US 1896108 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
` ZSheetS-Sheet 1 R P SIMMONS WELL PUMPING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 23, 1929 Feb. 7, 1933.
tu d w 7 Feb. 7, 1933.
` .R.`P. slMMoNs WELL PUMPING APPARATUS Filed Oct'. 23, 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Elf/gqrdSw/na/zf ATTORN EY Patented Feb. 7,v 1933 -UNITED, STAT-as PATENT OFFICE RICHARD P. SIMMONS, or LAURELTON, LONG ISLAND-NEW Yom:
WELL PUMPING APPARATUS Appncau'oii med october 2s. 1929. serial No. 401,926.
by a pumping unit operated by a lineof coupled sucker rod sections This pumping unit employs a piston Whose diameter is less than three inches. Due to the methods of drilling now depended on a larger pumping unit at the bottom of the oil cannot be employed.
, The sucker rods which operate this relatively small piston pump are approximately three quarters of an inch in dia-meter, and must be repeatedly raised and lowered, in order to is restored to working condition.
' of the natural oil and gas reservoir.
operate the pump piston; Due to the great difficulty of drilling straight holes orwells, it is found that the majority of oil wells are inclined from the vertical as much as fortyive per cent. at the maximum, and five per cent. at the minimum. In raising and lowering the sucker rod line through wells which are crooked the drag of the sucker rods against the wall of the well is materially increased, and experience establishes that eighty-five per' cent.V of suchl sucker rods break, with the result that the oil out of pumped Wells ceases until the sucker rod line Deep oil wells extend from 4,000 to 6,000 feet or more'from the ground to the surface total weight of the sucker rod line running through wells of such depthsis enormous. Each time this sucker rod line is lowered the momentum developed by the downwardly.`
moving mass has to beovercome when the motion of the sucker rod line is reversed, to cause the pump piston to make an .upward strokc, in an oil lifting direction.
A progressive elongation of the sucker rods naturally takes place, as a result of the -forces developed, and ultimately breakage takes place.
In drilling standard oil wells it isconce'ded atthe present time to be impracticablc to drill the well with the same diameter at the'y The..
bottom, as at the top. As the depth ofthe Well is increased it'is found thatthe density of the groundalso increases, so that the displacement and removal of the material, .by
any used method of drilling, becomes more diicult.
The practice consists, therefore, of drilling the oil well to a depth of about 1,100 feet to receive the 20 inch well casing, which is placed in position to support the wall of the l60,
well against collapse and to assist in excluding the kseepage waters. The well is then .deepened t'o 4,300 feet, while the -well casing 'of this total length is placed, progressively,
within the 20 inch well casing. This second 65 line of well casing is about 131/2 inches in diameter. The well'is again deepened to receive a well casing. 9 inches in diameter, and approximately 6,000 feet in length. The
well is. again deepened to receive a well casing 61/2 inches in diameter, and approximately 6,000 feet of this is placed within the 9 inch casing. Within this last line .of 61/2 inch Well casing aline of 3 inch tubing is placed, having a total length of approximately 6,300 feet, which 'extends from the head of the well to the bottom of the well, within the 6% inch diameter well casing. A
In the final 3 inch tubing is installed they piston pumping unit. This unit includes a pump cylinder of its own, and a piston rec1procates withinLthis cylinder. This necessitates a reduction of the diameter available for the pump piston, to about 2% inches when Y. this piston is reciprocated by sucker rods only 3/1 inch in diameter. the work done is forcing a column of oil to flow upward through the 3 inch tubing.
.Each time the piston is pulled upward,
it must overcome the head resistance offered by the column of oil, reaching 6,300 feet above it. The pressure of this oil against the piston head, and consequently against the sucker rod line, necessarily adds to the diiculties of operating the pumping unit and maintaining it in service. Theback pressure of the column of oil upon the sucker rod line promo-tes breaking vof it, with consequentl stoppage of Aoil delivery from the oilwell.
- There are obvious `practicall`li1nits to'the 100 speed of reciprocation of the sucker rod line. It is conceded to be ilnpractic'able to increase the diameter of the pump piston, with means nowA at the command of the oil well operator; hence delivery of oil from an oil well which ceases to gush or disehargeby the action of its natural pressure, is now limited to the lifting capacity of the small piston pumps which are now generally employed.
