US 1899657 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 28, 1933. E. R. ZADEMACH WASHING MACHINERY l, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet l /n venfor Filed Oct.
A 7 farm 6 '5 Filed Oct. 1, 1927 s Sheets-Sheet 2 In venlor Afforne v:
Feb. 28, 1933. R, 'ZADEMACH 1,899,657
WASHING MACHINERY Filed Oct. 1, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Afforneys Patented Feb. 28, 1933 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE E3101: 1:. ZADEMACH, or ELIZABETH, NEw JERSEY, 'Ass IeNoE T mE'rALwAsH uAcnINEEY COMPANY, or NEW YORK, N. Y., A COPARTNERSHIP coMrErsEn or HERMAN o. oEnmE, ERIGH a. ZADEMACH, AND ALBERT c. NOL'I'E "WASHiNG MACHINERY Application filed October 1, 1927. Serial No. 223,466.
This invention relates generally to washing machinery, and more particularly to such machinery of the class employed in cleaning from articles such as met-alware the grease, dirt and chips accumulating thereon during the processes of manufacture and use thereof.
An object of the invention is the provision, in a machine of this character, of means for thoroughly washing such work material.
Another object is the provision of a machine of this character so constructed and arranged that the washing liquid may be used over and over again. a
-A further object is the provision of means for separating, by sedimentation, from the washing liquid, during its passage through the machine, heavyrefuse, such as chips, which have been washed from the work material.
A still further object is the provision of skimming means for removing from the washing liquid, during its passage through the machine, floating refuse such as oil and grease, which has been washed from the work. v
A still further ObJBCt'iS the provision of means for insuring that the washing liquid,
inits passage through the machine, shall be effectually heated.
A still further object is the provision of means for causing the washing liquid to follow a devious course in its passage through the machine, in order that such sedimentation, skimming and heating processes may be carried out with certainty and thoroughness.
The followin is a description of a washing machine em odying the invention in its present preferred forms; butit willbe understood that various modifications and changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention and without exceeding the scope of the claims.
The invention will best be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein are illustrated'its present preferred embodiments, and in which Fig.1 is a sectional plan. of a washing machine on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2,1ookingin the direction of the arrows; Fig. 2 is a sectional side elevation of such machine, on the linc 2-2 of Fig. 1,
Fig. 5 is a sectional plan of a tank embodying a modified form of the invention; and
Fig. 6 is an elevation of a separation reservoir which may be employed in connection with the washing machine for salvaging valuable greases and oils employed in the processes of manufacturing the work material to be treated.
A relatively large volume of washing liquid is employed in machines of this character. For example, 400 gallons of liquid per minute are passed through one such machine which is ten feet long and-forty inches wide, exelusive of "the side'tank. The washing is, of course, most effectually accomplished when the washing liquid is quite hot. It is customary to use chemical washing compounds in the'water, and these compounds are expensive. For the purpose, therefore, of conserving the heat as well as the cleansing chemicals in such large quantities of washing liquid, it is obviously desirable that the liquid shall be used over and over again,
rather than being discharged immediately it has become contaminated. However, in order that the washing operation may be successfully carried out under such conditions of continuous use of the liquid, it is necessary to provide means for removing therefrom the grease, oil, dirt, chips and other refuse carried away from the work material. Some of this refuse, such as dirt, metal chips, etc. is heavier than the cleansing liquid, while other material, such as grease and oil, is lighter than the cleansing liquid.
.It is therefore highly advantageous, in carrying out the continuous washing process, to remove both heavy and light refuse. The present invention embodies means for removing the heavy refuse by agitation and sedimentation; and for removing the light refuse by agitation, flotation and skimming. The washing liquid may thus be used for long periods with minimum loss of heat requiring only occasional replenishment of small quantities of water and cleansing chemicals.
Like reference characters indicate like parts throughout the drawings.
Referring to the drawings, 1 denotes a housing, preferably constructed of sheet metal, such as steel or non-ferrous metal.
