US 1895985 A
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Jan. 31, 1933. J. B. GOLDSBOROUGH CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALLS Filed Nov. 16, 1928 4 Sheets-Sheet ATTORNEYS.
INVENTOR. John 13.60211 51; orougib I 1. Is
1933- J. B. GOLDSBOROUG-H CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALLS Filed Nov. 16, 1928 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Jbhn 15. GaZdsborou h M 4 ATTORNEYS 1933- J. B. GOLDSBOROUGH CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALLS Filed Nov. 16, -l928 4 Sheets-Sheet IN VEN TOR.
fihn B. GaZdJIzorough ATTORNEYS.
1933- J. B. GOLDSBOROUGH CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALLS Filed Nov. 16, 1928 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 I N V EN TOR. (701L711 B. Goldsboraugh.
Patented Jan. 31, 1933 PATENT OFFICE JOHN B..GOLDSBOROUGH,OF GROTON-ON-HUDSON, NEW YORK CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALLS Application filed November 16, 1928. Serial No. 319,876.
ofthe excavationwith vertical planks spread apart by screw jacks or wedged struts interposedbetween horizontal wales engagingthe surfaces of the planks. This construction is only temporary at best and requires a great many pieces of large and expensive lumber in orderto obtain sufiicient bracing. Further- I more, such an arrangement presents structural difficulties if an attempt is made to ut1- lize it as a form fora permanent concrete .wall, since the mass of lumber will not per nit of astrong wall of regular cross-section such as may be necessary in wet earth or quick-sand, for example. I It is the principal ob ect of this invention toprovide a wall which may in the first instanceserve asatemporary structure to retain and bracethe earth at the sides of an excavation'while' itis being made, and which can thereafter serve as ,a form for or be incorporated in a permanent structure, which it reinforces. p
. A. further object of this invention is to provide a methodof retaining wall construction in which uniform pieces formed of any suitable construction material may be used for anyconditions of construction.
-O tl1er objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description of the preferred embodi- Y ment illustrated by the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters designate like parts in the several views.
In the drawings; I
F'gure 1 illustrates one method of constructing a retaining wall in accordance with this I invention lilig. 2, illustrates a completed retaining wat v 1 Fig. 3 shows the preferredarrangement f for braclng opposite sides of an excavation;
Fig. shows a modified form of construce tion-for use in wet soil;
Fig. 5 illustrates another form of construction in vertical section;
c Fig. 5a is a view in elevation of the modification shown in F ig.15.
Fig. 6 shows a retaining wall constructed with a preferred form of metal elements;
Figs. 7 and 8 are illustrative sections of theconstruction shown in Fig. 6;
Figs. 9 and lOshow the method of erecting the metal forms; 7
Figs. 11,12 and 13 illustrate construction pagts .used in erecting the metalelements; an a Fig. 14 is a. modification of the wall of 66 Fig. 6 using a built-up element of wood or other construction material. 1 r
. Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings,-numeral 1 designates a vertical member, pref- 7o erably a steel I-beam, which is driven-vertically into the ground as shown, .together With successive other I-beams along the line ofthe proposed excavation. Asthe excavation progresses, relativelyshort pieces ofcon struction material 2, of wood, concrete, steel or the like, are placed across the spacebetween beams 1 so that the endsthereof engage the outer. flange of the beam. -These pieces 2 are preferably successively introduced one so beneath the other so that they form a con tinuous wall as the excavation progresses, and spaces or slits are preferably left between them for the purpose of tamping the material 3 subsquently filled into the space 4 left 35 behind pieces 2. Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate respectively a retaining wall: and a lined excavation, and bothshow the: filling 3 which has been introduced, and whichmay be earth,
stone, concrete or the like. If concreteis used, beams 1' and pieces 2 may be removed after the excavation has been completed if desired, thus leaving a permanent concrete wall. In Fig.3 cross-braces 5 are used in the usual manner. I
In Fig. 4, a form of construction is illustrated which is particularlyuseful in wet soil. I-beams. 1 are driven in the manner described, and if thesurface of the soil is dry be used until wet soil is encountered. In such a case, cross bars 6 of any suitable material, are inserted behind the inner flanges of adj acent I-beams, and poling pieces 7 are driven diagonally downward as shown in Fig. 4'. The excavating is then continued to approximately the bottom of pieces 7, when the process is -successively repeated to the required depth. This method has the advantage that the wet soil is supported during the excavating process, whereas it would otherwise cave in, and that the excavation may progress to a suitable depth by convenient stages without being hindered by the bracing and crossbracmg at present employed, inasmuch as cross-bars 6 are securely held behind the flanges of I-beams 1 and do not project beyond the walls of the proposed excavation.