As oil is progressively withdrawn from an oil well the natural pressure is lowered, but the mass of the oil is not proportionately reduced. The natural pressure may drop to a point where it will be relatively insignificant for oil lifting purposes, and the volume of oil remaining in the natural reservoir at the base of the well may be suicient to supply a large daily output for years to come.
By the system of pumping disclosed in this application Iaim to provide meansl for withdrawing oil from an oil Well, in adequate quantities, which will not be subject to the limitations now imposed upon oil well operators.
One of the objects of thel present invention -is to provide a large capacity oil pumping unit, which can be installed in a large dialneter oil well and operated by a contained lso power unit, to produce a continuous flow ot oil tent and irregular dehveiv of oil.
Another object of the invention is the provision of-a pumping system for oil wells, including a power driven rotary7 pump which will not be disrupted by the back pressure of the oil column.
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a pumping system for deep oil wells, having an abnormal diameter or bore, consisting of a plurality of pumping units and flow connectionsbetween the same, whereby a lifting pressure can be progressively imparted to the oil.
A still further object of the invention is the provisionof a-pumping system for deep oil wells, consisting of a power driven pumping unit capable of being installed in position atthebottom of the well, and a compressedair service connection with this unit for supplying air under lifting pressure to the oil stream, to impart additional lifting "energy to the oil.
Astill further object of the invention is the provision of a deep well pumping system, 'wherein a plurality ot motor driven pumpmg units are installed at different working levels 'and connected together to provide rom Athe well, rather than an intermit-- eter with means for locking the motor driven pumping unit therein against relative rotative movement, but to permit of relative vertical movement.
A still further object of the invention is to provide simple means for reducing the earth pressure against the main well casing.
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a housing for the electrical motor, which will he oil and water tight, and yet permit of efiicient operation of the rotary pumping mechanism.
Another object of the invention is the provision of means for mounting the pumping mechanism in a follower well casing, so that the pumping mechanismwill be held positively against relative rotation therein. and
yet relative slidable movement permitted,
readily withdrawn from the well, without requiring the4 withdrawal of the well easing.
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a well pumping apparatus with vertical screw pumps operating in coupled pairs in opposing order, and means for supplying compressed air to the fluid column set in motion by said pumps within the pump casing, so as to assist the llifting action developed bv the pumps.
A further ob ect of the invention is the provision of improved lmeans for interlocking the pump casing to an auxiliary casing fitting vin thel well casing.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be hereinafter speciicallypointed out, or-will become apparent, as the specificament of parts, clearly described inthe following specification and fully illustrated in the accompanying dra-wings, which latter show an embodiment of the invention as at present preferred.
ln the drawings:-
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional View through the. combined pump mechanism and the in terloeking well casing.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the housings for the upper and lower pump mechanisms.
Fig. 3 is a view in perspective of the lower section of the well casing, showing the internal locking keys and'keyways thereof.
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 5 is a similar view taken on line 5 5 of Fig. l, looking in the direction of the arrows:
Fig. 6 is a detail side elevation of the twin pump screws.
Fig. 7 is'a vertical sectional view through-.
a modified form.
Fig. 8 is a transversesectional view, taken on line 8--8 of Fig. 7, looking in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view takenV on line 9-9 of Fig.' 7, looking in the direction o f the arrows.
Referring to the accompanying drawings illustrati-ng the invention in detall, 10 ldesignates the lower section of a well casing, which is constructed with radially spaced internal longitudinal keys .11 and keyways-12.
The pump mechanism is enclosed in two housings, a lower one 13 and an upper one 14. The lower housing l13 is formed with external -longitudinal keys 15 and keyways 16, radially spaced from each other. The lower ends of the keyways 15 are formed with ytapered terminalsi15a and the upper ends of the keyways 16 communicate with longitudinal slots 16a which extend through the'head 17 of the housing 13.
The head 17 is threaded in the cylindrical housing 13 and is shown to be of dome shape. In this housing, an electric motor 18 is mounted by means of vertical carrying ribs 19 formed on the housing 20 of sald motor. The shaft 21 of this electric motor extends downwardly and is connected by --the .shaft coupling device 22 to the pump shaft 23 the lower end of which is equipped with helicaly driving gears 24, which engage similar gears 25 on the parallel shaft 26, shown in Fig. 6. The pump shaft 23 carries a lower lifting screw 27, which engages a similar lifting screw 28 on theshaft 26. The shaft 23 also carries another lifting screw 29, having a reverse pitch, which engages a similar liftlngl screw 30 on theshaft 26. The lower lifting screws 27 and 28 are spaced from the upper lifting screws 29 and 30, and the lower end of the discharge pipe 31 has communicationl by its lateral intake 32 with said space. Oil is supplied to the pressure chamber in which the four screws operate through the intake 33, formed in the end late' 34 secured by the screws 35 to the cy indrical 'housing 13. Compressed air 'is supplied to this inlet at 36 from a conduit 37,'which extends to the surface of the well. i
vThe oil enters through the inlet 33 and a part ofit will flow through the space around each of the screws 27 and 28, and thence into the discharge pipe 31, and a partof the oil will flow through the by-pass .38 .over the .55 Kupper screws29 and 30 and then downwardly through the spaces around and between these I t screws to the discharge pipe 31. The pump shaft 23 operates in a gland 39 carried by the inner casing 40, which encloses the upper and lower pump screws. The electric motor 18 is energize' through a feed cable 18a..
The disch' pipe 31extends through the pled to a line section 41, dl and `connects with 43 of the booster -the intake 42 vof the pump casing 44, arranged within the housing 14. In this casing 44,thetwin roller lift screws 45 are arranged, one upon the shaft 46 and the other uponl a shaft not shown, but which is of similar construction to the shaft 26. The shaft 46 carries a lifting screw 47 of reverse pitch to the lifting screw 45, this engages the companion lifting screw similar to the lift-v ,are keyed in the housing 14, which is formed with keyways to receive said keys 54. The
motor housingis also bolted in place by one or more bolts 56, shown in Fig. 5. The motor 52 is energized by means of a feed cable 56a. 1
The oil enters the inlet 42, in which air induction pipe 57 has communication and then describes a course similarto that described in detail with reference to the lower ump unit, and is discharged through the disc arge pipe 58 upwardly through the detachable head 59 of the housing 14.` The delivery pipe 60 is coupled at 61 to this head and conducts the oil to the 4surface of the well. 1
Compressed air enters the lower pump casing through the induction pipe 36 and the upper pum casing through the induction pipe 57, an also atdelivery pipe 60 through a number of induction pipes or connections 62, similar to the one shown in Fig. 1, and conducts air from a compressed air conduit 63 to the rising oil column. In this way, an
air liftis combined` with the motor driven sure created by the well itself is neutralized so that the pressure acting upon the oil canV be released to discharge the same to the surface of the well. l .p
TheI upper housing 14 is--fshown to be a smooth cylindrical surface as the two pumping units are supported in the well casing by means of the interlocking keys formed on the lower well casing sectionlO, and the lower housing 13,
, In Figs. 7, 8 and 9, I show a modified construction which includes thewell casing 10 having the internal longitudinal keys 11, which` are formed with the transverse key- Ways 11a. This well casing section is also provided with the internal longitudinal keyways 12. as shown in Fig. 3, but not appearing in Fig. 7. In this well casing section,
the lower housing 64 is mounted, and this housing is provided with similar external keyways and keys to that of the lower housequipped with an end wall which provides the oil inlet' 66. The upper end'of this housing 4carries a detachable dome-shaped end wall 67. A air of vertical screw shafts 68 and 69 are Journalled in bearings 70 provided in said end walls 65 and operate in the auxiliary casing 71 within thehousing 64.
The upper end of the shaft 68 carries helical gears 72 which engage similar gears on the shaft- 69. The shaft 68 extends through a bearing 73V and on its upper end carries a gear 74which is'en'gaged by the gear 75, mounted on the shaft 76, which is journalled in the bearin .77 rovided in they-dome head' or end wall 6 il, after entering the inlet 66, flows through thevlowei` pair of screw pumps into the discharge pi 78 by one part, and through the by-pass 79 fiiws downwardly through the upper set of screw pumps into said discharge pipe 78, and thence upwardly into the booster pump casing 80 through the connectingpipe 81, which is carried by the end wall 82 of said casing 80. In thebooster pump casing 80, the lower twin lifting screws 83 and thepfupper twin lifting screws 84v op` crate; one of each of said sets, being carried by the pumpshaft 85 and the others being carried by a parallel vertical shaft similar to the shaft-26, shown in Fig. 6. The
upper end portion of theshaft .85 immediately above the upper screw pumps- 84 carries a pair of helical gears 86 which engage rsimilar gears onthe companion shaft and'said shaft 85 then extends through the bearing 87 carried by the pump casing, 80, an is equipped with a gear 88which is engaged by the gear 89 on the driving shaft 90, which'is journalled to operate in a bearing 91 of the detachable dome shaped end wall92 of the upper housing 93.-
- Air is supplied to the lower pump casing.
