US 1900164 A
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2 Sheets-Sheet l D. DANA ET Al.`
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRILLING OIL WELLS Filed July 5, 1952 March 7, 1933.
March 7, 1933. D DANA ET Al.
METHOD AND APPARTUS FOR DRILLING OIL WELLS Filed Ju1y 5, 1932 A fron/m'.
*1931, which has as its primary object the re- Patented Mar. 7, 1933 UNITED STATES 'PATENT OFFICE DREXLER DANA, OF SANTA BARBARA, AND FRANK MORGAN, 0F BEVERLY HILLS,-
CALIFORNIA METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRILLINGOIL WELLS Application led July 5,
This'invention has todo in a general way with the art of drilling Wella/and is more particularly related to the improvements in the methodand ap'paratus in our copending application, Serial No. 534,481, filed May 2,
duction of oil well drilling expenses. As is pointed out in our copending application, this invention is especially adapted for use in drilling oil wells .over water where the foundation and derricli:` structure are extremely Costly as compared to the actual expenses ot drilling the bore hole. It is to be understood, however, that the method and apparatus contemplated by this invention may be used with equal facilityin land drilling operations. Y
' Like the invention of our former application, it is a primary object ofr this invention to produce a method and apparatus for drilling a plurality of bore holes or wells from a `single derrick structure. In the method contemplatedby our former application, this was accomplished'by drilling a large diame- .'er bore hole'ofcomparatively shallow depth,
and from-the bottom of this bore hole drill-- ing a plurality of angularly -disposed small diameter bore holes; The apparatus contemplated by our former application consisted in a general way of a conductor casing adapted to be lowered into the large diameter bore hole, such casing having a plurality of radi- A ally disposed partitions therein and having a bit deflecting shoe at its lower end.
In the development lof this invention We have found it to be extremely important that each small diameter hole be started and Y guided so as lto avoid intersection with the established or prospective path of any other bore hole which ,is drilled prior to or which is to be drilled subsequent to-the hole in question.
It is therefore a'primaryobjectof this invention to produce a method of the class described whereby the possible interference or intersection of bore holes 'is positively avoided. We prefer to accomplish this by `starting the individual small diameter bore holes at Varlous elevatlons inthe large diam# eter borehole. l
ltor by means of which one ormore of the 1932. Serial N'o. 620,826.
It accordingly becomes a further object of this invention to produce a novel type of apvholes be drilled at an angle with respect to the large diameter borehole. -It therefore `becomes a further object of this invention to produce a bore hole dividerand bit .direcsmall holes can be drilled from various elevations and at a predetermined angle or at predetermined angles with the axis of the main hole, and in which one or more of the small diameter bore holes can be drilled vertically from the bottom ofthe large diameter bore hole. In this connection our invention contemplates a4 novel type of guide shoe mounted on the bottom of the director member which is of a frangible character so as to permit the passage of a drillv bit therethrough.
It is a further object of this invention to produce a directing member which may be easily handled and installed. For accoml.-l 80 plishing this we prefer tov secure to the lower end portion of the directing member, a cable on the surface. In this manner the divider B5 can be stopped at any time for attachment or installation of new sections to accommo- Idalte/ any depth in the large diameter-bore o e. Y
The lcable just referred tov may be secured to the lower endot1 the divider by some suitable releasable means, but we prefer to rigidly secure the lower. end of the cable. When the divider has reached theproper position, the cable is cut at the upper end of the bore hole and falls into the compartment of the divider in 'which'its lower end is secured.
