US 1896105 A
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Feb. 7, 1933. RP, SIMMONS 1,896,105
PERCUSSIVE WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 22, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 f l 1'/ A INVENTOR r/larri 5010110216 Feb. 7, 1933.
R, P. SIMMONS PERCUSSIVE WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 22, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INV ENTOR Feb. 7, 1933. R, P. SIMMONS PERGUSSIVE WELLv DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 22, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 lNVENTOR 'Zriarrif 50111110215* TTORNEY Patented Feb. 7,11933 l i UNITED STATES PATENT oEFlcE RICHARD P. SIMMONS, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
PEBCUBSIVE WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Applicant med amber 2s, 1929. serial 110.401,446.
Another object of the invention is the provision of improved means for interlocking the drilling head in the follower well casing,
so that the drill head will never drop out of alignment of the well casing and become lost in any pockets in the path of the well bore,
or become partly displaced in the lower end' of the well casing,A so that freedom of operation, or withdrawal, would be obstructed or defeated.
A 4further object of the invention is the provision of a combined well casing and drilling unit, wherein a percussive drill point canbe used at the free option of the well engineer, or a core barrel, with suitable drilling means thereon, can be used, and percussive action against either drilling means acmcomplished in the casing, without causing relative rotative movement of one within the other, but permitting rotative movement of@ the combined well casing and drill unit in the well bore.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a well casing and drill head unit, wherein the drill will be forcibly held to operate in a predetermined vertical plane, against any tendency to be deflected to an inclined or other plane, by theaction of inclined rock strataor boulders or rocks intercepting the path of the drill.
It is well known that deep wells seldom extend in a true vertical plane into the 4.5 ground, and `that many of them are as much as forty-five degrees out of the vertical. Thisv is undoubtedly caused by the fact that the drill points employed are deflected by the' unequal resistance which inclined rock strata, 5 or obstructing boulders or stones present, and
o nce deflection ofthe drill head starts, it continues 4at an increasing angle.
The more a well casing is out of the vertical plane, the more expensivewill it be to construct a well of given depth, the more difculty and costly will it be to operate, and
`the more frequent will be the loss ofiequipment during construction or operation.
When the axis of the well casing bends from a true vertical plane, increased eiort may be applied to advancing the casingyby successive coupling operations, and manipulation of the casing for drilling purposes becomes increasingly diilicult and costly. The l length of the well bore increases as it is deflected from a true vertical plane so much, that the ltotal length may be increased by ifty-percent of the vertical distance between the bottom of the well and its entrance, where the inclination of the well is lforty-five degrees. This naturally adds very greatly to the cost of drilling the well and may determine that abandonment of further drilling operations should be made.
The present invention provides a practical means for holding the drilling vunit to a vertical plane, so that aminimum of deiection, if any, is allowed in th`e progressive deepening of the well bore.
Other objects and advantages of the? in- 8 vention will be hereinafter specifically pointed out, or will-become apparent, as the speciication proceeds.
With the above indicated objects in view,
the invention resides in certain novel constructions and combinatlons and arran -ment of parts, clearly described in theol- .'lowing specification and fully illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which latter show an embodiment of the invention as at `present preferred.
In the drawings Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through the combined equipment, showing the hammer in its seat position on the anvil, and the plane cutting bits in their cutting positions.
Fig. 2 is a similar view, showin the cutting bits retracted, or withdrawn rom cutting positions.
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the percussive drill head removed from the well casing,
. showing the keyways and keys thereof.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view through the ball bearings swivel heads of the-anvil and hammer.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of the percussive drill point.
Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional view taken oniline 7 -7 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows. d
Fig. 8 isa similar view taken on line 8-8 of Fig. 1. y
Fig. 9 is a similar view taken on line 9--9 of Fig. 1. e
Fig. 10 is a transverse sectional view taken through the drill head, on line 10-10 of 2. l ig. 11 is a perspective view of the assembled group of a reamer bit and filler blades. Fig. 12 1s a transverse sectional view,/taken on line 12-12 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows. i y
Fig. 13 is a view partly in elevation and partly in section, showing combined well drilling units. A l
Fig. 14 is a similar view of a modified combination of welldrilling units.
Fig. 15 is a similar view of another modified combination of well drilling units.
Referring to the accompanyin drawings illustrating the invention in detal 10 desigmas the riu head, which is Shown to be of the type generally known as a percussive drill. -Thls drill head or unit comprises the cylindrical body 11, which is formed with an axial bore 12, the upper end of which is concentricall' enlarged to provide a lchamber 13. To t is cylindrical body 11 the cylindrical anvil member 14 is connected by the tapered screw threaded joint 15, which is designed to permit of separation of the two parts. The anvil member 15 is provided with an integral tubular axial ,extension 16, which extends upwardly and carries a cap 17 Vwhich is threaded thereon.
