US 1900457 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 7, 1933. w, R. MILLER 1,900,457
BUILDING BLQCK Filed sept. 27, 195o 2 sheets-sheet 1 y f I1-11- /f a l [Mii/ Ville I i dttozwu,
March 7, 1933. w R. M|| ER 1,900,457
BUILDING BLOCK Filed Sept. 27, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Wfl/Vi 21er Patented Mar. 7, 1933 PATENT OFFICE WALTER B. MILLER, OF MANSFIELD, OHIO BUILDING BLocx Application led September 27, 1930.A Serial No. 484,9(10.
This invention relates to building structures and particularlyvto building blocks of cement or any suitable material.
The general object of my invention is to provide a block of such construction that while the blocks when vertically alined have interlocking engagement with each other, yet the formation of the blocks .is such that y the blocks may be brought into proper registry and into proper alinement with each other so that the blocks may be placed vertically in the wall even though the blocks may be slightly warped or slightly out of true.
A further object is to provide a block which is so constructed that ventilation or air passages or spaces are formed vertically in the wall and in this connection to provide longitudinally extending channels or voids in the base of each block so that when the blocks are placed in courses, longitudinal channels will be formed in the bottom of each course and above the top of the next adjacent course communicating with the vertically extending voids or spaces, the lowermost longitudinally extending void formed in the blocks of they lowermost course constituting a drainage channel with which the base upon which the blocks are mounted will provide a drainage. outlet for any water or condensation or anything of. this nature which may gather within the vertical or longitudinal voids.
A further object is to provide a block of this character so formed as to provide on its f ends vertical end voids adapted to be filled with liquid or semi-liquid or plastic bonding material closing the spaces between the blocks and another object is to provide each end of each block with two vertically disposed recesses extending vertically of the block from top to bottom thereof within which bonding material may be disposed, these recesses being so formed as to permit the bonding material to show upon the exterior of the wall.
Another object is to provide a construction of this kind having corner blocks so formed as to be properly alined with the ends of longitudinally extending blocks at 'each end of the corner blocks, the corner blocks being constructed essentially .in the same manner as the longitudinal blocks.
Other objects will appear in the course of the following-description.
My invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings,v wherein l Figurel is a top plan view of a wall made up of a series of blocks constructed in accordance with my invention;
Figure 2 is a side elevation of the wall;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary Vertical section on the line 3--3 of Figure 1; V
Figure 4 is an end view of one .of the blocks;
Figure 5 is a ourses of blocks and a concrete base there- Figure 6 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical section through the block showing the joint between the upper and lower blocks; l
Figure 7 is a top plan view of corner blocks Figure 8 is a side elevation of one of the corner blocks.
Referring to these drawings, in Figures 1 to 6, I illustrate one form of my improved block. 75 This block is designated generally 10 and may be madeof cement, concrete or any other suitable material. The block is rectangular and formed preferably with two vertical voids 11 and 12 separated by a transverse wall 13. 80 These voids extend downward from the upper surface of the block to the lower surface thereof. The lower surface of the block is formed with a longitudinally extending concave void 14 which extends longitudinally 85 the entire length of the block and through the wall 13 and the end walls of the block. The middle of the block extends upward as at 15 above the upper face of the block on each side thereof, thus providing a substantially vertically extending shoulder 16 on each side ofthe middle of the block. This shoulder extends down to an upper lateral surface designated 17 which is preferably, though not necessarily in all cases, slightly concave. At each end the block is formed with a vertical, relatively shallow recess 18 and on each side of this recess there are vertical concave faces 19 separated from the void or recess 18 by the flat faced portions 20.
verticalsection through two 65 with each other.
