US 1894614 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 17, 1933. J. WETTLAUFER STRIP SHINGLE Filed May 4. 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet INVENTOR :Zxs Z. 14/ w75 r- ATTORNEY Jan. 17 1933. J. 1. WETTLAUFER STRIP SHINGLE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 4. 1929 4 Y a M Tf R m m M A Patented d9 17, 1933 S SHINGLE Applicants filed Ray 4, 1m. denial No. 360,874,
This invention relates to roofing elements or shingles and more articularly to an improved form of flexib e composition roofing strip of the type wherein notches or recesses are utilized to define tabs simulating separate shingles when a number of the strips are laid on a root".
Perhaps the most common form of roofing strip now used is that wherein narrow notches or slots are formed in the weather-exposed area to define shingle-simulating tabs. 'lhese strips, as is well known, are laid up on the roof in successive overlapping courses with the adjacent strips of each coursearranged side by side and with the overlapping strips of each course in staggered relation with res ect tothe strips or the preceding course. hen shingles of this type are thus arranged on a roof, the slots or notches necessarily expose a corresponding area of the normal concealed or overlapped portions of the underlying strip, and water seeping or blowing in under the strips, especially near the upper ends of the slots, is very liable to reach the root supporting structure unless the strips are sufiiciently wide to underlap the shingles of the succeeding course for a considerable distance beyond the upper ends of the slots therein.
lihe principal object of my invention resides in the formation of shingle strips in such a manner that the tab-defining slots thereof are sealed or closed oh so as to avoid the possibility of water gaining entrance beneath the upper ends of the slots.
A further object of the invention is to rovide strips with spaced extensions or aps secured in folded. position to the underface oi the strips, in such relation to the tab-de-,
fining slots as to realize the principal object of the invention as aforesaid, and serving additionally, in many instances to increase the shingle-simulating effects of the slots.
Still a further object of the invention resides in so constructing the extensions that when they are in their underfolded position, the lower or butt-edge of the finished stri s will be of greater thickness than usually tains in the present commercial form of strips of this character, the increased thick- .illustrated and will describe formed of flexible 'ness lending the hi hly desirable shadow effects to a roof lai up with an assembly of such strips.
With the above and other objects in view, which will appear as the description proceeds, my invention consists in the novel construction, arrangement and combination of various elements and parts described in the following specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings. While I have certain preferred embodiments of the invention, it will be understood that such variations or modifications thereof may be made as will fa l within the scope of the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a plan view of one form of my improved shingle stri as it appears when severed from a sheet 0% prior to completion of the strip,
Figure 2 is a similar view of the completed strip, 7
Figure 3 is a similar view showing the reverse or underface oi the strip,
Figures 4- and 5 are transverse sections along lines 44 and 55 respectively, of Figure l, I
Figure 6 is a similar section taken along lines 6-6 of Figure 2,
Figure 7 is a plan view similar to Figure 1, illustrating another form of the shingle strip, and
Figure 8 is a plan view of a sheet or roofing material, illustrating the manner of severing therefrom strips of the type shown in Figures 1 to 6.
The strips, according to my invention, are water-resistant fibrous base, such as the ordinary asphaltic felt-base roofing fabricated from sheets of rag, asbestos or similar fibers. These sheets are rendered water-resistant by impregnating them with asphalt or the like, and one or both surfaces thereof are then supplied with a coating layer of weather resistant material such as blown asphalt having a meltin point approximately 220 F. Mineral sur acing such as crushed slate, is partially imbedded in the coating layer on the surface to be exposed on roofing materi al and w the roof, and when the opposite surface of the .a-cing the sheet also has a layer of c latter is generally provided with of fine mineral such as talc or As shown, the main body portion of the shingle is indicated generally by the numeral 10 and comprises an upper portion which is the unexposed or concealed part I strip when laid, and a lower or we posed area 12. The exposed POE ion lit is formed with shingle-slurulating tabs 13 defined from each other by spaced vertical slots 14, which are preferably made in the sheet at an appropriate stage of its fabrication prior to the severance of the separate strips from the sheet. slots "is cl Se.
may be spaced apart at equal nces as shown, so as to provide shingt nilatmg tabs of equal width, or hey may be spaced apart at variable distances as shown 1D. dotted lines, so that the tabs will be of "varying widths. The line of exposure of the strips will be defined by the upper ends the slots 14, whereas the lower or butt edge oi the elements may be on a horizontal adj scent the lower extremities of the slots. At the lower margin of the exposed por ion of the strip, I form a series extensi projections 15, 15, the t rn'iinal extensions 15 being substantially if the width of the inner extensions 15 and the intervening spaces 16 between the several ext ions of the series being substantially comp anental to the extensions 15.