- The lower end ofthe cylindrical body 11 is formed with a chamber or pocket 18 whichS receives the cylindrical tool holder 1.9 the surrounding annular flange lla of the body 11 havin a bevelled lower edge 11a', and the tool older 19 having a bevelled shoul- *der 19a, to prevent dirt from packing between the meeting surfaces of the two parts. The tool holder is formed with anl axial tubular extension or post 20, which slidably fits in the bore or passage 12 of the body 11, and ex- Vtends into the chamber 13 thereof; Relative displacement of the tool holder in said body 11 is prevented b the nuts 21 and 22 threaded on the upper en of the post 20, and adapted 'lco alut against the shoulder 13a of the chamer 3. r
iThe lower end of a pull member 23, in the form of a pipe, is threaded or otherwise coupled to the post 200i the tool holder, and this pull member or pipe extends slidably through the tubular post 16 of the anvil .member 14, and upwardly of the screw cap 17 thereof.
The upper end of the pull member or pipe 23 extends into thehousing or cylinder 24, vand ,carries a nut 25 which is tightly threaded against the end wall 24a of said cylinder orhousing 24. The pull member or pipe 23 is provided with an external shoulder 23 which engages the Vbottom face of the end' wall 24a and limits the penetration of the pipie into'the cylindeu 24.
, he cylinder 24 is provided with a swivel head which includes the cap 26, which is bolted to the ring 27, by means of the screw bolts 26a..v This ring is formed with a horizontal portion 26?) which overlies the ball bearing ring 28, disposed against the upper -end of the housing or Cylinder 24. The ung y is heldin place by means of the plug ring 29, which is secured by the screw bolts 29a dio rectly to the end of the cylinder 24.
ThisA cylinder 24 is provided with `three openings 30, 31, and 32, in its wall. ,In the opening 30, an air pipe 30a is disposed, and is held in place by means of the threaded tubular clamping plug 3`0b. This air pipe or hose also extends through the opening 300 formed in the enclosing cylinder' 33, and
thence-upwardly. In the air opening 31 an air hose or pipe 31a is disposed and .it is held 1n place by means f the threaded tubular clamping plug 311;. The air hose 31a also extends through the opening 31e in the eng closing cylinder 33, and thence upwardly. Through tends, and it is held; in place by the threaded the opening 32 the air hose 32a ex-.
tubular plug B2b. This air hose also extends through the opening 320 in the cylinder 33, and thence upwardly.
I The cylinder 33 is coupled to the cylinder Y 24 by means of thelower end plate 34 and the retaining bolts 34a. This end plate 34 is formed with an integral flange 34?) which engages the packing material 340 disposed in the recess 34d formed inthe cylinder 33'. (An upper end ring 35 is'connected to the cylinder 24 by means of the bolts 35a, and said end plate 35 is also formed with an integral flange 35?), which engages the packing material 35e disposed in the recess 35d ofthe cylinder 33. f. The entire cylinder 24 and the parts associated. therewith, -as described', yare venclosed .by the tubular hammer 36, which is formed with any axial' bore 37 through which-the' tubular extension 16 of the anvil 14 projects.
The upper part of the hammer` bore 37 is `enlarged topro'vide a chamber 38 in which the cylinder 24 and its associated parts work,
and the lower part of this chamber is reduced said cap abuts to limit the play of the hammer. This hammer slides in the tubular extension 39 connected by the screw `threaded joint 40 with the tubular body 11.
The upper end .of the tubular hammer is "provided with` a swivel head which comprises the ball bearing ring 41, the flanged ring 42, which is held in place by the plug ,end plate 43 through the medium of screw bolts 43a. Afcap 44 is secured tothe flanged ring 42, by the screws 44a..
The cap 26 is equipped wi'th an eye 26 to which thepull and lowering cable 45 is connected, and is further ehuipped with verticalrods 46 and 47 which extend upwardly through the cap 4 4 and plug end plate 43, thus locking the two caps against relative rotation.