When these blocks are placedxtogether, that is, in longitudinal alinement, it will be`seen that the two voids 18 will come opposite each other and that theY two recesses 19 will come opposite each other. These recesses 19 are to be filled with binding material such as 21 which may be in a semi-liquid or plastic state. It will be noted from Figure 6 that these recesses may be so formed that the binding material will show upon the exterior face of the block as at 22 or the exterior corners of these recesses may be brought into close approximation with each other so that the binding material will not show as desired. It will also be seen that the vertical voids formed by the recesses 18 will open into the longitudinal voids 14. Where one block is superposed on the other, as shown in Figure 3, the upwardly extending portion 15 will extend up into the void 14, thus causing the blocks to interlock The lower surface of the block on each side of the void 14 is convexed as at 23 so that the blocks may be shifted upon each other so as to bring the faces of the blocks into alinement without, however, disconnecting the interlocking engagement between the convex end 23 of one block and the concave. face 17 of the block below. There is sufficient play between the blocks to permit the blocks to be shifted laterally so as to bring their faces in alinement with each other. Where blocks have grooved engagement with each other, it very\ often happens that the blocks are not perfectly formed, but are slightly warped or misshapen and as a consequence the blocks cannot be brought with their exterior faces in alinement.
This 'is entirely possible in my block by reason of the fact that there is sufficient play between the contacting faces as to permit this without at the same time loosening the interlock between the upper and lower blocks. Thus the wall may be kept vertical as it is beinbuilt. Liquid or semi-liquid material may e poured into the spaces defined by the faces 19 to thus firmly bond the blocks to each other and seal the joint between the blocks. It will be understood, of course, that these blocks, as illustrated in Figure 2 are preferably tobe disposed in staggered relation so that the void 12 of one block will come immediately beneath or above the void 11 of the next adjacent block above or below as' the case may be. In Figure 7 I show a corner block such as is to be used with my construction,` this block being designated 10a. This block is also provided with two vertically disposed voids 11a and 12a. The lateral face of thisblock adjacent one end is formed precisely like one end face of the block 10, that is, the side face is formed with the vertically extending recess designated 18a andthevertically extending recess 19a. Thus these recesses 18a and 19a will confront the recesses 18 and 19 in the end ofthe block 10 as shown j may be formed at any desired in Figure 7. The upper face of the block is formed with a transversely extendingconcavity 17a ada ted to aline with the concavity 17 in the end lock, these concave faces 17a openinginto longitudinally extending concave faces 17 in the top of the block, the end face of theblock 10a being formed with the recesses 18 and 19 precisely the same as the other blocks of the system. The under face of these corner blocks is formed with a void 14a extending, ofcourse, at right angles instead of longitudinally through the block so that one end of the void willopen upon the side face of the block, to aline with the wall on that side, while the other end of the void will o en upon the end face of the block. These base blocks are to be disposed as shown in Figure 5 upon a cement footer 24,.A the upper face of this footer being formed to receive the lower face of the superincumbent block and is also formed to provide a longitudinally extending recess 25 which extends beneath the voids 14 and 14a. ThisI footer oint or points with drain outlets 26 where y any water which may drain downward through the' superposed blocks of the wall will be caught in this gutter land drained away.
It will be seen that in each course of blocks, there will be a line of connected longitudinal voids 14 (and 14a at the corners of the building) and the voids of one course willbe c0n.
nected to the longitudinal voids of the next adjacent course by the vertical voids 11 and 12 and 18. It is likewise to be understood that the -upwardly extending shoulders 16 will be spaced from each other a distance less than the space between the lateral walls of the void 14 so that the blocks may be shifted laterally with relation to each other a limited distance so as to bring the blocks into perfect alinement without regard to any warping of the blocks or 4malformation thereof. Preferably, the cement between the confrontin faces 17 and 23 will be in a relatively thic layer so as to show upon the exterior face of the blocks and so that it may be forced out into the space between a shoulder 16 and the confronting face of the void 14.
The corner blocks are, of course, to be made in rights and lefts so as to turn the cornefi` toward the right or toward the left.
It will be noted that in my construction, I 4provide for a continuous air and drainagel system from top to bottom of the wall.
Attention is' called to the fact that the shoulders 16 constitute vbailies which will not permit any plastic bonding material to escape inwardly and these bailles furthermore make `a. complete check whereby all moisture, ire
-quired amount of adjustment as may be needed for the roper and necessary alinement of the bloc s in the wall. Furthermore my block has been particularly designed with a view to overcoming the difficulty present in all other interlocking blocks known to me, as it is a physical impossibility to secure perfect dimensions at all -times in block manu' facture even though they all should be made over one ma'chine. This inequality in dimensions which is bound to arise at all times is due to the irregularity of the seasoning of the blocks after the blocks are made and this is what prevents in all other interlocking blocks known to me the proper horizontal and vertical alinin of the blocks.
