US 1902433 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F.' BROWN March 2l, 1933.
NIPPLE Filed July 2, 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 y F..BROWN NIPPLE March 21, 1933.
Filed July 2, 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet a, v l
Patented Mar. 21', 1931i` UNITED s'rivriis PATENT Torrice- FRANKLIN BRoWN, oF PHILADELPHIA, rnNNsYLvANIA, AssIGNoa ro GENERAL HEALTH conronA'rIoN, or PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, A` CORPORATION Aor DELAWARE NirrLn Application filed .Tuly 2, 1931.7' Serial No.'548,428.
The present invention is an improved nipple for nursing bottles, and has for an object the provision of a nipple embodying features ofconstruction such that greatly iinproved resistance to disconnection when in use by thel baby is provided, while affording ready disconnection by simple manipulation when desired. t t n Another object is to provide a nipple embodying a readily manipulated portion for greatly facilitatingapplication of the nipple to the bottle, as well as its removal therefrom.
Another object is to provide anipple affording improved resistance toV collapse. I
Another object is the provision of a reinforced nipple which maintains the orifice open, and which is so disposed as to not interfere with the softness of thenipple as con-v tacte'd by the babys mouth.
A further object is the provision of means whereby flow cannotbe stopped by collapsing the walls ofthe nipple tip or mouthpiece.
Another object is to provide a-nipple with a flared inner body wall of improved construction relative to the outer wall such as to prevent collapse of the wall, and such as to prevent collapse of the'tip or mouthpiece into the body portion, due to vacuum or other cause.
A still further object is the provisionV of guide or positioning means on the nipple for facilitating application to the bottle. y
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
The invention consists in the features, combination and arrangement of parts hereinafter described and particularly pointed out in the claims. y
The drawings illustrate the 'invention and in these drawings, f
Figure l is an enlarge-d cross-section of a nipple embodying certain features, of the invention and of a size for application toa large size bottle neck.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged cross-sectional View of a nipple embodying certain features of the invention, and of a size and designfor application to a smaller size bottle neck.
Fig.' 3 is an enlarged view of a nipple generally similar to that of Fig. 2 and emthick base 5..,of the bodying further features. ofA the invention with modifications. y 1 y y Fig. l is al horizontal section substantially von line lf-,4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 shows the small nipple of Fig. 3 applied to the bottle.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged View ofa nipplefor` application toalarge bottle and embodying features of the invention ina-ddition to those' displayed inthe large vnipple of Fig. l.
Fig. is a view ofa Vfurther modification of the construction shown in Fig. 6. l
Fig( 8 is an enlarged fragmentary'view showing in detail` the construction of ,the lower parts of the nipple. Y, y t.
- Fig. 9 is a view'of the nipple with the base flange turned up preparatory to .application to the bottle. n M
vIn the drawings, and referringfto Fig. 1, the numeral 2 represents the body or breast portion of the nipple, 8 the tip or mouthpiece of the nipple, and t the flangeof the nipple. The body portion 2 is `relatively thick at the base as at 5 and gradually tapers upwardly to the point of juncture 6 with the nipple mouthpiece or tip 3. The nipple Vmouthpiece or tip portion 3 comprises the relatively thin and relativ-ely flexible cylindrical barrel portion? provid- -y ed with a thickened ball-shaped top 8 hav! ing the usual outlet opening 9. l
. The thickbase 5 of the body portion 2, which rests on the top of the bottle as shown in Fig. l is connected at its outer edge with Y the base diameter of body 2, vas shown in the small embodiment of Fig. 2.,
The thin connecting portion 1Q .Jjoins the body 2 at its .outer pe,- f
riphery, and is preferably made yrelatively thinner than the wall .of the base flange 4;,
as clearly shown in the drawings. Y i
The `thin connecting portion 10,with its the bottle, the flange portion l is readily large internal diameter to receive the bead v11 at the top of the bottle 12, provides means whereby the thicker iiange portion 4 may be readily turned outwardly and upwardly against the o utside of the body portion, to provide improved-facility in applying the nipple to the bottle and in removing it therefrom. In applying my improved nipple to turned up aboutthe thin portion 10 by a light outward and upward force applied thereto, and the flange then assumes the pon sition against the body 2 as shown in Fig. 9. The nipple in this position, with the folded up flange 4, is then set on top of the bottle and the flange is readily turned down about the thin portion 10 into gripping position on the bottle, as shown in Fig. l.