The hoisting cable 45 extends through the guide 44a of the cap 44'to the surface of the well. The cap 44.is also provided with eyes 4412 and 44e to which the hoisting cables 48 and 49 are connected. f 4
The lower end portion of the tubular bod)7 11 is provided with transverse slots 11e, in which y the movable 'dreamer bits 117 are mounted. .These reamer bits are of segmental construction, as showii in Fig. 11, and are each provided with a slot 11g in itsinner end andv confronting key lugs 11h and 11i. These lugs slidably engage the cam grooves 20a formed in the opposite faces of the integral fins marked 206 in Fig. 6 of the shank or post 20, of the tool holder. These cam grooves include the upper vertical portions 20c, the intermediate outwardly and down- .wardly inclined portions 20d, and the lower The fins just menvertical portions 20e. tioned work in slots of corresponding number formed in the lower end of the body7 11 above the chamber or pocket 18 thereof, as shown in Fig. 2. The key lugs have free sliding movement with the cam grooves so that they will be Withdrawn into the vertical and innermost'portions of the cam slots. Vhen the key lugs engage the inclined upper ends of the cam slots, the outer ends of the'reamer bits will be withdrawn inwardly ofthe plane of the outer face ofthe well casing.
Each of the gaps betwepn .the adjacent faces of the segmental reamer bitsy is'sealed.
by means of companion filler blocks 50 and 51, each of which is provided with an outrwardly extending finger 52 to enter a groove 53 of the reamer bit. These filler blocks are each formed with a transverse hole 54a to re,- ceive the guide rod 54 andthe springs 55,
which play between the reamerjbits and the` taper thread 19d of the percussive drill bit.
This drill bitis shown to be formed with earth passages 19e which enter from Aopposite sides of the tapered drill bit or point and converge upwardly to communicate with the bore 1.9/t of the drill point, and thus conduct earth to the bore 20 of the tool holder shank or post 20.
The tubular body 11 is provided with external longitudinal keys 11j, which extend from the upper part of the body downwardly in parallel radiall spaced relation to each other, so as to provide keyways 11k of similar number and shape. vThe lower end portions Y of lthe keys 11j are tapered at 11j and the uplper ends of the keyways are tapered at 11 A e The well casing' consists of a plurality of tubular sections 60, which may be an indefinite number,- and which are coupled by screw threaded joints 61', 'or 'otherwise to each other, to permit ,of easy splicingin vertical line. formation. These casing sections are coupled to the bottom casing section 61, which is formed with a series of longitudinal, parallel, and radially spaced keys 62 and keynways .63 therebetween, of similar design to the keys and keyways of the tubular body 11 of the drill unit. There is this difference, however, that the keys 62 are formed with transverse keyways 62a, to permit kof addi- A tional locking means to engage the same.
The lower end portion ofthe casing section 61 is 'formed with a bevelled terminal 61 i which is adapted to enter the bevelled grooves l616 in the reamer bits llf, and 610e in the filler blocks 50 and 51, so that the reamer bits arg held in their outer cutting positions when the casing section 61 and the other sectionsy coupled therewith are seated upon the reamer bits and the filler blocks.
When it is'desired to withdraw theidrill head, the well casing is slightly raised, -to disengage the bevelled lower terminal 61v of said section 61, from the reamer bits and hoisting cable 48- connected with vthe eye 44?) of the cap 44, and this causes the fins 2Gb to be shifted longitudinally f' with their cam grooves, and this action will retract or withdraw the reamer bits from their extreme outward or cutting positions, to theposition shown in Fig. 2, when the cutting endsl thereof will be inwardly of the vertical plane of the outer face ofthe bodyll, thus permitting this body, together with the per'cussive bit point to be wholly removed from the well casing, which remains inthe well, to support the earth against cavingin, and to again receive the equipment. The percussive drill head 19 is driven into the ground bythe force of the hammer 36, the raising and releasing i of which progressively advances the drill head 19 into the ground, displacing the earth "Y the well casing the cylinder 24 may be opened 5 by the removal of the cap members connected to its top, and it will be found that the interior of the cylinder has been filled with earth. By timing this withdrawal for different periods of the descent of the drilling head the geological cross section through the ground in .which the well is being constructed may be reproduced and interpreted.
Whenever material is encountered which is best excavated by the use of a core barrel, the
percussive drill point may be removed from Y the lower end 19 of the body 111, and a core barrel B connected to the tapered female thread of the tool holder. This core barrel would then be subject to the percussive ac- 20 tion which would be developed by the raising of the hammer and its release tofallby gravity against the anvil.
The core barrel is equipped with drill bits B adapted to drill the ground o r rock en` countered by percussive or rotary action. Rotary drilling action is developed by the manual turning of the Well casing, which insures the turning of the whole drill nnityinf cluding in this assembly the core barrel, and 0 3 the turning of the drill bits B of the core barrel by the manual rotation of the Acasing and drill head. At the same time that the well casin is being turned to produce a rotar dril ing action, through the medium of the bits B", the percussive action of the gravity actuated hammer may .be maintained against the anvil 14, thus causin the rotating drill bits B to shatter the roc or material encountered by acombined rotary and per- 4 cussive attack. Instead of the manual per# cussive hammer action described I may em-y ploy a pneumatic hammer unit B to produce 'the required percussiveaction against either the percussive drill point, or the rotary core barrel and its drill bits.