In order that the cable may not interfere with drillingoperations, we prefer to secure it in -a compartment which contains a delectm0 l ing member so that the cable falls to the bot4 shown as being mounted with its floor 12 on tom of the compartment below the deflecting shale or other formation indicated by refmember and will thereby not interfere with erence numeral 13. the drilling of the small diameter bore hole 1n proceeding' with the method contem- 5 subsequently to be drilled within that com plated by this invention, a large diameter partment. bore hole, indicated by reference numeral 14, Y
tIt -sometimes occurs in the drilling of wells is irst drilled below the derrick structure to of this character that the bit becomes lodged any suitable depth. A large diameter conand the drill stem twists off in a manner such ductor pipe is then set or cemented inthis lothat it cannot be removed. In order that a bore hole and a second large diameter bore 75 new well may be started when this occurs in hole 14 is drilled through and to a substan-v the'drilling operations contemplated by this tial distance below the conductor pipe 15. invention, we have devised a 'novel type of divider or partitioning member generally indelecting shoe which is adapted to be lowered dicated by reference numeral 16 is then low- 15 into the divider and to rest on a suitable vered through the conductor pipe l5 and into foundation of concrete or cement which is the bore hole 14 by means of a cable 17 which pumped into the compartment in the usual has its lower endportion secured to the bot* manner. This type of shoe has a decided adtom of the' divider or partitioning -member 16 vanta-ge over an ordinary type of whip stock and is shown as extending over a pulley 18 at 20 in that it has flat faces corresponding to the the top of the derrick to a drum at 19 whereby sides of the compartment in which it is rethe movement of' the cable and the conseceived so that it is held against rotationzthus quent movement of the partitioning member directing the bit over its new course in a preor divider is controlled. y determined direction. It will be understood that the partitioning The details in the method and ,apparatus member or divider, certain preferred forms 90 contemplated by this invention will be best of which will be hereinafter more completely understood 'from the following description of described, is of a nature such that additional the accompanying drawings which are chosen` sections may be added thereto from time to "for illustrative purposes oniy and in whichtime as the unit enters the bore hole. In mak Fig. 1 is an elevational view partly in sec# ing Slloh addtOIlS the drum 19 iS Stopped 95 tion showing a derrick structure and illusby means 0f a Suitable brake, 110i', ShOWl, and trating the manner in which e divider of the an additional section is added to the partitype contemplated by this invention is inv tioning, member or divider. This procedure stalled therein; is followed until the guide shoe 20 of the par- E Fig. 2 is anelevational view similar to Fig. titiolling memberhaS reached the bOttOm 0f 100 1 showing the divider es having been inthe bore hole 14. lvWhen this position has stalled, and illustrating the manner in which been reached the cable 17 is cut at a point near I the small diameter .bore holes are started into the tol) of the dil/'idol' ond the loWI Portion the formation; of the-cable drops into the bore hole and as- 40 Fi .3 is en elevational view showin one sumes a position as indicated at 17 in Fio. 2. 105
g g e form of divider contemplated by this inven.. Reference numerals 22 and 22 indicate bit tion; f deiecting members which are mounted at Fig. 4 is eplen section taken in the plane different elevations in .compartments 23\ and represented by the line 4-4 in Fig, 3; 23 of the divider orrpartitioning member.
Fig. 5 is an elevational view of a preferred Those blt 'doootmg members may bobom' 110 form ofour invention w ich is similar in a poseo of 'metal 01' other 'Woof-resistant mgeneral Way to the form Shown in Figgbut terial and are so arranged as to direct a small has certain structural advantages thereov'er;' 'dlomoto dllu. blt from ibo Corresponding Fig 6 1S a plan Section taken in plane compartments into the formation/ compris-v i.' represented by the line 6 6 of Fig. 5; l ing the wall of the bore hole 14. In this con? 115 Fig. 7 is an elevational vi W Showing a,v 'ne'ction it is to be understood that a part or modified form of our inventiolit; a 11,'of bbo oompoltmobts formed by the 'Por' Fig. 8 is a plan section which may b e conblblollng membol' may be Provided With bit Sidered as having been taken in a, plane repre, deflectors Of thls nature. is not essential" 56 sented by the line 8,-:3 in Fig, 7; however, that all of the compartments be so 120 Fig. 9 isn plan view showing e speeing constructed, .but it is important that the low# member which may be used in connection with v o1' end 0f the Cable 17 be Secured 'in a comparto the divider of the type shown in Fig.` 7 ando mont Which has "o 'Partitioning member- Fig. 10. is a per `ective view illustratmg a mounted therein ata substantial distance 60 preferred form o auxiliary bit deflecting above itslower end. This construction-:E125A shoe of the type contemplated by this invenfollowed to permit the cable'to fall to theloyvd y tion. er end of 'such compartment so asnot to'inf'- More particularly describing the inventerfere with the drilling operation as was tion as herein illustrated, reference numeral pointed olft above.
11 indicates a derriek structure which is- After the partitioning member has been 13.0
lowered to the bottom of the hole 14', wepre- Ifer to lock the divider in the bore hole by running tubing into one ormore of the compartments and 'pumping ycement through .such tubing to fill the entire hole or 'one or more compartments thereof from the bottom upward to a point determined by. the local conditions encountered, such cement or concrete being indicated at 24 and 24. The tubing thus employedis of course withdrawn immediately after the .cementing operation.
Itis to be understood that the bit delecting members are preferably formed or shaped so i. as to 'permit the passage of a tube for pumping concrete into the bottom of the hole and it is preferable to fill the compartments to a point abovethe bit delecting members. This may be acomplished by calculating the volume of the compartment below the desired level and pumping such volume into the well. It is to be understood, however, that concrete is of a frangible. nature which is easily drilled so that no particular harm isdone if it comes `to a point well above the bit delectng memoers.
