US 1900313 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 7, 1933;
H; R. sTRA'rFoRD 1,900,313
ME'IIHOD OF SURFACING Original Filed Jan. 15. 1926 m a u la q w wirf u. S
FR3. FRA. uz [23 z'o [.YHLYTUR. Herbert R .Stratford @www Patented Mar. 7, 1933 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE HERBERT B. STBATFOBD,
OF CLEV-ELAD, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO THE STBATMORE METHOD F SURFACING Application med January 15, 192s, serial No. 31,565. Renewed August 2c, 1930.
f The present invention, relating as indicated, to methods of and apparatus for surfacing, is particularly directed to an improved method and apparatus for bringing L to a perfectly smooth and highly polished condition such surfaces as those produced by spraying lacquer and similar materials onto metal or other automobile bodies. Lacquer is today sprayed r onto metal automobile bodies which have first been coated with one or more priming coats by means of an air spray, and as lacquer driesvery rapidly, the vappearance of this sprayed surface is extremely irregular and i has what is called an orange peel surface.
The various portions of this surface lie at dierent angles. to each other and therefore do not reiect light in the'same directions, and as a consequence do not give a highly re- D flective surface, and have relatively no gloss.
The lacquer is extremely tough and durable and can be brought to a smooth condition by methods heretofore used' only after the application of a great amount of time and laborious effort.
The present invention relates to an improved m'ethodand apparatus for bringing such surfaces to the same highly reflective or glossy surface tha has-heretofore been obtainable only` by extremely expensive methods when applied to lacquer; or by other i types of surfacing such as varnish and the like. To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, said invention, then,
consists of the means hereinafter fully des'ribed" and particularly pointed out .in the The annexed drawing and the following' description set forth in detail certain means and one mode of carrying out the invention, such disclosed means and mode illustrating however, but one of the various ways in which the principle of the invention may be surfaces, as for example, in
carrying out In said annexed drawing Fig. 1 is a side elevation showing my improved apparatus operative upon the surface; Fig. 2 is a vertical section through my v apparatus Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of 50 a metal sheet covered with lacquer as first applied by spraying; Fig. 4 is a similar view but showing the same surface after it has been brought to a perfectly smooth and high- Iy reflective condition by my improved method and Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view on an enlarged scale illustrating certain details in the construction of` the apparatus.
My A improved method consists brieii stated, in first grinding down to a smoot ao condition the irregular surface which is left after spraying lacquer onto a coated metal surface by moving across the surface a flexibly supported rubbing element, preferably in the form of a disc, at relatively high speed c5 which element either is provided with abrasive means for cutting down the irregularities on the surface or 1s operated in conjunction with abrasive material which is a plied to the body in the form of a pastewhi e l at the same time applying liquid to the surface being operated upon in such a way as to necessarily flush the abraded material from between the surface element and the surface beingoperated upon. In Figs. 1 and 75 2 I have shown an apparatus capable of my improved method and it will be understood that this apparatus. is merely illustrative of mechanism for this purpose and the particular scribed and herein shown exemplifies merely the best form of apparatus which I have found for the present purpose. In Fig. 1
I have shown ail article 1 which may represent a metal panel of an automobile body 85 for example, which is provided with one or more priming coats and a 'coat of lacquer sprayed onto the nal priming coat. My A apparatus consists of a'- casing 2 provided with handles 3 and 4, thrqugh'one of which 90 mechanism dethere ends a dexible driving shaft 5 driving through beveled gears 6 and 7(lFig. 2), a shaft 8 extending downwardly from the semispherical casing 2 and carried on its 5 lower end is a flexible yielding support or "-0 or a rubbing element such for example as a felt disc or the like in. which abrasive material is impregnated or to which it is supplied for the operation while the supporting pad 9 may take various forms and may consist of one or more relatively thin metal vdiscs 11 and 12 such as l have here shown.