The longitudinalinterlockin between the drill unit and the enclosing we l casing per- The improved percussive head when int'erlocked with the wellcasing will be prevented from being displaced therefrom, by downward movement, and the cutting tools carried thereby will bev supported below the lower end of the well casing, to be expanded to cuttiiig position or retracted or withdrawn from cutting position, while to the lower end of the housing ofthe percussive head an ad,
ditional unit or units may be coupled, as shown in Fig. 13.
In this fi ure a core nected` to tlri means of the coupling union or joint B'. This'core barrel unit is disclosed fully inmy co-pendincr application-for patent, Serial No.
barrel unit B is cone percussive ,head unit A,'by L 401,447, fi'ed october 22, 1929. when it is -to trap earth forced into the same in the progress of the core barrel through the path f t ewell to be drilled. These metal strips are shifted by means of mechanical elements enclosed by the housing of the core barrel )unit B, and operable, from the surface of the well. The lower end of the core barrel unit B is equipped with a.rotary drill head B", N
which may be rotated when the well casing is turned, and which may shatter the material in its'plath under the percussive action set up with t e percussive head. Y
When the core barrel has been 'filled with earth or the debris of drilling the two units A and B may be withdrawn through the well casing leaving the same in place. The unit 'B is `small enough in diameter to easily' pass through the lower end of the-well casing when the reamer tools are retracted, as shown iny Figs.13,14 and 15. f The pecussive head cuts a circular plane mits 0f the replacement of any ParticulaYfor the :freel lowering of the well casing.
drill unit orl other equipment, with any other equipment which may be found useful, and -the relative longitudinal shifting of the enclosed unit, Ior the combined rotatipn/ of the whole in the well, to produce any action vwhich can be best accomplished by rotative 55 movement. In. all cases relative rotation of drilling,'varies1from time to time an this variation calls for the use ot tools or 'drilling units best adapted for rforming the par- C; tcular work most n d in any condition.
When the units A and B are withdrawn the wall of the well bore would have a'tendency to collapse, especially if composed ofmaterials having low cohesive properties,I and fin order that this collapse be prevented-'the percussive head'is supplied with an air jet 80, which discharges compressed air into the well chamber formed'by the core barrel unit.-
This jet is supplied with air from the head (3);. the well, by means o f the conduit 31*` or .I'n Fig. 14 the percussive unit A is com'- ,bined with the under reamer unit C and the core barrel unit B, with the latter placed un-l der the unit C. This` under reamer-unit C is 4 disclod in a copending patent application filed by me October Y23, 1929, n.Serial No.
` The under reamer includes a housin Cl which is provided with a debris hol ing chamber and expansive and retractive reamer tools C", which are shifted Ifrom one position to the other by means of the toggle joint C, which is operated by mechanism "concealed by the housing of the unit C. This under reamer cuts a circular plane for the well casing, and its cuttfng tools are of the kind which rotate around their own axis, so the are adapted for cutting harder materia s than is t e case wl'h the cutting tools of the percussive head, w ich do not move when forced to the cutting position, with relation to the unit A.
In Fig. 15 the percussive unit A is combined with a core barrel unit CC, which is constructed to trap rock core in 'its holding chamber CCB. This is accomplished by means of a lever CC", which is mounted to move through a slot in the wall of the inner cylinder which forms the chamber CC. This leveris shifted from one position to another position by means of the cam CC formed in the outer cylinder CCt of said core barrel.
The lower end of the unit CC is equipped with a drillin head CCS. i
The herein efore described construction admits of considerable modification without departin rfrom the invention; therefore, l do not wish to be limited to tlie precise arrangements shown and described, which are, as aforesaid, by way of illustration merely. In other words, the scope of protection con-1 templated is to be taken solely from the appended claims, interpreted as broadly as is `consistent with the prior art.
' I claim as new l. A well drilling apparatus consisting ofA a housing, wall cutting tools slidable in said housing, means slidable in the housing for shifting the cuttin means to cutting posi` housing, a drill point, vertically shiftable cam means coupled to the drill point for shifting thel cutting means inwardly and outwardly 'of the housing, a well casing, means between the housing and the well casing for interlocking the twoto each against relative rotatiive movement and to permit of relative sliding movement, and means 1n saidl housing for producing. a percussive movement against said drill point.
3. Apercussive/welldrillin apparatus consisting of a well-casing, a cylinder in the lower end of the well casing, means for limiting the downward movementof the cylinder in the latter, a drilling element axially movable Y in the housing and operatively 'connected withthe cutting tools to Vradially project or retract them depending onthe direction of axial movement, and means for bodily driving the housing to effect cutting action of the drilling element. l
' 5. A well drilling apparatus comprising a housing,'wall cutting. tools slidable in said housing, means for interlocking the housing with a Well casing to retain it in position in the latter, a drilling element axially movable in the housing .and operatively connected with the cutting tools to radially project or retract them depending on the direction of axial movement, and means for bodily Ydriving the housing to effect cutting action of the drilling element, the housing having an abutment engaged by the drilling element when the housing is being driven.
6. A well.,drilling Aapparatus comprising a housing, walll cutting tools slidable in said housing, means for interlocking the housing with a well casing to retain it in position in the latter, a drilling element axially movable in the housing and operativelyconnected with the cutting tools to radially project or retract them depending on the direction of axial movement, and means for bodily driving the housing to effect cutting actionI of the drilling element, the housing having an abutment engaged b housing is eing'driven, and the wall cutting tools being radially projected when the drillin element engagessuch abutment.
A well drilling apparatus comprising a wellv casing, a percussive drilling unit having an interlocking connection with the well casing to preclude relative angular-or turning movementbetween the two and prevent theformer dropping out of the lower end of the latter, a core barrel coupled to the drilling unit and having a limited axialmovement with respect to the same, and wall cutting tools disposed between the core barrel and the drilling unit and extended or retracted when the core barrel is moved axially witl well casing, a percussive drilling unit having the drilling element when theios an interlocking connection with the well casing to preclude relative angular or turning housing, wall cutting tools slidable in said housing, means for interlocking the housing with a well casing to retain it nil-position in the latter, a drilling element axi y movable in said housing and 'operatively connected I cutting elements withan earth receiving l .15- wellcasing, a ercussive drilling unit hav- 40 axial movement, and an underreamer carried with 5 with respect to the same, and wall cutting1 tools disposed b etweenthe core barrel an the drilling unit and 7'extended or retracted vwhen the core barrel is moved axially with v reference tothe A drilling unit, the core barrel l0 at its lower-end bein provided with cuttin elements and being o provided above sai with the cutting tools to radially project or retract them depending on the direction of axial movement, an anvil detachably engaged with the housing at the u per end an hav- 4 ingan upstanding axial y arranged-extension,means for imarting independent axial movement to the rilling element having a member extending through said anvil and through said extension, and au impact tool disposed in surrounding relation to said extension, hoisting means connected with said' impact tool, and hoisting means connected with said member.
In testimony whereof I hereby aix my signature;
RICHARD P. SIMMONS.
chamber. 9. '-A well drilling apparatus comprising a ing an interloc ing connection with the well casing to preclude relative angularfor'turning 4 v movement between the two and prevent the former droppin out of the :lower end of $0 the latter, a dri ling element carried at the lower extremity of said unit and movable axally with respect thereto and engaging an abutment in one of the extreme positions of axial movement, and an underreamer carried 4 i4 by the unit and radially extensible and contractible and havin an operative connection 4 with said drillin '/'e ement to be extended or retracted when t e element is moved axially with respect to the unit.
10. A well drilling apparatus comprising a well casing, 'a percussive drillin unit having an interlocking connection with the well casing to preclude relative angular or turning movement 'between' the two and prevent the former drop ing'out of the lower end of the latter, a dri ling element carried `at the t t lower extremity'of said unit and movable axially with respect; thereto and engaging an abutment in one of the extreme positions of by the unit and. radially 'extensible and .contractiblev and havin an operative connection withl said drillin e ement tobe extended or retracted when t e' element is moved axially respect to the unit', the abutment enp position of the element eiecting enlslion of tlleduiierreamer, we ri ing apparatus comprising a housing, wall cutting tools slidable in said 60 housing, means. for interlocking the housing with a well casin toretain it in ition in the latter a dri ing element movable in said housing and operativel connected with the cutting tools to radial y .pro- 56 )ect or retract them depending on the direction. of axial movement, an anvil detachabl engaged. with the housing at the upper end an aving an upstanding axially arran extension, means' for im arting indepen ent e0 axial movement tothe rilling element havmg a member extending lthrough said anvil and through said extension, and an impact tool disposed in surrounding relation to said extension. es 12. A well drilling apparatus comprising a its'