In order to realize the advantages of my invention, it is necessa y that side edges of each fiap extension spaced laterally from of a corresponding tan-defining l t contradistinguished f om substantial cal alignment therewi Strips of the type sn be severed from a sheet of prepare in the manner illustrated in Fig will be noted from this figure, the s width suflicient to 01 a double strips transversely thereof. The ing slots 1e are formed the she in two spaced rows, the slots o each row the tab-defining slots o the respect.. of strips. The slots 0; at suitably spaced int the slots of one row a; with respect to the slots of the ot shown. The projections l5, 15 o e strips are formed in the portions of the snee" intermediate the two rows of slots, a eri alternately longitudin l and trans 20, 21 respectively, so t the mate ing the projections Gr. one series o'i strips leaves the coniplementai areas forming the spaces 16 between the projections on he strips of the other series formed from the et. In this way, therefore, tl strips may be severed from the sheet by a ration without wast The s be severed from two se JiJlGlllS of the sheet formed by the cuts 20, 21, by severing each of these sections along spaced transverse cuts 22, as shown.
After the strips are thus severed from the sheet, they are folded on a horizontal line, as indicated at X in Figure 1, preferably slightly above the lower extremities of the slots 14', so as to bring the lower face of the extensions 15, 15, into contact with the lower face of the exposed portion of the strips, the vertical length of the extensions being such that when thus folded the lower margins 17 thereof will be positioned on a line slightly above the upper ends of the slots i l. I prefer to unite the extensions 15 with the main body portion of the strips in any convenient way, as for example, by means of adhesivematerial, such as asphalt, applied to these areas prior to the folding operation, after which the folded areas may be passed through pressure rolls and the asphalt allowed to cool so as firmly to unite the extensions in their underfolded position with the lower face of the body portion, as shown in Figure 6. If desired, the flaps may be brought to retroverted position and left unattached to the underface of the shingle, in which case the securing nails for the shingles, when driven therethrough in applying the shingles to the roof, will pass through the extensions and serve to retain them in proper position.
As clearly illustrated in Figures 2, 3 and ii, the underfolded projections 15, serve as closures to seal of! the lower face of the slots 14 so that when a number of strips are asscnn bled in proper position on a roof, there will be no tendency for water or rain to creep or drive up under the upper ends of the slots 14 and reach the roof deck. There the extensions or flaps 15 are of sufiicient width, the tabdefining slots may be spaced from each other at unequal distances as shown in dotted lines in Figure 1 so as to provide shingle-simulat ing tabs of a variable width, the essential requirement being that the slots be arranged not less than a certain Lnum distance from the vertical side edges o.-. the extensions 15. In actual practice, for example, with a strip as shown the figure .ich is 36 in length, the extensions 15 be about 6 wide and the position oi slots l4: may .vary over a horizontal distance of 4 as long as they are con ned to least 1 inwardly of the vertical side edges o As an important feature of the construc tion provided by any invention, it will he -observed that where ti upper surface of the sheet is finished wit crushed mineral grit of suitable light color, and dark colored mineral grit is aflixed to the underface of the sheet, or left nnsurfaced, so as to leave a substantially black or darh colored appearance thereon, this dark color of the lower face of the asset through the slots 14 of the completed strip, will greatly accentuate the individual shingle-simulating efiect of theslots. Furthermore, when the strips are applied on the roof, water that may collect in the channel formed by the tab-defining slots and the underlyin flap I5, will pass downwardly under the in uence of the natural pitch of the roof and drain through the small openings 18 at the lower ends thereof, onto the surface of the subadjacent strip. Accordingly,'instead of the usual construction wherein water may creep or be blown up under the shingles through the tab-defining slots, I provide by my invention a construction in which a definite sealed path forms a positive drain for water reaching and collecting in the slots.
Still further, it will be noted that in the folded and completed form of the shingle a comparatively thick edge is presented at the lower margin thereof, thus enhancing the shadow eifects produced by the butt-edges of the shingles when laid on the roof.