After the cement has hardened,the process of drilling the small diameter bore holes will be, in each case, the same as that currently employed in drilling a single well beneath a derrick, except that the rotary table and part of the other drilling equipment mu'st be moved to center over each compartment successively. Furthermore the operation of the drill must be carefully regulated by modern drilling methods and apparatus so that vthe drill bit follows its predetermined course.
Reference numerals 26 and 27 indicate angular bore holes formed by the process outlined above. It will be understood that in fthe event the partitioning member is provided with four compartments, four such de'- Iiecting 'bore holes may be formed or one or more of the compartments may be left open so that the bit passes vertically downward therethrough, passing through' the frangible shoe 20 and forming a vertical well or bore hole of the type indicated by reference nu-I meral 28. d
In Fig. 3, we show one form of the divider 'ur director unit of the type contemplated by this invention. This unit is own as being madeup of llongitudinal pla e members 30, 31, 32 and 33 which intersect so as to form a unit which'is substantially cross-shaped in ross section. Plates of this nature are pref-l erably welded along the line of intersection, and it will be observed that -theycooperate to l form four compartments or chambers 35, 36,) 37 and 38.` In this form of.our invention we how two of the chambers 37 and 38 as being. provided with downwardly and outwardly inclined bit deflecting members 39 and 40 respectively. It is to be understood that such divider or director unit may be designed so as to form any plural number of compartwhich specify a four-way divider are for purposes of illustration only. The ilower end of the unit formed by the plates is se- Additional guide members may be placed on the plates throughout the length of the unit. In order that the cement which is pumped into the'compartments may completely lill the bore hole so as to form a more secureanchorage, the 4plates may be provided with openings as indicated reference numerals 42 and 42. The cable in this form of our invention is shownas being secured ina suitable pocket 43` which is positioned at the extreme lower end of the plate 'section' 37 so that the cable when cut will fall into this compartment and will arrange itself below the deflecting member 39..
The preferred form of our invention shown in Figs. 5'and 6 is similar in its general construction to the form just described. This last mentioned construction, however, has certain advantages in ease of handling and fabrication. This divider or directing.v unit is made up of four channel members indicated by referencenumerals 45, 46,47 and 48.
The channel members are arranged with their `ments within thel initial bore hole and the Y figures and descriptions here presented 'edges along a common axis and have their flanges secured to adjacent channel members by means of rivets or other suitable at- `tachingmeans indicated by reference numeral 49. 'The outer flanges on the channel act as guides to prevent-the members dig ing into the formation and the lower ends o the bottom channels are secured to a" frangible guide shoe indicated by reference numeral 50.
compartments are indicated by reference numerals 51, 52, 53 and 54, we show three of the compartments, 52, 53'and 54 as being provided with bit deiecting members 55 which,
. as pointedbut above, are arranged at different elevations throughout the height of the unit.
The -cable 17 is shown as being secured in a .socket member 43 at the lower end of the unit.
A reference numeral 60 indicates an eye which isshown as being secured to the upper. end of one of the-channel members and is adapted for use lin handling the unit in the of the eye 60. Under these circumstances the ,105.' In this lform of our inventio'n in which the i upper ends of the channels are preferably ofl'- v set as shown in Fig. 5 and as one channel is added thereto, an eye is placedton the upper end of this channel and the fweight of the unitis transferred to the upper eye, the lower lily one being removed. While fabricating any of the proposed divider or director units in this way the completed portion, which is airea-dy in the hole, may be conveniently supof iron rods passing through holes 60 in the plates..
, ln the form of our invention shown in lTig. '7, we show the divider as being made upof a plurality of small diameter pipes indicated by reference numerals 61, 61 and 62, 62. yThese pipes have their lower ends securedto a suitable basal ring 63 which in turn is secured to a frangible guide shoe 64. The cable 17 in this form of our invention is shown as being secured in a suitable socket 65 provided in the guide shoe 64.
For the purpose of holding the pipes in predetermined spaced relation with each 4' ther, we prefer to provide, from time to time, alongthe unit spacing plates, one of which is indicated by reference numeral 66.- @ne form of such plate is shown in Fig. 9 where it is illustrated as being provided with a hole 67 to admit the passage oi the cable 17 and a notch 68 to facilitate the installation of the plate over the cable. In this form of our invention the pipes 62, 62 and 61 are shown as being provided with bit deecting .nembers and pipe 61 is open to permit the drilling of a vertical small diameter bore hole from this' pipe. The bit deiiecting units in this Jform-of our invention are preferably formed by cutting 'longitudinal openings 70 in the pipe in of metal extending upwardly from the line of attachment. These tongues are indicated by reference numeral 71 and are bent inwardly so as to form a bit deflecting surraee.
ln Fig. 10 we show another form of bit deiecting unit which, as pointed out above,
.is adapted for use in connection with a divider or. partitioning member of the type shown in either Fig. 3 or Fig. 5. This unit is made in the form of a block 71 which has two fiat side faces 72 and 7 2f adapted to engage against the which define one of the segmental compartments in the-divider.Y rEhe top surface of this block is inclined downwardly and outwardly as indicated at 7 3 so as to'dciiect the bit into f the formation. `lln using the blockythe compartment in which it is to be used, is irst filled with concrete ifo the desired level. The block is then dropped into the compartment through which it falls onto the top of the concrete where it may be rigidly fixed by the further introduction of concrete. The bit may then be advanced into the compartment and will be deflected into the formation at an angle which is determined bythe inclination of the surface 73.
1t is to be understood that, while we'have' 6.5 herein described and illustrated certain preported at the'derrick iioor through the usel such a manner to leave tonguesangularly disposed plates\ medias the the ferred forms of apparatus for practicing method contemplated by this invention, invention is not limited to the precise structure described above, but includes within its scope whatever changes fairly come within the spirit of the appended claims.
We claim as our invention:
l. A well drilling method which comprises: drilling a large diameter bore hole; partitioning said hole to Aform a plurality of longitudinal chambers; and drilling small diameter bore holes at diEerent elevations from said chambers.
2. A well drilling method which comprises: drilling a large diameter bore hole;
partitioning said hole to forma plurality of longitudinal chambers; and drilling small diameter bore holes from said chambers at different elevations and in angularly disposed relation with each other.
3. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a guide shoe; longitudinal partitioning means secured to said guide shoe and adapted to form a plurality of 'drilling compartments in a bore hole; and drill bit deflectors in some of said compartments.
4. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a guide shoe; longitudinal partitioning means secured to said guide shoe and adapted to form arranged in vertically spaced relation with each other.
5. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a r'angiblc guide shoe; longitudinal partitioning means secured to said guide shoe and adapted to form a plurality of drilling compartments-in a bore hole; and drill bit deflectors in some of said compartments.
6. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a guide shoe; lon ltudinal partitioning means se cured to'said guide shoe and adapted to form a plurality of drilling compartments. in a bore hole; and drill bit delectors in some of said compartments, and iexible supporting means secured to the lower end of said divider.
7. For use in drilling bore holes ofthe jclass described, a divider embodying: a guide shoe; longitudinal partitioning means comprising a plurality of angularly disposed and interconnected plate members secured to said described, a divider embodying: a guide)v shoe; a plurality of upwardly extending small diameter vbit guiding pipes secured at their lower ends-to said shoe, some of said -pipes having openings in their outer walls;
and bit deflecting means in said pipes below said openings.
9. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a guide shoe; a pluralityof upwardly extending small diameter bit guiding pipes secured at their lower ends to said shoe, some of said pipes having openings in their outer walls and bit defiecting means in said pipes at said openings, the openings in the respective pipes being in vertically spac d relation with each other. j
10. For use in dri ing bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a guide shoe; a plurality of upwardly extending small diameter bit guiding pipes secured at their lower ends to said shoe, some of said pipes having openings in their outer walls; bit deflecting means in said pipes at said openings; and a iiexible member secured to said gulde lslhclie for .lowering said divider into a bore 11. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: `a plurality of elongated platemembers secured together at their edges so as-to form a unit of cross-shaped cross section; guide means at the lower end of said unit; and vertically spaced bit deflectors mounted in thevspaces between some of said plates.
12. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a plurality of elongated channels having theirvsideA flanges secured together along a common line to form a unit of cross-shaped cross section; guide means, atthe lower end of said unit; and vertically spaced bit deflectors mounted in the spaces between some of said plates. l
13. For use in drilling bore holes of the class described, a divider embodying: a .plurality of elongated plate members secured together at their edges so as to form a unit of cross-shaped cross section; guide means at the lower end of said unit; vertically spaced bit delectors mounted in the spaces between some of said plates; and a flexible member secured in one of said spaces a substa-ntial distance below the deflector therein for vuse in lowering said unit into a bore hole.
14. For use'in drilling bore holes of the class described,.a divider embodying: a plurality of elongated plate members secured together at their edges so as to form a unit of cross-shaped cross section; a cement guide shoe secured to the lower end of said unit.; and
' vertically spaced bit deiiectors mounted in the spaces between some of said plates.
155v For use lin combination with a' divider y of the class described which comprises a. plu- "rality of plate members disposed in angular relation with each-other, a deiiector embodying a block having two side faces adaptedto engage platesy in said divider, and having'a downwardly and outwardly'inclined bit de-vr les