US 1892106 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
'Dec. 27, 1932. B. F. JANckE APPARATUS FOR USE IN WAVING HAIR Original Filed Nov. 15 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet Dec. 27, 1932. B. F. JANCKE 1,892,106
APPARATUS on USE IN WAVING H IR Origin a1 Filed Nov. 15, 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 2' INVENTOR flaw A By Attorneys,
Dec. 27, 1932. B, JANCKE 1,892,106
APPARATUS FOR USE IN WAVING HAIR Originyl F iled Nov..l5, 1925 s Sheets-Sheei a INVENTOR I By Attorneys Patented Dec. 27, 193? UNITED STATES- PATENT OFFICE.
BENNO FREDERICK JAN OI NEW YORK, 11'. Y ASSIGNOB '10 SHELTON-J'AHGII B- PORATION, 01 NEW YORK, N. Y; A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY APPARATUS FOR USE 'IN 'WAVING ELIE,
Application filed November 15, 1928, Serial No. 674,888. Renewed Kay 88, 1928.
This invention relates to an apparatus or device for use in the art of waving hair,'that is, for producing the so-called permanent wave in hair, and aims to provide improvements therein.
The invention provides a device whereby therequisite heat which is used in the waving of hair may-be applied in such manner that discomfort from excessive heat around the head during the treatment, burning and injury to the hair from such heat, and'burning of the hands of attendants in handling the heaters now in use, may be avoided.
The energy for producing the heat is transmitted without the use of wires from an electric circuit to the heat-generating element in which heat is directly developed, so that such wires and other parts as may constitute a part of the device which is handled, and which comes in immediate proximity to the person whose hair-is being treated-,need not be exvternally heated to temperatures which are objectionable tothe attendants or to the person undergoing treatment. Moreover, the heatgenerating element may be placed or located in positions most advantageous for the de-' velopment of its heat and for conveying heat to the liquids and other material used in the process of waving, and to the hair itself.
Several embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
Referring to said drawings,'- Figures 1 to 3, inclusive, illustrate a form of the device readily adaptable for connec tion to an ordinary lighting circuit, and usa ble with direct or alternating current without alteration. Fig. 4 is the wiring bodiment shown in Figs. 1 to 3.
Fig. 5 is an alternative wiring diagram. Figs. 6 and 7 are diagrams of other ciruits which may be employed. and which are adaptable for connection to wire systems supplied with alternating current.
Fig. 8 illustrates still another embodiment 15 diagram of the emof the invention in which the energy for heating' is transmitted by a directional wireless transmitter such as usedin' wireless telephony or telegraphy.
Fig. 9 illustrates still another embodiment in which the energy is transmitted throu 11 space from a single coil (of the pancaie type).
Fig. 10 is a cross-section through the pancake winding.
Figs. 11, 12, 13 and 14 illustrate other embotiiments of the part of the apparatus shown in ig. 3. 7
Figs. 15, 16 and 17 illustrate three forms of the pin or rod on which the hair is wound for treatment.
Fig. 18 is a View showing the apparatus applied to a strand of hair in process of permanently waving it.
Apparatus for permanent waving are commonly'made with a plurality or multiplicity of heating units (often twenty or more) for heating numerous individual strands or curls of hair. A single unit will be first described.
Referring to said drawings, numeral 10 designates a heat-generating element which may have a great variety of forms, as will be hereinafter more fully explained, and 15 designates any suitable means for transmitting by induction, energy for producing heat in said element 10. These means 15 comprise a coil 16 connectedin the circuit of an alternating or oscillating current, as shown in the diagrams Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7.
The transmitting means 15 may also have a variety of forms, some of which are illustrated and described herein.
The heat-generating means 10 is a piece or pieces of metal,,preferably magnetic iron or steel, for example, adapted to be placed in proximity to the hair undergoin treatment, and in which heat is developed t rough the action of the varying flux transmitted through space from said transmitting means As shown in Fig. 15, the heat-generating element 10 may comprise a pin in the form of a metal tube 20 around which the hair to be treated is wound, and a wire bail or loop 21, pivoted to one end of the tube 20, as indicated at 22, and adapted to frictionally engage the other end, as indicated at 23, the
ail or loop 21, when in place, serving to hold the wound hair on the tube 20 from unwinding.