In my construction when the blocks are properly placed, the contacting surfaces of these units will be positively sealed against moisture, frost or any other element that might enter into the joint and cause deterloration or distintegration of the completed wall. Furthermore with my construction in case a unit is found which is not of the exact required height or if the wall should start to become somewhat out of alinement, this discrepancy can betlremedied at once as the blocks can be raised to the required line by simply placing suilicient bonding material on the face of the block to bring the same to the proper and required wall alinement.
The concavo-convex surfaces, as before remarked, form in a sense a tongue and groove to permit of suflicient adjustment to insure proper and necessary wall alinement. As to my Vertical joints, I use the voids or recesses 19 as a means of distribution of bonding material whereby I can entirely cover the contacting ends of these blocks to thereby make a positive and non-leakable joint and further have the .bonding material show both on the inside and outside in order to 'insure a joint which will absolutely exclude moisture. With crevices at the joints, moisture is bound to enter resulting in serious damage to the wall. Furthermore, my block permits the use of a. fluid or liquid binding material. This is of great advantage because when this is properly poured, this liquid bond will seek all openings and crevices due to irregularities in block construction, illing the same completely and making a sure and positive sealing element. This cannot be secured by a mere plastic bond.
I claim Y 1. In a building, building blocks arranged in courses in vertically'staggered relation, the blocks of each course being formed to provide a longitudinally extending drainage and Ventilating passage, and the blocks having vertical voids intersecting said passages, and a base upon which the blocks rest formed to provide a gutter registering with the longitudinal vvoids of the lowermost blocks and having a drainage outlet, the 'abutting faces of the blocks in each course having medially' disposed vertical voids opening into the longitudinal voids, each block 0f each Zcourse having interlocking connection with a superadjacent block, and the end faces of each block being formed with vertically disposed recessed lateral faces extending `from top, to bottom of the block and bonding material disposed between said recessed faces.
2. In a building, building blocks arranged in courses, the blocks being in lvertically staggered relation, each of said blocks being formed to provide an upwardly extending medial rib and a longitudinally extending void on the bottom of the block slightly wider at its lower end than the rib and adapted to receive said rib and interlock therewith, the Arib having vertical voids extending downward through the block and opening into said longitudinal void, the upper end of each block on each side ofthe rib being formed with a concave 'longitudinally extending face, the lower end of each block on each side of the longitudinal void being formed with a convex face, the ends of each block being formed with a vertically extending medial void intersecting the void on the bottom of the block, and with vertically extending lateral recesses on each side of and spaced from the medial void, the space between the confronting lateral faces of superadjacent blocks having bonding -material therebetween, the lateral recesses formed between the ends of adjacent blocks being lilled with bonding material.
3. A building block having on its upper face a longitudinally extending, medially disposed rib and on each side thereof, a longitudinally extending shallow transversely concave recessed face, the rib and the faces extending thefull length of the block, the bottom face of the block having a longitudinally extending undisturbed deep medial recess extending the full length of the block and substantially 4deeper than the depth of the rib and wider at its lower end than said rib, the lateral faces at the on each side of the medial recess being convex to conform to the transverse concavity of the lateral faces on the top of the block, each end yof the block having a vertical medial recess extending downward from but narrower than the upper face ofthe rib and at its lower end intersecting the recess on the bottom of the block, each end face having two lateral recesses extending from top to bottom of the block and intersecting the lateral faces at top and bottom of the block.
4. A. building block having an upwardly Y top of the block, the block extending rib at its top and a longitudinally extending recess on its bottom esigned to receive said rib, the rib and recess extending undisturbedly from one end to the othe the block, the top of the block on each side of the medial rib being formed with slightly concave medial faces having outer walls, the bottom of the block on each side of the medial recess having lateral convex faces formed to t within the concavely recessed faces of the bein formed. to provide vertical end faces con'onting the vertical end faces of adjacent blocks, each vertical face having a recess intersecting the bottom recess of the block, and having lateral recesses extending from top to bottom of the block and defined by the outer end inner Walls.
In testimony whereof I aix my signature.
WALTER R: MILLER.