Liquid is supplied through a conduit 13 to the interior of the casing 2 and is then passed down through an opening in the shaft 8 and discharged laterally through a port 1li at the end of the shaft into a registering ort 15 formed in the removable head memer 16 which secures the surfacing element in place against the resilient support. lln this way, liquid is continuously supplied to the center of the surfacing element and `is directed through the lateral ports toward that portion of the pad which is normally pressed against the work, that is, the portion opposite the sector of the machine embraced between the two handles 3 and a. This apparatus may be applied to the surface 1n the manner illustrated in Fig. 1, that is, an
operator may grasp the two handles 3 and l and force the segment of the surfacing disc opposite the handles against the surface which is to be worked upon, inthis way exing the disc and support and applying the surfacing element with considerable pressure which is however substantiall uniform against the surface. The surfacing disc is rotated at a relatively high rate of speed which should be from one thousand to fifteen hundred surface feet aminute while a sufficient quantity of liquid should be supplied to remove the material abraded from the surface as rapidly as formed. 'llhe liquid is supplied to the surface in such a way that the tendency of the rotating disc is to carry the water across the surface of the work operated upon and then by the action of centrifugal force throw the water and the material in suspension therein off from the work at considerable speed.
Following the rubbing down of the under coat surface, one or more finishing coats are applied, usually by spraying the material onto the surface which produces, as already stated, a rough irregular surface. This surface is then brought to a smooth and highly reective condition by abrading it at relatively high speed with material containing abrasive, usually in the form of a paste and a surfacing element which may takeV the form of the Hexibly supported felt pad which is shown in my copending application9 Serial No. 24,972, led April 22, 1925. 'llhe abrasive material is usually first applied to the body and is then rubbed with the felt pad until the abrasive in vthe material has brought the irregular surface to a relatively smooth condition while at the same time most of the paste has been thrown 0H, dried or absorbed in the pad, from the body by the centrifugal force ofthe felt rubbing disc, which is of course rotated at a relatively high speed or has been picked up and held by the surface of this disc.
.lhe next step in the operation of finishing the surface is to polish the fairly smooth surface produced in the manner described above which may be done by rubbing the surface with a felt pad of the character already described, at a relatively high rate of speed. 'llhe action of this felt is to remove and absorb any paste or abrasive or foreign material which remains on the surface and to at the same time smooth or flow the lacquer of the final coat into a uniform and smooth surface without irregularities and without any scratches or other marks which will be detrimental to the reflective action of this surface.
lft will be readily understood that it may be possible to combine these last two steps, that is, the rubbing and the polishing steps, under certain conditions where, 'for example, the surface to be polished is practically smooth and has but few irregularities in which case a long continued polishing action may be sufficient to both bring the surface to a level condition and also produce a high gloss but inmost cases, ll find it desirable to employ two separate operations of the character already described.
lln lFigs. 3 and 4 there is shown a panel, 'which may be either of wood or metal, 20, on whichhas'been sprayed a coating composition, such for example as varnish, lacquer or the like, which as first deposited, particularly in the case of lacquer, has what is termed an orange-peel surface consisting of a series of projecting portions 22, the layer itself being designated as 21. Because of this irregular roughened surface there is no brilliancy or luster to such coating as first applied and it must be smoothed and leveled by some means or method such as that which l have just described. By my improved method this coating is brought to a smooth level condition, indicated at 23 in lFig. 4, and when` so conditioned is brilliant and reflective and possesses what is termed a high luster.
@ther modes of applyingV the principle of my-invention may be employed instead of the one explained, change being made as regards the means and the steps herein disclosed, provided those stated by any of the following claims or their equivalent be employed.
neeoie therefore particularly point eut end distinctly claim as my invention 1., In e, method of polishing lacquer, the steps which consist in moving e paid over a lacquer coated surface et high speed to iirst smooth by actually flowing the lacquer hy the generated heet and then polish the coating thereon to e high lustre.
2. In a method of polishing lacquer, steps which consist in moving e exibly supported disc over n lacquer coate surface et high speed to generate s'ucient heat to irst smooth by owing the iacquer and then polish the coating thereon to e, high luster.
Signed by me, this 24th dey of December,
1925. v a HERBERT R. STRTFORD.