As shown in Fig. 16, the heat-generatin element 10 may comprise an iron rod 25, pre erably having aluminum tips 26, 27, at its ends, and surrounded by a porous jacket 28 of suitable material, as, for example, unglazed porcelain. The porcelain serves for absorbing liquid which is vaporized in the process of treating the hair.
As illustrated in Fig. 17, the heating element 10 comprises an iron rod or core 30 surrounded by a porous material 32, such as as bestos, and encased within a perforated sleeve 33 of bakelite or the like. The asbestos or other porous material serves to absorb liquid which is vaporized by the heat of the core 30, and the perforations in the tube 33 enable the vapors to readily pass into the hair wound on the said sleeve 33.
The means 15 for'transmitting the energy for heating said element 10, shown in Figs. 1 to 3, inclusive, may consist of a solenoid coil or helix 40 through which currents of electricity are adapted to be sent in opposite directions, preferably at hi h frequency. The solenoid coil 40 may be p aced inside or outside of the heat-generating element 10, and may be arranged so as to supply the energy to one or a number of said elements 10. In fact, the solenoid may be made of a size to supply energy to all of the heating elements used upon a head in carrying out the permanent waving, sometimes some forty or more in number, but usually a lesser number, as from twenty to thirty (see Fig. 9).
As shown in Figs. 1-8, 11, 12, and 13, the solenoid coil 40 is arranged to surround a single heat-generating element, and a number of such solenoid coils corresponding to the number of heat-generating elements employed, are provided.
The solenoid coil 40-is preferably mounted upon a tough fiber tube 41 which serves as an envelope for enclosing the heat-generating element 10, the strand of hair wound thereon, and the wrapping 'which is employed in carrying out permanent waving, as illustrated in Fig. 18. The solenoid CO1 40 is prefererably externally surrounded by a tube 48 of similar material, providing a casing for the said solenoid coil.
As shown in Figs. 11 and 12, the heat-gencrating element 10 is shown as physically in-- corporatcd withthe solenoid coil 40 and its casing. In Fig. 11 the heat-generating element 10 is formed as a tube 45 surrounded by a spaced perforated tube 46 of fiber or the like, around which the solenoid coil is wound. The solenoid coil 40 is here exposed to air circulation for reducing its temperature, and the perforations in the tube 46 also serve for circulation of air for carrying 05 heat which is exteriorly radiated by the said heatgenerating element 10.
In Fig. 12 the heat-generating element 10 is also in the form of a tube 50, on which the solenoid coil 40 is wound, and the solenoid coil ma be covered with a sleeve 52 similar to the eeve 43, Fig. 3, preferably provided with vents 51 therein. I
As shown in Figs. 13 and 14, the heat-generatin element 10 is combined with the aper tu lie which is usually placed around a strand of hair prepared for the heat treatment. For example, a sheet of metal 54 (iron preferably) is wound in a sheet of paper 55 to form a tube which is placed over the wound strand of hair in the same manner as the paper tube shown in Fig. 18. An asbestos or other suitable sheet 56 ma be placed around the paper tube 55 opposite the metal sheet 54 to retard the outward radiation of heat. In this case, also the solenoid coil 40 may be formed as a simple winding capable of self-support, which is simply placed over the wrappings of the repare strand of hair, to put it in position or inductivel supplying ener to the heat-generating e ement 10.
'An oscillating or alternating current may be supplied to or produced in the solenoid coil 40 by any suitable means. Asshown in Figs. 1 and 2, and the diagrams F igs. 4 and 5, the solenoid coil is connected by means of leads or wires 58, 59, with a high frequency oscillator conveniently consisting of a condenser 60, a spark gap 62 across which said condenser is ada ted to dischar e, and in the circuit of which said solenoi coil 40 is placed. An inductive kick coil 64 is laced in one of the leads 66, 67, from an or inary lighting circuit, and one of the terminals of the spark gap, as the terminal 69, is made displaceable, so as to act as an interru ter for the inductive kick coil, and is place within the magnetic influence of the kick coil 64, so as to interrupt the circuit when said kick coil 64 is traversed by an electric current. On the break, the kick coil produces discharges across the small ga between the terminals of the spark gap 62, between terminals 69, 69' and this entrains a series of high frequency oscillations to and from the condenser 60,
.across said spark gap, and through the solei said terminal 69.
spri means indicated by numeral 70, Figs. 1 an 2, though other means may be used. The 5 ring means may conveniently consist oPa coil sprin 72 on a rod 73 bearing against a: sleeve 4 which in turn bears against one of the arms 75 of a lever 76 carry- Figs. 6 and 7 the energy transmitting devices 15 are arranged in circuits 77 without any'appreciable capacit high frequency oscillations in the circuit 7 being produced by means of a transformer 78 the rimary 0 which is in an oscillating circuit 79 of usual form, containing a condenser 60 and a spark gap 62.. The energy for charging the condenser 60may be derived from alighting circuit (see leads 66, 67) through a transformer 80. The circuits shown in Figs. 6 and 7 are alike,'- except that. in Fig. 6 the condenser and spark gap are in parallel, while in Fig. 7 these parts are in series.