7 1 by the induction device 94a from the air conduit 94 and is also supplied to the pump casing 80 through the induction pipe 95 so that an air lift is combined with the multiple screw pump lifts.
The inner locking element between thelower pump housing and the lower section of the'well casing positively prevents the pump units from rotating within the well casing and permits of easy forced interlocking and sliding-connection with the well casing. This arrangement enables the well engineer to withdraw the Vpumping units #from the welll andsubstitute any other equipment required, without withdrawing the well casing.
The pump units are spaced apart at a distance .of a. thousand feet moreor less, and in connection with the modiiiedjfeorm, the driving shaft 9,0 his continued Iby sections cou.
pled thereto to the surface, and `are operated by meansy pff anyjsuitable powerv source at the surface'.
"Thefhereinbefore described constructiony admits of considerable .modifications without -motor, a. housing enclosing the same and interlocked in the well casing against' relative rotative 4movement, and pumping means enclosed by said housing and having driving connection with the motor..
' 2; The combination with' 'a Well casing of a housing slide-bly7 interlocked to the well casing against relative-rotative movement and adapted to be supported thereby with its low-v er end adjacent to the lower end of the wel] casing, and power driven pumping means within the housing.l
"3. The'combination with a well casing having internal longitudinal keys and keyways therein circumferentaly spaced from each other, a housing having corresponding external keys and keyways adapted to be'slidably interlocked 4with the internal keys and keyways of the casing and be supported thereby ,against downward movement in the casing and to permit vertical movement thereof, and motor driven pumping means enclosed by the housinff 4. The combination with a well casing having internal opposed longitudinal keys and keyways therebetween terminating -near the lower end of the casing to provide stops, a housing slidably interlocked to said keys and keyways and engaging said stops, and motor driven' pumping means within the housing.
l5. The combination with va well casing of a housing slidably interlocked thereto` for limited downward movement and against relative rotative movement, and pumping means arranged in the housing.
6. The combination with a well'casing of a housing slidably interlocked thereto against relative rotative movement, means for preventing the housing from ldropping through the lower end of the casing, and pumping means operating in the housing.
7. A well apparatus inclu'dmr, ahousing having motor driven pumping means therein and external interlocking'elements for coupling said housing to ay well casing against relative rotative movement. r
8. The combination with a deep oil well having a'casing therein, and a pumping unit disposed at the bottom of the well and removably locked with the casing to .positively prevent angular4 or turning movement of the pumping unit relative to the casing but topermit relative axial movement tov provide for wlthdrawal'of the pumping unit from the topof the well, the interlocking connection 20 having a casing therein and a pumping unit escalas S consisting of intercurrent keysbn the exterior of the pumping unit and interior of the well casin respectively.
9. e combination with a deep oil well having a casing therein, and a pumping unit disposed at the bottom of the wel and removably locked with the casing to positively prevent angular or turning movement of the pumping unit relative to the casing but t0 permit relative axial movement to provide for withdrawal of the pumpin unit from the top of the well, the interloc ing connection consistingr of intercurrent keys on the exterior of the pumping unit and interior of the well casing respectively and said keys being tapered on relatively opposite ends to serve as pilots to direct the keys of the one between the keys of the other.
1.0 The combination with a deep oil well disposed at' the bottom of the Well and removably locked with the casing to positively prevent angular or turning movement of the pumping unit relative to the casing but to permit relative axial movement to provide for withdrawal of the pumpin unit from the top of the Well, the interloc ing connection consisting of intercurrent keys on the exterior of the pumping unit and interior of the well casing respectively and said keys being tapered on relatively opposite ends to serve as pilots to direct the eys of the one between the keys of the other, the keyspon the pumping unit increasing in width at their upper ends to practically close the space between them and function as abutments for the tapered ends of the keys on the well casing.
In testimony whereof I hereby aix my signature.
RICHARD P. SIMMONS.