Suitably j ournalled on the outer or inner side of said housing and actuated by any wellknown means (not shown) are a plurality of rotating rolls, such as 2a, 2b, 2c, coacting with an endless conveyor belt 3 to drive the latter in the direction indicated by the arrow in Fig. 2. The upper portion of each end of the housing is open to permit of placing work material upon the .right-hand end of the conveyor belt and of dischargin the same from the left-hand end thereo It will be understood, however, that the direction of travel of the conveyor belt may be reversed, in which case the work material will be placed upon the left-hand end *of the belt and discharged from the right-hand end thereof. Suitably mounted within the housing are a plurality of pipes studded with spraying nozzles, such as 4, 5, and 6, connected, respectively, to inlet pipes, such as 411 and 6a, which pipes, in turn, are connected to a pump (not shown) The pump, through its connecting pipes, draws the washing liquid from the wash tank side of the machine, and returns it under high pressure to the nozzles, from whence it is projected onto the work material carried by the conveyor belt 3. As shown in Fig. 2, nozzle pipe 4 is adapted to spray downwardly, nozzle pipe 5 to spray sidewise, and nozzle pipe 6, located underneath the roller conveyor, is adapted to spray upwardly. Thus the work material, in traveling through the spraying zone, is subjected to the action of a multiplicity of hi h-pressure jets of hot washing liquid, whic liquid may, if desired, contain an alkali acting to dissolve and saponify grease and oil carried by the work material.
In order that the attendants who place the work material in the machine and remove the same therefrom may not be unduly hampered by steam issuing horizontally from the openings in the ends, respectively, of the housing, there is installed at the intake end an inwardly-inclined baflle 7 and, at the discharge end, a similar baflle, 8. The action of these baflles is to deflect the steam continually rising from the body of washing liquid. Adjunctive to said baflies, respectively, are curtains, 9 and 10, extending transversely across the ends of the housing and conveniently hung to end bafiies, such as 11 and 12, forming the end braces of the housing. The co-operative effect of the baflles and curtains is to deflect the steam upwardly, rather than permitting it to issue horizontally from the housmg into the face of the attendant. Baflle 8 may also serve as a return drain plate for liquid carried by the work material upon its discharge from the conveyor belt 3.
After impinging upon the work material,
eration of which will be hereinafter described in detail. The flow of liquid continues from.
chamber 15 through strainers 17 and 18, into a second settling'basin 19,.also forming a part of the muck tank. Thereafter, the flow continues over a weir portion 20 of a partition member 21 (Figs; :1, 3 and 4), dividing the muck tank from the Washing liquidheating? tank section 22, through said" heating-tank section to a connecting discharge-tank section, 23, through said discharge-tank section to a pump suction tank 24, through said pump suction tank to a pump suction pipe 25, to a pump (not shown), and through said pump and connecting pipes back to the spray nozzle pipes 4, 5 and 6. Because of the large volume of washing liquid flowing down the drain plate 13, the liquid in the intake section 14015 the muck tank is violently agitated and churned, thereby intimately mixing the grease and oil with the washing liquid, subjecting the same to the action of the chemicals held in solution in said liquid, and whipping the thereby saponified material into foam (indicated in Fig. 2 by the numeral 26) which foam floats on the surface of the washing liquid. In spite of the agitation of the liquid, some of the heavy refuse, such aslarge metal chips (indicated in Fig. 2 by the muneral 27) is, however, precipitated in the intake section 14 of the muck tank.
As appears from Fig. 1, there is a relatively narrow opening from intake section 14 into chamber 15 of the muck tank, and this tends to restrict to the immediate vicinity of such opening the agitation of the liquid in passing through said chamber 15. Because of this decreased agitation, another and more considerable portion, 28, of the heavy refuse is precipitated in chamber 15. Overflow and into chamber 15.
Strainers 17 and 18 are preferably installed in such a manner that they operatively incline from the vertical. .They are so positioned between chamber 15 and settling basin 19 as to permit of their convenient removal for cleaning purposes through the top of sa1d chamber 15 which chamber is operatively closed by a cover 30 (Fig. 3). In the passage of the liquid through these strainers, any large particles of refuse, whether they be heavy or light, are necessarily intercepted.
