending to lessen the immediate discomfort in shaving by accentuation of another sensation, namely, the
perception of cold.
It is obvious that those skilled in the art of emulsion making niay vary the composition of our shaving preparation or emulsion, and the conditions and details of producing the same, without departing from the spirit of. our invention, and we do not wish to be limited to the above disclosure except as may be required by the claim..
What we claim is An emulsion substantially devoid of an alkali soap and composed of In testimony whereof we aflix our signatures.
EDWARD L. MACK. CHARLES W. BENNETT.