By reason of the construction of my improved nipple great resistance is afforded against removal of the nipple from the'bottle unintentionally and when in use by longitudinal pull exerted by the `baby or otherwise. The thinned connecting portion 10, however, provides for ready removability when used as a hinge about which the flange 4 is turned outwardly and upwardly against the body 2 of the nipple.
It will be noted that in all embodiments of the present invention, the chamber formed by the ball-shapedrtop 8 and the `barrel 7, and with which theV smaller opening 9 communicates, is Vof uniform diameter throughout. In the small nipple embodiments, this diameter is continued throughout to the bottom ofthe body portion 2, as clearly shown. In all embodiments the internal diameter of the ball-shaped top 8 is the same as the internal diameter of the cylindrical barrel portion'7.
In all embodiments the barrel 7 of the tip 3 is relatively flexible, resilient, yielding, and' stretchable, whilev the top 8 and body 2 are relatively stier.
' In all embodimentsthe wall of the body portion 2 is taper-ed gradually upwardly from the bottom thereof, whether thev lines defining the wall be curved or straight.
In all embodiments the inner portions of the thick wall of the body 2, absorb to a large degree the stress incident to longitudinal pullV exerted on the tip and body, so that the pulling stress reaching the outer peripheral edge of the bottom of the body 2 where it joins'thethin connecting portion or hinge 10, `isireduced to aminimum. The inner portions of the thick wall of the body 2 are more nearly inline with any longitudinal pull on the nipple than the outer portions and the inner portions absorb the stress. In the small nipple embodiments theY line of lforce to the inner part of the bottom of the thick wall is perfectly straight and perpendicular in order that the longitudinal pull will be held near to the central portion of the nipple and as far away from the out-l side diameter as possible. In the large nipple embodiments this line is not made absolutely vertical and perpendicular to the base, in order to reduce weight, but the wall thickness is maintained as well as the relative size ofthe parts, so that the force is absorbed by the thick wall before it reaches the Vthin peripheral connecting hinge 10. In
theV largeV nipple, the outsideA diameter is about double that of the small nipple and to make the inside wall perpendicular would result in a very heavy body portion. Therefore :in the large nipple, the inner wall is made a curve or incline diverging fromva point just below the barrel portion .ofthe tip. A Y
In the construction of the nipple tip or mouthpiece portion 3 of my invention, the ball-shaped'top or tip'8 is provided with a true hole 9 in the end-thereof. That is, a rubber slug is removed leaving a lhole that cannot close up, as is possible if the rubber is simplyV pierced or slitted. This true hole 9 being always open, allows the milk to freely'flow out and the air to freely enter.
' Asishown in Fig. 3, the hole 9 is reinforced at its inn-er end by a rib reinforcement 13 eX- tending downwardly yfrom the tip 8 around the kopening 9, and insuring an ever open eXit for milk and entrance for air. As' this reinforcement is disposed within the ball tip, it cannot interfere with the child in any way, and it prevents the hole from being squeezed shut in use.
The opening 9 opens into the chamber 14 of uniform diameter providedv by the ball tip 8 andthe barrel 7. TheV outer diameter of the ball tip 8, and hence its wall thickness, is greater than that of the barrel 7, and the ball tip will not collapse. Any collapse in the mouthpiece will be a lateral collapse of the cylindrical barrel 7 due to the flattening out of its circle to an ellipsoid or oval, by the baby in use. The ball tip of the mouthpiece is substantially spherical and is of such small internal diameter and of such` wall thickness that it will not collapse andv its internal volume will be maintained so that milk will always be present therein during nursing.
The relatively'thin flexible and stretchable lwall' of the barrel portion 7 is reinforced above by the heavier collapse resisting ball tip 8, and below by the heavier body portion 2. These heavier parts above and below tend tohold their diameters against collapse due to vacuum created by the baby or otherwise and thus assist the thinner walled barrel portion to maintain its normal tubular shape against lateral collapse.
The childs lips naturally fall on this thin barrel portion, the heavier walled ball tip 8 holding its true shape and` volume within the childs mouth. The pressure of theV lips flattening out the barrel portion 7, pumps the milk into the ball tip naturally and without lifprt and then out through the ever open o e. Y
The barrel portion 7 provides a true column effect against longitudinal collapse, its cross section being uniform throughout its length. This prevents any portion of the ball tip or barrel portion collapsing within itself due to vacuum created.