The magnetic variations in the field of th solenoid coil 40 are transmitted through,
space 'to the metal of the heat-generating e ement 10, producing eddy currents therein and molecu ar friction or hysteresis losses if the element be composed of a magnetic material, and thereby heating said elementto iproduce the heat for the permanent-wave air treatment. As shown in Fig. 8, the energy for said heating means may be supplied in the form of electromagnetic waves from an antenna,
directional or otherwise, which is-preferably arranged as a series of wires 100 curved over the seat of the person whose hair is being waved, as illustrated in Fig. 8. These wires are preferably arranged in the manner of the wires in a directional radio telephone or telegraph sending station, and concentrate the transmitted energy toward the position flow of current in the solenoid in turn pro-.
of the person undergoing hair treatment. The heat-generating element is preferably surrounded by a solenoid coil 40 similar to that shown in Figs. 3, 11, 12, or 18, and in this case the ends of the wire constituting the solenoid are joined to produce a local receiving circuit. The etherdisturbances set up through the wireless antenna 100 produce an alternating or oscillatory current in the solenoid 40 which is designed to be in resonance with the wireless transmitter, and this duces magnetic efl'ects or disturbances'which heat the eat-generating element in the field.
of said solenoid in the manner hereinbefore described. As shown in Figs. 9and 10 the energy transmitting means may comprise a large coil 16 which is in circuit with means fol."
producing an alternating or oscillatory current. The coil 16 transmits energy through space to the various heat-generating elements 10 used for waving a head of hair, by magother -ducing high frequency oscillations for enernetic. induction as beforedescribed. This construction eliminates'a large number of lead-wires to individual energy-transmitting coils 16 such as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, but
requires considerably more powerful currents in the circuit thereof than is the case 'where each of the coils 16 is sup lied with only the energy for locally pro ucing the heat efiect in the individual heat-generating element immediately associated therewith. In the construction shownin Figs. 9 and 10, the .coil 16 is in the form of a flat spiral 105, known as a pancake coil, composed of a metal strip 107 with an insulating strip 108 between the metal spirals, and the whole is insulated as by a covering 110 of. suitable insulating material.
The pancake coil 105 is adapted to be raised I gizing the heater elements.
The invention may'receive a great variety of embodiments, and is not limited to the specific embodiments hereinaillustrated and described. Y
It is characteristic of this invention that the heat generated is concentrated in the heatgenerating element. which is closely associated with the hair to be curled or waved, so that the heating efl'ect is utilized internally to (produce its intended effect upon the hair, an is-not dissipated externally to any readily appreciable extent. It is thus differentiated from the permanent wave a pliances here-.
tofore in universal use. in which the heating element is aresistance coil in av metalliccasing which is placed around the repared strand of hair, so as to enclose the air and its surrounding la r of absorbent material saturated with a so.ution of borax or the like, and also usually a paper envelope enclosing. such absorbent layer, so that the heat generated in said coil is radiated both inwardly and outwardly, with the result that the casing becomes excessively hot, so that the attendant cannot safely handle it, and the person under treatment is subjected to the cumulative heat eil'ect of the numerous heaters simultaneously in ectiom-whereby her scalp and head are uncomfortably and often distressingly and dangerousl heated, and sometimes seriously burned. the present invention substitutes for such heaters are not heat-generators, 'being of ample conductivity fortransmitting the electrical energy, without heating, but are meree solenoid coils which.
ly exciters for theinternal heat-generating elements, and their'casings (if casings are used) are cool and can be handled with perfect comfort and safety. The internallyenerated heat is applied almost solely to the air and the impregnated absorbent surrounding the hair, and is not expended in heating an enclosing casing, nor is it communicated in any sensible degree to the scalp, so that the person under treatment is nearly unconscious of any heating effect around her head. Thus the process of permanent waving is rendered safe and comfortable, and also is conducted much more quickly because of the internal concentration of the heat.