Shingle strips constructed in accordance with my invention also afford certain ad-- vantages when subjected to arecoating and resurfacing operation ofthe type set forth in the Patent Number 1,612,776. to Lester Kirschbraun. In accordance with the said patent shingles or shingle strips are subjected to reimmersion in asphaltic coating material in order to encase the weather exposed surfaces and edges of the shingle elements in a protecting layer of'weatherproof material, the recoated areas being also prefer ably surfaced with crushed mineral of a suitable variety. In the pratcical manufacture of strips in accordance with the said Kirschbraun patent, the treatment provided by said patent is generally reserved for shingle seconds, that is to say, shingles as ordinarily produced but which carry slight imperfem tions or irregularities which do not perceptibly aflect the life of the shingle and which are objectionable only from the viewpoint of appearance. The recoatin'g and resurfacing operation accordingly provides an effective means for reclaiming shingle seconds and converting them into a more desirable type .of shlngle, this being advantageous also from the standpoints that the exposed surfaces and edges are sealed against the action of the elements, and further that the recoated and resurfaced elements presentan increased thickness of highly desirable texture along the butt edges thereof.
In thus reclaiming shingle seconds, it frequently happens that the shingle to be retreated is of a light color and the mineral surfacing used in the retreating operation is of a dark color. In these cases, therefore, when the retreated shingles are laid upon the roof, the light color of the upper portion of the shingles,
being applied to these portions), is visible through an electroplating (the retreating operation not through the 'slots of the overlying shingles and this is frequently objectionable and heretofore has been overcome only by a careful and tedious selection of the color of the shingles to be retreated in accordance with the color of the mineral to be used in the retreating operation. In the shingle strips as provided by my invention, on the other hand, the flaps 15 conceal the mineral surfacing on the upper portions of the underlying strip, and hence shingles constructed in accordance with my invention, may be retreated in accordance with the saidKirschbraun patent without reference to their original color.
The shingle strip construction of my in- 'vention also affords certain advantages in connection with the production of shingles, the exposed areas whereof are formed with a layer ofcopper by electrodeposition. In the actual practice of electrodeposition copper on mineral surfaced prepared roofing shingles, the deposition of copper is confined substantially to the areas to be exposed, as otherwise the cost would be prohibitive. In electrodepositing copper upon shingles of the square-butt variety it is necessary to aeptsit the copper not only upon the lower portions of the shingles which form the weather-ex-. posed areas thereof, but also to form an electrodeposited tongue of copper on the upper portions of the shingle intermediate the tab.- defining slots, so that when the shingles are applied in courses on the roof, these tongues of copper will underlie the slots and be visible therethrough. The electrodeposition of these separate tongues extending into the 'upper' areas of the shingles, involves a rather sensitive operation in commercial practise and represents a costly element of the manufacture. The necessity for thus lating the tongues of copper may be avoide with shins gles constructed in accordance with my invention, for, as will be noted, when the lower or weather-ex osed areas 12 of my strip shingle are made e ectroconductive, and then passed bath, the copper will be deposited not only upon the surface of the tabs 13, but also upon the surfaces of the projections 15 which are exposed through the slots 14, so that when these electroplated copper shingles are applied on-the roof, the entire visible exposed surface will carry the copper coating and hence there is no necessity for. plating tongues of copper in the upper areas of the shingle as heretofore.
' In'Figure 7 of the drawings, I have shown a slightly modified construction of my invention wherein the flaps or projections 19, 19', which are to be folded under and secured to the main body of the shingle, are of generally semi-hexagonal instead of rectangular shape. Except for this variation in the shape of these projections, however, the shingle strip as shown in Figure embodies every feature of my invention, as heretofore described, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
If desired, in some instances the tab-defin- 5 ing slots 14 of Figures 1 to 6 may be inclined somewhat to the vertical, instead of being perpendicular to the butt-edges of the strips, within the limits prescribed for the distance between the slots and the side-edges of the 10 flaps or projections 15,
Having thus described my invention, it will be understood that numerous changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention 15 as defined in the subjoined claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. A shingle comprising a body portion formed with spaced tab-defining slots in the lower or weather-exposed areas thereof, and
integral extensions spaced from each other by intervening recesses complemental to the extensions, whereby the shingles may be cut from a parent sheet without waste, said extensions being fixedly united to the underfaceof the body portion and arranged to substantially completely underlie said slots.
2. A roofing element comprising a body portion formed with spaced tab defining slots in the lower or weather exposed area thereof,
and integral extensions spaced from each other by intervening recesses in such manner as to enable the elements to be out from a parent sheet without waste, said extensions being retroverted to substantially completely underlie said slots.
Signed at Rutherford in the county of Bergen and State of New Jersey this third day of May A. D. 1929.
JULES L. E VETTLAUFER.