As shown in Fig. 3, the inner side of the barrel wall is preferably provided with 4a series of parallelgrooves or channels 15 eX- tending longitudinally throughout the length thereof. The grooves or channels are more narrow than the spacer or portions 16 of the barrel wall between them,so that if the walls are brought together or collapsed, there will be no meshing and the channels or' grooves will remain open for the unimpeded passage ofmilk. K
As an additional feature ofthe improved nipple, an annular reinforcing rib may be provided as shown at 17 in Fig. 5, to maintain the cross-sectional shape and to resist lateral collapse at the juncture of the barrel portion 'with the ball tip 8. This feature is equally applicable to the small and large nipples as the nipples are all the same in size above the body portion.
The body 2 of the nipple is so construct-ed that` it will not collapse within itself, i. e., it cannot turn even partially inside .out through the force of the vacuum created within the bottle by the sucking baby` Neither can the body 2 be collapsed by pressure from without. If outside pressure is brought to bear on the body 2, upon removing that pressure, the nipple will again assume its natural molded shape, because enough thickness of rubber is provided in the body ortion to five ak ower or .forcev eater` than any vacuum the child could create by removing milk and air.
The body portionin order to possess true non-collapsing characteristics according to the present invention must be designed according to fixed rules v 1. The outside surface of the body portion 2 must be either a single non-tortuous curve,
or a straight line, in cross-section. p
2. If a Vstraight line, then the inner surface of the body must alsobe a straight line diverging from the outer surface as it approaches the bottom of the body portion.
3. If a curve, then the inner surface must define a curve or straight line such that the two surfaces diverge as the bottom of the body 2 is approached, always producing thereby a heavier wall portion as the bottom of the body 2 is approached.
Whether the inner and outer surfaces define curves or straight lines, the thickness of the wall of the body portion must increase downwardly from top to bottom.
This vexen'ipliiied in the small nipple Figs.2, 3 and 5 by the perpendicular and 'i straight inner wall surface ofthe bodyv portion 2 and the curved outer wall surface, gradually tapering upwardly. y
This is shown in the large nipple of Figs. 1, 6 and -7, in'F ig. 6 showing the novel features of the present invention applied to the large nipple, 'and showing the outer body wall surface defined lby a curve HR and the 'inner wall surface defined by a curve JIL, the walllthickness between these" curves gradually increasing fro-metop to bottom` Fig. '7. shows theouter body wall surface defined by a straight :line GrEV and the inner wall` surface defined` by a straight line FM, thek wal-l:` thickness between theseV straight lines,gradually' increasing from top to bottom ofthe body portion 2. Y
In each of theselargenipples, the inner wall surface must begin at upper points I, F, whichv are below the-top of the body 2 where it joins the barrel atII, G, sufficiently so that the 'distances HI, FG, are .greater` than the distances HH', GG. This preventsthe collapsing lof thebarrel 7 intothe body ofthe Substantially the only difference in about one-half that of the larger nipple across the base at RE.
In the case of the little nipple,rit is Vessential to remove the pull exerted at'theftip as far as possible from the' points RX and BE of its diameter and if IL and FM is a Y continuation of the wall of the barrel of the tip the more the pull willbe spent along IL.-
and FM. In thecase of the large nipple-it is just asessential to remove the pull Vfrom RX and BE but in the large nipple these points aredouble the distance from point I Land M, and since the tip AHG always remains the same, the' pull will remain vthe same and point L and M need not lie on the continuation of the perpendicular wall of the barrel. However, this new inner V-body wall of the large nipple must be a curve or straight line and must start'at points I, F, so that the distances I-II and FG are greater kthan the distances HI-I, GG in order'that the tipv of the nipple isk reinforced against collapse into the body portion.
This reinforced body portion is of advantage in many ways.
- A It places a soft pad or guard of rubber between the babys mouth and thev bottle top. It absorbs and distributes'the pull on the iiange 4.
. Tts upper wall thickness which is heavier than .the barrel wall of the tiphelps this barrel to maintain its true molded diameter.