What I claim is:
1. A hair waving device comprising a heat generating element adapted to be placed in proximity to the hair to be treated, a source of oscillating current, means for inductively transmitting electric energy for heating said element, said transmitting means being energized by said oscillating current at a materially higher frequency than that of commercial alternating current supply systems.
2. A device according to claim 1 in which the energy from said transmitting means is in the form of radio waves.
3. A hair waving device comprisin a heatgenerating element adapted to be p aced in proximity to the hair to e treated and means or inductively transmitting energy for heating said element, said transmitting means comprising a resonant circuit carrying a high frequency electric current, and a coil energized thereby, the said heat-generatin element being disposed within the field 0 said coil.
4. A device according to claim 3 in which the heat generating eiement comprising a body of metal in which eddy currents, are induced by the high frequency variation in the magnetic field of said coil.
5. A device according to claim 3 in which the heat generating element comprises a tubular body of ma etic metal in which heat is generated both y eddy currents and hysteresis losses. r
6. A device according to claim 1, in which the transmitting means further comprises a solenoid in the magnetic field of which said heat nerating element is adapted to be placetf.
7. A device according to claim 1, further including a liquid carrier,'said heat-generating element being adapted to va rize the liquid in said carrier to treat the air to be waved.
8. A device according to claim 1, further including a liquid carrier, said heat-generating element being adapted to va rize the liquid in said carrier to treat the air to be waved, and comprising metal electrically insulated from said energy-traii'smittipg means.
9. A hair waving device comprising a metallic heat-generating element, an envelope within which a prepared strand of hair is at least partially enclosed,a coil surrounding said element and adapted to inductively heat the latter, the said coil being energized by an oscillating current of an intensity and frequency such as will inductively generate heat in. the said element at a higher rate than the rate of heating'of the coil due to the inherent resistance of said coil.
10. A device according to claim 3, further including means supplying a high frequency current to said coil of such character as not to heat said coil to a degree which will be uncomfortable in immediate proximity to the head.
11. A device accordin to claim 1, in which said heat-generating e ement comprises a metal piece extending lengthwise of the strand of hair to be treated.
12. A device according to claim 1, n which said heat-generating element comprises a metal piece on which hair is placed or wound.
. 13. A device according to claim 1. further including a liquid carrier, adapted to surround hair to be waved, said heat-generating element being arranged inwards of the outside of said liquid carrier, whereby the heat does not require to pass entirely through said liquid carrier to reach the hair.
14. A device according to claim 1, further including an outside wrapper adapted to surround hair to be waved, and a licuid tarridr, said heat-generating element being arranged inwards of the outside of Sfiiil wrapper, whereby the heat does not requi to pass through said wrapper to reach the hair.
15. A method of waving hair, comprising enclosing a heat-generating means andia moisture carrier in an enclosure surrounding a prepared strand of hair, and producing heat in said element by electromagnetic induction to cause the latter to vaporize the moisture in said moisture carrier.
16. A method of waving hair accordin to claim 15, in which the heat is produce in said element by'high frequency-electromagnetic induction- 17 A method of hair waving consisting in enclosing a prepared strand of hair, a heatgenerating element of metal, and a moisture carrier within a solenoid coil, and directin high frequency electric oscillations throug said coil to heat said element by magnetic induction.
18. A method of waving hair which comprises arranging a prepared strand of hair in close proximity to electro-conductive material and heating said material by subjecting it to a high frequency variable electromagnetic field, the positioning of the hair with respect were said material being such that heat thus generated will pass from the said material to the'hair.
19. A method of waving hair which com-' prises arranging a prepared strand of hair' ands moisture carrier in close roximity to anelectro-conductiveelementan heatingsaid element by subjecting it to a high frequency variable electromagnetic field, the positioning of the hair and moisture carrier being such that the heat thus generated will vaporize the moisture, the vapor of'which will permeate the hair. n
In witness whereof, I have hereunto signed my name.
BENNO FREDERICK JANCKE.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
Patent No. 1,892,106. December 27, 1932.
BENNO FREDERICK JANCKE.
It is hereby certified that error appears inthe printed specification of. the ahovc numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 4, line 40, claim 4. for "comprising" read "comprises"; line 95, claim 13, strike out the words "require to"; and line 105. claim l5, for "means" read "element"; and that the said. Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 2 lst day of February, A. D. 1933.
M. J. Moore.
(Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents.