US 1892758 A
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Jan. 1933- F. w. W|NKLER ET AL 1,392,758
DIRECTION FINDER Filed March 14, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet l 40 W JQMVMQWVENTORS ATTORNEY Jan. 3, 1933. F. w. WINKLER ET AL 1,892,753
DIRECTION FINDER Filed March 14, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 E R 1" K gh 1 N VENTORS M/ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 3, 1933 FREDERICK W. WINKZER AND LOUIS I1. KAESS, OF JAMAICA, NEW YORK; SAID WINKLER ASSIGNOR TO SAID KAESS DIRECTION FINDER Application filed March 14, 1928. Serial No. 261,566.
This invention is a new direction finder (preferably including an improved magnetic compass) adapted for use on air or water craft, and comprises a stationary coil antenna mounted at right angles to the center line of the air or water craft, a swinging coil antenna, means for oscillating the swinging coil antenna, and means operable through said antennw for giving indications of electro-magnetic waves. These means may be an ordinary radio receiving instrument with a telephone capable of attachment to the head, and common to both antennae and comprise a controlling device such as a switch for connecting the swinging coil antenna and the stationary coil antenna alternately to a single radio receiving instrument. The improved magnetic compass may be of a standard form but it is provided with a movable indicating device.
In the accompanying drawings which iltrate an aeroplane embodying one form of this invention Fig. 1 is a side view partly in longitudinal section of an aeroplane embodying the urn vention;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic View showing certain parts, most of them in top view but some in side View;
Fig. 3 is a side elevation partly in section of the principal parts embodying the invention;
Fig. 4: is a front view of the dash board and a radio compass;
Fig. 5 is a top or face view of a magnetic compass with an appurtenance;
Fig. 6 is a top or face view of the appurtenance;
Fig. 7 is an edge view of the appurtenance shown in Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is afront view of a part shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 9 is a front view of another part shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view of parts of a radio receiving instrument.
Similar letters of reference designate corresponding parts in all these figures.
A designates the body of the aeroplane. It may be of ordinary construction provided with a propeller P, wings B and B on each side, stabilizing fins C and 0 an adjustable elevator D and a rudder E. On its under side it is provided with a running gear comprising wheels F and a tail skid G.
H designates the operators seat and I designates the dash board.
In the body A and, as here shown, rearwards of the operators seat, a stationary coil antenna J is secured by means of mountings It consists, as here shown, of a. rectangular frame and a wire coil fastened to this frame.
K designates a swinging coil antenna here shown as having its frame provided with journals 7: affixed to clamps which support this antenna, fitting in bearings k affixed to the body A. This antenna consists of a frame here shown of rectangular form and a wire coil fastened to this frame.
Affixed to one of the journals I0 is a pulley 70* around which passes an endless cable L which also passes around a guide pulley Z that is mounted rotatably on the floor of the body A. The cable L next passes around a pulley Z which is affixed to a shaft a mounted rotatably in the dash board I. Thence it passes around another guide pulley Z to the pulley k of the swinging antenna coil K.
Aifixed to the shaft n is a handle N, here shown as made in the form of a knob, serving as a means for rotating the shaft n and its pulley Z to cause the endless cable L to oscillate the swinging antenna coil K.
O is a ring-shaped plate which is arranged on the dash board opposite the operators seat and, as here shown, it surrounds and is loosely mounted on the shaft n so that either it or said shaft may have independent motion. This plate is marked with ordinary compass indications and there are on the dash board coincident marks a A set screw may serve to fasten it in position after adjustment and also constitutes a. handle for turning it.
Next to this plate is a ring-shaped plate which is afiixed to the shaft 71 or to the handle N so as to turn with the latter: It has two pointers marked Max. and Min. and is an indicator of the position of the swinging c il ant nna.
Q is a magnetic compass which, as here shown, is supported by a bracket 9 affixed to the floor of the body A in'such a manner as to be stationary. It may be of a form commonly used in aeroplanes. It is provided with the usual two pointers g diametrically opposite to each other and has arranged relatively to it a ring-shaped piece 9 constructed of resilient material and so as to have atendency to expand circumferentially. Its ends may be overlapped. It is provided with a pointer g and preferably with a handle f. It may be fitted in a recess provided in the upper part of the compass@ and retained there by its resilience.