Fig. 5 illustrates a modified structure in which short vertical members 8, such as I- beams, are used in staggered arran ement, and whicl1 are removed together wlth the pieces 2, which the forms support, as the excavating reaches a depth equal to the length of each member 8. In such a case, the compacted filling such as concrete 3, previously introduced behind pieces 2, is relied upon to 7 support the remaining contiguous earth.
In some localities the retention of wood in underground construction is prohibited on account of the settlement of the earth as the wood rots, with possible damage to buildings, pipes, conduitsor the like in the vicinity. In such cases the removal of such wood as may be required during operations is often times difficult and adds materially to the cost of the work. Accordingly, in Figs. 6 to 10, a form of construction is illustrated which may in the first instance serve as a temporary structure to retain and brace the earth at the sides of an excavation while it is being made, and which can thereafter be incorporated in a permanent structure, which it reinforces, and in which no part of the temporary structure will be exposed to deterioration when formed into the permanent structure. The necessity for removing any of the temporary structure is avoided with consequent saving of expense and gain in time .of construction, and there is no danger of settlement and resultant damage to foundations, pipes and other objects due to rotting away of wooden elements or rusting of iron ones.
In Fig. 6 is shown a form of permanent wall erected according to this invention in which channel-shaped metallic-sheeting pieces 9 are substituted for the flat pieces 2 illustrated in the previous figures, but which are arranged in the same manner and for the same purpose as the latter behind the flanges of I-beams 1 or the like, which have been driven vertically into the earth each in the manner described. As the excavating progresses, pieces 9 are successively introduced one below the other withthe edges of their flanges engaging the flange of the I-beam 1 so as to leave longitudinal spaces therebetween. As shown particularly in Fig. 7, spaces are left between pieces 9 for compacting the earth behind them by tamping between them.
plates 12 (Fig. 11) lap the adjoining ends of the flanges of the adjacent channels that are at the same level. Bolts 13 pass through matched holes in the ends of the plates 12 and the ends of the channel flanges which they lap. By tightening the nuts 14: on the bolts 13, after the joined sheeting channels 9 have been arranged to mutually extend the continuity each of the other, sufficiently accurate alignment of the channels 9 will be maintained.
To afford an easy, convenient and inexpensive mode of forming and preserving the horizontal tamping slits between successive; tiers of the sheeting channels 9, spacers 15 one of which is shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 12, may be employed. The spacer 15 consists of a cylindrical shell which may be quickly formed by merely cutting a piece of sheet metal and bending it into a slit cylin der, as shown. shell 15 is such as to give the desired width to the tamping slits between the sheeting channels 9. Encircled by the outer shell 15 of the spacer shown in Fig. 12 is an inner cylindrical rod 16, which is adapted to pass through matched holes in the overlapping flanges of upper and lower sets of channel pieces 9, being particularly suited for use in corners of meeting walls or wall-bracing structures, as indicated in Fig. 9. Being of sufiicient length to extend above and below the spaced flanges of the channel pieces 9 which are in tiers one directly over the other, the rod 16 is adapted to receive pins or nails 17 in apertures near its opposite ends.
At the coupling joints of continuing lengths or sections of the channel pieces 9, the spacers 15 may be used, if desired, as indicated at the left in Fig. 9. As shown in such an arrangement a connecting plate 12 lies on the top flange of the lower channel piece 9, and the spacer 15 is interposed between the connecting plate 12 and the bottom flange of the upper channel piece 9. The rod 16 passes through the connecting plate 12, the bottom flange of the upper channel The height of the cylinder ria piece 9, through the spacer 15, the connecting plate 12 on the top flange of the lower channel pieces 9 and through this flange as well. The nails 17 extend through the protruding ends of the rod 16, securely interlocking the parts. 1
A simple spacing device which may be used where the adjoining ends of aligned channels are overlapped by a vertical flange of one of the I-beams 1, as shown in Fig. 10, is the U-shaped member 18 shown in Fig. 13. The U-shaped members 18 are slipped over the opposite edges of one of the flanges of the I-beams, and one leg of each U-shaped member is allowed to roll on that flange until the other leg of the U-shaped member swings against the opposite face of the flange. Thereupon further rolling of the first mentioned leg is prevented by the flange which lies betweenthe legs of the U-shaped member 18. The ends of the channel pieces 9 are placed on those legs of the U-shaped members 18 whichlie outside of the flange of the I-beam 1. The loads so imposed on these legs tend to further rotate the U-shaped members about their legs on the other side of the flange. This results in both of the legs of each of the U-shaped members gripping the flange of the I-beam 1 more tightly, preventing displacement of the U-shaped members 18. With the channel pieces 9 supported elsewhere and influenced to remaln in their normal positions, they will also be held in spaced relation to each other on the I-beam 1. This arrangement may be used wherever it is adaptable and found to be convenient.
With the I-beams 1, the wales 10 and the channel pieces 9 arranged and supported as hereinbefore set forth, a temporary bracing structure or framing is created, which is adapted to hold the sides of the excavation intact while the retaining wall is being constructed. Formboards 19, shown in phantom in Fig. 7 are built up as the work pro-, ceeds, whereby masonry or foundation material 20, such as concrete, may be poured into the temporary bracing structure to form a retaining wall. As such a wall is being constructed, the concrete 20 fills the spaces between the I-beams 1, and, due to the channel-shape of the pieces 9, the concrete also flows back of the vertical flanges of the I-' beams. The channel-shape of the wales 10 allows the concrete 20 to occupy the space in front of the flanges of the I-beams 1, so that the front face of the wall may be constructed without disturbing the wales 11 and struts 5 until after theconcrete has set when they will be removed with the form boards 19, the metallic structure including pieces 9, beams 1, and wales 10 having become part of the permanent wall as reinforcement. Vertically and horizontally disposed concrete-reinforcing rods 21 and 22 are imbedded in the forcing the same.
bers on the other side bers with their flanges toward the members and filling the sheeting members and the i concrete :20 in front of the I b'am flanges. At the-rear or inner side ofrthe retaining 'wa'll, horizontalreinforcing rods 23 are imbedded in the concrete at the junctions-of the continuing channel pieces 9, 7 strengtheningt'he wallat the joints of the channels; I
Fig, 14, the sheeting channels 9a have "been r constructed of wood,'and comprise a web board 96 and upper and lower flangematerial. Further, if desired, form boards such as 19in Fig. 7 maybe placedalong the inner flangesofI-beams 1 of the structures shown in Flgs. 1 to 5 inclusive, and the resulting space filled with concrete or other constructlon material in the manner above described, thus forming a more permanent wall. In such a case, pieces 1, 6 and 7 are left in and form part of the structure, reinthat various other changes in the structural details of the invention may be made without departing from its principle as defined in the appended claims.
1. The method of constructing a retaining Wall which consists in sinking substantially vertical members into the ground, excavating the, earth at one side of the vertical members and between the same, placing successively below each other as the excavation proceeds horizontal, channel-shaped, sheeting memof the vertical memspaces between the vertical members with suitable material to form with said members a permanent, reinforced wall.
2. The method of constructing a retaintially vertical members into the ground, excavating the earth at one members and between the same, placing successively below each other as the excavation proceeds horizontal, channel-shaped sheet ing members on the other side of the vertical members, spaced from each other and with their flanges toward the members, compacting the earth behind the pieces structure for bracing the sideof an excavation, said structure comprising upright ground-penetrating members, channeled members on opposite sides of said upright members extending lengthwise of the wall, and foundation material between said up-;
thereby It will also be understood side of the vertical through the spaces between them, and filling the spaces taming wall may be constructed from other ing wall which consists in sinking substanmembers being vertically right members, and extending through the channeled members to unite the portions that are disposed between successive upright members;
4. A wall partially formed of parts included in a structure for bracing the side of an excavation, said structure comprising upright ground-penetrating members, channeled members on opposite sides thereof extending lengthwise of the wall, the channeled members on one side of said upright other, and foundation material between said upright members extending through said channeled members and unified with the like materialbetween said upright members.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
JOHN B. GOLDSBOROUGH.
spaced from each