It will be noted from Fig. 3 that the lower v portion of partition tank wall 31 is cut away, said wall extending downwardly only to a point slightly above the liquid level. As the liquid flows from the drain plate 13, it is diverted into chamber 15 by partitiomwall 32, which separates the intake section 14 of the muck tank from the settling basinportion 19 thereof. Upon entering chamber 15,
it is again diverted by the left-hand, or partition, ortion (Figs-3 and 4) of the member 21, an caused to pass through strainers 17 and 18 and into settling basin- 19. 7
Because of the protecting action of partition wall 32 and of the screens 17 and 18, the liquid, in its passage throughsettling basin 19, is subjected to but slight agitation, such as has hereinbefore been descri ed as occurrin in intake section 14 of the muck tank, an to a lesser degree, in chamber 15 thereof. The strainers 17 and 18'will have removed all but the finest'particles of heavy refuse which has not been precipitated in chambers 14 and 15. Means are provided for insuring sedimentation of substantiall all such rema ning heavy refuse in settling asin 19. This ortion of the process is carried out extends 55.
in the fol owing manner: as appears from Figs. 3 and 4, the member 21 (the left-hand portion of which constitutes a liquid-level partition between chamber 15 and pump suction chamber 24) has its right-hand portion cut away for a short distance below the top and for nearly the entire width of the main tank. The opening thus formed preferably from one to three inches below the liquid level; and the portion 20 below said recess constitutes a submerged weir, over which all the liquid must flow in its passage to heating tank section 22 (Fig. 1). 'By thus restricting the outflow to the upper portion of the settling basin 19, agitation of the liquid is minimized at this stage of its passage through the. machine, and sedimentation of the remaining small particles of heavy refuse is greatly facilitated.
An important feature of the. invention consists in the provision of a vertical wall, 33, which divides the main tank into two chambers, 22 and 23, through which the liquid is forced to flow. As appears from Fig. 1, the major portion of this wall is parallel to the main walls of the housing, while itsrighthand end diverges from parallelism, embracing about one-half the width of the tank and closing the end of the chamber thereby formed. The inclined portion of the wall thus, serves as a bafile for liquid passin over the weir 20. The advantage of so inc ining the end of this wall lies in the fact that it is thereby possible to employ a weir which is of a length substantially equivalent to the full width of the tank. The recess above the weir may thus be relatively shallow, in order to minimize disturbance of the main body of liquid in the settling basin 19 and thereby function. In machinery of this character it has heretofore been the practice to install the heating unit for the liquid at any convenient point-irrespective of considerations involving thermal efficiency. Thus, with such a heating unit (for example a number of steam 'coils) located at one end of a long tank, reliance must be placed largely upon the heatconducting capacit of the liquid, the general circulation thereo and the convection currents therein, to uniformly and adequately produce the desired heating efifect upon the large mass of liquid. In the present invention, the chamber 22 is provided with heating means (here shown as a plurality of steam coils, 34 and 35). The vertical wall 33 divides the main tank into a heating chamber 22 and a discharge chamber 23. In the course of its continuous flow (under .the urge of a suction pump) through the machine, the liquid is forced to pass through chamber 22, where it is, of course, subjected to the heating action of the coils throughout practically the entire length of the chamber. The uniform and adequate heating of theliquid is thereby assured.
The lower portion of partition wall 31 is also cut away between discharge chamber 23 and pump suction chamber 24, in the same manner as hereinbefore described in relation to the portion of said wall between chamber 15- and settling basin 19. There is thus an unobstructed flow of liquid between said chambers 23 and 24. Interposed between pump suction pipe 25 and the main portion of pump suction chamber 24 are installed two vertical strainers, 35 and-36, which may be .of finemesh wire screen and which serve to intercept any small particles of refuse not either previously preclpitatedor intercepted by strainers 17 and 18. The pump mechanism and the spraying nozzles are thereby protected from entrance of material which them. Because of the suction action of the pump,..the liquid level in chamber 24 is, during the operation of the machine, normally somewhat'lower than the level in chamber'15; but when the pump is shutdown, the level of course becomes the same throughout the machine. This permits any refuse which may be floating on the surface of the liquid-in chamber 24 to seep over the upper edge of the skimmer box 16. I
A chute, 37, may be provided at the discharge end of the machine for receiving washed material conveyed thereto by conveyor belt 3. Thischute is "preferably perforated to permit of draining therethrough and onto baflie 8 any surplus liquidcarried by the work material.
It is contemplated that the sediment (indicated as 27 and 28) shall be periodically removed from the muck tank, access to said tank being obtained through cover 30 over the chamber 15. I
The muck tank is provided with a drain pipe 38, having a valve 39 for discharging its contents into a waste pipe 40, connected to a sewer. -It is thus possible to drain and embodiment illustrated clean the muck tank without loss of the main body of liquid in the machines Pump suction chamber 24 is provided with a: similar drain pipe 41 and valve 42, whereby the main body of liquid may be discharged through waste pipe 40 whenever, for any reason, it is found desirable so to do. In the embodiment of the invention illustratedi'n Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, thefloating refuse skimmed into box 16' is continuously discharged through pipe 29. a
In the modified form of the invention illustrated in Fig. 5, there are provided a tank 1, a drain plate 13, an intake section 14 of a muck tank, a chamber 15 and an overflow and skimmer box 15, a partition and weir member 20, and heating coils 34 and 35, similar to the correspondingly numbered parts in the in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4. In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 5, however, no vertical partition wall is provided, and the pump intake is connected near the discharge end of the machine. A tank 40 is provided for permitting access to the machine for cleaning purposes. This form of the invention is somewhat simpler in construction andis employed where especially narrow tanks are required.
In drawing and otherwise treating metal, it is frequently necessary to employ as lubricants greases and oils so valuable'as to render it desirable to salvage the portions thereof which adhere to the work material. I'Vhen such material is to be treated, hot water .alone is'employed as a washing liquid, because the inclusion of a strong alkali would result 111 might tend to clog the saponification of the'grease or oil.- The powerful sprays of hot water wash off the water. In. the chamber 15, the oil or grease,
tation, has been brought to the water, seeps over the upper edges of the over:-
flow and skimmer box 16. Under these con ditions of operation, the lower end of pipe 29 enters a separation-reservoir 41 (Fig. 6),and
is not connected to outlets41 and 38-d1 scharging .into said reservoir the skimmed,
grease or oil, together'with any residual water carried therewith. One end of a water drain pipe, 42, enters the reservoir and projects downwardly to a point below the bottomof pipe 29 and just above the bottom of said reservoir. The floating grease or oil may be periodically drawn from the reservoir through valve 44, while the accumulated water passes out through drain pipe 42. A main discharge pipe 45, provided with a valve 46, permits of draining the entire contents of the reservoir, whenever it may be found desirable so to do. The separation reservoir may be heated in order to maintain in a liquid state grease which it is sought to salvage.
I-have described what I believe to be the best embodiments of my invention. I do not wish, however, to be confined to the embodiments shown, but what I desire to cover by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims.
" I claim:
1. In a machine of the character described, including nozzles for spraying washing liquid upon work material, in combination a drain plate for said liquid, a muck tank into which said drain plate discharges, a skimmer in said muck tank, a settling basin communicatin with said muck tank, strainers between sai A basin and tank, a heating chamber conimunieating with said settling basin, a submerged weir between said heating ch amber and basin, a discharge chamber communicating with said heating chamber, a partition between portions of said chambers and means communieating with said discharge chamber for airculating said washing liquid.
2. In amachine of the character described, the combination of a container for washing liquid comprising a muck tank, a settling basin communicating therewith, aheating chamber communicating with said settling basin, a weir between said basin and chamber maintaining the liquid in the basin and tank substantially at a predetermined level, heating coils in said chamber, a discharge chamber separated by a partition for a portion of its length from said heating chamber, a pump suction chamber communicating with said discharge chamber, strainers in said pump suction chamber and a circulating pump communicating with said last-named chamber.
3. In a machine of the character described includin a conveyor for work material and nozzles or spraying washing liquid upon such work material, in combination a housing for said nozzles and conveyor, a tank for holding wash liquid in said housing, a relatively small drain receiving chamber in said housing and below said conveyor, and a sedimentation chamber in communication with said drain receiving chamber and with said tank, said sedimentation chamber being disposed externally and laterally of said housing, and being dammed oil from the major portion of the tank, so that it can be drained and cleaned without draining the major portion of the tank.
4. In a machine of the character described including a conveyor for work material and nozzles for spraying washing liquid upon such work material, in combination, a housing for said nozzles and conveyor, a tank for holding wash liquid in said housing, and a second housing disposed'externally and laterally of said first named housing, said second housing having a separator chamber and an outlet chamber, means for causing used liquid to flow into said separator chamber, said separator chamber being in communicationwith said tank to permit the flow of liquid into said tank, and said outlet chamber being in communication with said tank and, ghrough the tank, with the separator cham- 5. In a machine of the character described, including nozzles for spraying washing liquid upon work material, in combination a hous ing for said nozzles, a liquid storing chamber disposed below said nozzles, a drain receiving chamber, a third chamber interposed between said first mentioned chambers, a weir partition permitting the flow of liquid thereover from said interposed chamber to said storing chamber, a drain plate dirgosed below said nozzles causing the used liquid to flow into said dram receiving chamber, a separator chamber disposed laterally of said housing and in communication with said drain receivmg chamber and a foraminous partition between sald separator chamber and said interposed chamber.
6. In a machine ofthe character described,
including nozzles for spraying washing liquid upon work material, in combination a houslng for said nozzles, a tank disposed below said nozzles and comprising a large liquld heating chamber, a drain receiving chamber, a third chamberinterposed between said first mentioned chambers and a weir partit1on permitting the 410w oi liquid thereover fromsaid interposed chamberto'said heating chamber; a drain platedisposed below said nozzles and over said tank causing the used liquid to flow into said drain receiving chamber, a housing disposed laterally of said tank and having a separator chamber in communication with said drain receiving chamber, a foraminous partition between said separator chamber and said interposed chamber, and an outlet chamber in communicationwith said heating chamber and disposed laterally thereof.
7. In a machine of the character described,
including nozzles for-spraying washing liquid upon work material, in combination a housing for said nozzles, a tank disposed below said nozzles and'comprisinga large liquid heating chamber; a relatively narrow drain receiving chamber, a third chamber interposed between said first mentioned chambers and a weir partition permitting the flow of liquid thereover from said interposed chamber to said heating'chamber; a drain plate disposed below said nozzles'and over said tank causing the used liquid to flow into said drain receiving chamber, a housing disposed laterally of said tank and having a separator chamber in communication with said drain receiving chamber, a foraminous partition between said separator chamber and said interposed chamber, a sklmmmg device disposed within said separator chamber, and an outlet chamber in communication with said heating chamber and disposed laterally. thereof.
8. In a machine of the character described,
including spraying nozzles for spraying washing-liquid upon work material, in combination, ahousing enclosing the Sprayers, a tank in said housing for holding washing liquid, comprising a drain receiving chamber and a liquid heating chamber, a side tank of as great depth as the tankin the housing, a partition dividing the side tank into sedimentation and pump chambers, the sedimentation chamber being interposed between the drain receiving chamber and the heating chamber, a pump for taking liquid from the pump chamber and discharging it through the nozzles, and a skimmer in the sedimentation chamber comprising a waste condult for discharging floating refuse from the system, the partition between the sedimentation and pump chambers having its upper edge disposed just a little above the level of the skimmer to prevent direct passage of liquid from the sedimentation chamber to the pump chamber when the pump is in operat1on, the partition, however. being of such limited height that ll(]lll(l from the pump chamber mayseep over the partition and be skimmed by the skimmer when the pump is stopped.
9. Ina machine of the character described, including spraying nozzles for spraying washing liquid upon work material, in combination, a housing mclosmg the Sprayers,
a tank in'said housing for holding the washing liquid, comprising a dram receiv ng chamber and a liqu d heating chamber, a slde tank alongside the housing. the side tank being of as great depth as the tank in the housing, means dividing the side tank into sedimentation and pump chambers, the sedimentation chamber being interposed between the drain receiving chamber and the heating chamber for taking liquid from the pump chamber and discharging it through the nozz1es,an'd a skimmer in the side tank comprising a Waste conduit, the skimmer being disposed to skim floating refuse from the sedimentation chamber and from the pump chamber" when the pump is stopped, and to discharge such refuse from the system.
In testimony whereof I have aflixed my signature to this specification.
ERICH R. ZADEMACH.