R- designates a radio receiving instrument which may be of any ordinary form and which, as here shown, is electrically connected with a switch signal responsive device such as an indicator consisting of head phone S.
The stationary antenna coil J 1s connected by wires 7' with the radio receiving instrument and the swinging coil antenna K is connected by wires k with the radio receiving instrument.
The radio receiving instrument R is provided with a switch 1' more particularly shown in Fig. 10.
Before describing the operation of the various parts, it is important to explain that the same combination of parts in substantially the same arrangement will be applicable to all navigable vessels, even marine vessels.
The operator of a craftdesiring to travel towards any point adjusts the radio receivinginstrument to the known wave band of a radio broadcasting station located at that point. Then he moves the switch 1' to connect the swinging coil antenna K with the radio receiving instrument R. Afterwards he oscillates this antenna by means of the handle N until the maximum intensity of radio impulses is attained. The attainment of this result can best be ascertained by an indicator, which is supplementary to the radio receiving instrument, and the head phone S is a useful form of such an indicator. Next the operator turns the movable compass card 0 so that course marks learned from the magnetic compass will align with marks a upon the dash-board shown in Fig. 4.
When maximum intensity has been attained, the ring-shaped plate O will inclicate the general direction of the course through the pointer marked Max. and the swinging coil antenna K will point to general direction of the broadcasting station. If now the craft is maneuvered until its longitudinal axis coincides with said position of the swinging coil antenna both the craft and this antenna will point towards the broadcasting station.
Due to the fact that the maximum intensity of signal reception is not by the swinging coil antenna very sharply defined it is necessary to further rotate this antenna to a point where minimum or no signal will be heard. This point will be indicated by in- I dicating mark Min. of the plate 0 relative to the plate This resulting indication will be the exact course direction with respect to the magnetic compass. The pointer g of the ring-shaped pieces 9 is then set on the mag radio receiving instrument It and to connect I to the latter the stationary coil antenna J, this antenna should be used to verify what has been learned from the swinging coil antenna because while the craft is pointing towards the broadcasting station no indication of the station will be obtainable through the stationary coil antenna.
When the swinging antenna has been adjusted to attain the maximum radio indications the pointer marked Max. of the ringshaped plate 0 will show the course. Then the ring-shaped plate 0 marked with compass indications is turned to correspond to the position indicated by the magnetic compass.
To find a location with reference to longitude and latitude the ring-shaped plate O is turned to correspond with the magnetic compass and then fastened in position. Then the indicator 0 and swinging coil antenna K are turned to find a desired broadcasting station of known location. Then this is found, the angle with reference to the north line as indicated in the magnetic compass is noted Next the direction line is marked upon the chart at a position where it will intersect with a north and south line of the chart. The angle of these two lines is then measured and this may be easily done by use of a protractor. The point of intersection of the two lines will be the location of the craft.
To check the location so ascertained another broadcasting station of known location will be found. This will preferably be at a considerable distance from the one first used.
After finding the second broadcasting stacapable of angular movement from a position to give a current of maximum signal strength, to a position to give a current of minimum signal strength, in response to sig- 5 nals from said beacon, irrespective of the direction of travel of the craft; indicating means actuated by the swinging of said second antenna for determining the angular relation between the line of propulsion of the craft and the bearing of the destination beacon as given by the position of the second antenna at a predetermined signal current, a radio receiver, signal responsive mechanism connected to said receiver, and switch mechanism for alternatively closing either antenna onto the radio receiver and simultaneously opening the circuit of the other antenna.
2. In a craft, a rotatable directional antenna; a stationary directional antenna mounted perpendicularly to the line of propulsion of said craft; a radio receiver when connected to either antenna responsive to signals received through said connected antenna; bearing indicator means cooperating with said rotatable antenna to determine the direction of the source of said signals and means for connecting said receiver with either antenna to make it responsive to signals received through said connected antenna.
3. In a craft, a rotatable directional antenna; a stationary directional antenna mounted perpendicularly to the line of propulsion of said craft; a radio receiver responsive to signals received through said rotatable antenna; bearing indicator means cooperating with said rotatable antenna to determine the direction of the source of said signals and means for thereafter rendering said receiver responsive to said same signals received through said stationary antenna for continually indicating the direction of said craft.
Signed at New York in the county of New York and State of New York this 12th day of March A. D. 1928.
FREDERICK W. WINKLER. LOUIS L. KAESS.