Its bottom wall thickness, which is about eight times heavier than the connecting wall portion RX of baseflange 4, Fig. 5, also sets up a great inward force upon this weaker wall. Vhen the nipple is on the bottle (as in Fig. 5) the pull ofthe heavy body portionis towardthe centerof the nipple. The
top of the bottle is forcingthe thin connect-l ing wall RX outwardly opposite forces tending to hold the nipple tighter. Y Now, any upL ward pull upon the tip and necessarily upon the reinforced bodycauses the diameters vof these two portionsto tend to become small-v er and smaller at the sametimemaking RX tighterand tighter around the beadvof the bottle top. Y f Y This reinforced body portion also provides a support forthe flange base 4 as it is turnedup and down and receives and supports the turned up base for applicationfto the bottle.
This reinforced body portion also is suficiently thick tomake it possible tov provide the downwardly extended rim KL, MN,'Fig. 6. This rim or rib KL prevents the nipple with lbase flange 4 upturned,from sliding off of the top of the bottle in the act ofturning down the base iiange. This guiding or positioning rib is also a means of knowing that the nipple with liiange upturned is inthe right position onbottle top before turning down the iiange 4. This'extended guide or positioning portion is preferably of a diameter to be loosely received within the mouth of the bottle as shown in Fig. 5. I
Regardless of the force without or the vacuum within, this nipple body is always in itstrue molded'shape and in being so allows milk to iiow undisturbed from the bottle to the bodys mouth and air to enter to fill up the vacant space within the bottle. Thus an uninterruptedv easy feeding is accomplished and a true anti-colic nipple produced. y l The base iiange 4of this nipple orv any nipple, i..e., the part that clutches the neck of the bottle, is the only thing that holds the nipple to the bottle. vIn otherA nipples any pull by the baby at the tip will be transmitted directly and without diminished force upon the base or holding flange.`
lIn the nipple shown in the drawings, and referring particularly to Fig. 8, any pull at the tip is transmitted fully at L diminishing as it reaches X andR. Since very little of the pull reaches RX and that which reaches it is not perpendicular to line RX the base flange 4 and connecting kportion 10V will be disturbed 'very slightly. However, stress upon connection l() and base flange 4 will begin only in the remoteevent that the pull on pull from the tip to the point RX. The fully stretched tip and reinforced body without power to absorb any more pull become one, allowingv all pull to center at RX. To take care of this latter condition angle JXW is made less than 90 or acute. If pull does reach RX the angle at X being acute and the diameter of the holding flange becoming less or smaller or tighter as point W is approached, this increasingly smaller diameter and consequently an increased wall thickness sets up a'counter or opposite pull downward tending. to offset some of the upward pull at RX. An increased grip on the bottle' bead is provided downwardly along the surface Xi/V. "This nipple' is shown applied to the bottle in Fig. 5. Y Y
AngleiJXi.T is also made acute in order that wallthickness RX is less than at any other-part of the base; Point RX acts as hinge forturning the base collar` up and upon the reinforced body portion in order that this nipple may have .the feature of being easier to put on than any other nipple that must be stretched over the bottle neck. To put the nipple as shown in the' drawings on easiiy, the base flange is turned up' on the body as shown in Fig. 9. The whole is then set upon-the bottle top and the iiange pressed down again around neck of bottle.
Also since RX is the smallest wall thickness throughout the base flange any pull on RX will spend itself lat RX and wouldnot be spread to the heavier portions of the base. These heavier portions, due to their own molded diameters which are smaller than at RX, are exerting a counter pull against any pull that would tend to disturb or enlarge their diameters.
Because these small diameters (all points on line UT) do exert a natural pull of their own inwardly as they have been stretched larger than their true molded diameter, angle XYVV has been made obtus-e (the perpendicus lar from V to line XJ being greater than the perpendicular from )V to line XJ) and in this form a downwardfinward pull is transmitted or centered upon RX thus offsetting upward pull at Angle VUT is made acute in order to form a point or locking hookv arrangement U un` der ythe flange on the bottle.
The purpose of having Xl/VV, Fig. 3, an angle rat-her than an arc is that the angular shape in contact with the usual rounded head ofthe bottle will aord greater resistance to slippage (as in thek case of liquid reaching that point) than if it conformed to the shape of the bead on bottle. interrupted contact points are thereby provided, the angular inf terruptionsrrat X, W, V providing pockets not desired to limit the invention to the exact configuration of the assembledl bottle and nipple, no attempt at absolute accuracy of conguration having beenmade in the conl ception of Fig. 5.
' It is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction shown, as actual Inanufacture may require certain mechanical changes, but it is intended to define the invention in the appended claims.
It will be understood that where in the above description or in the drawings a feature disclosed in connection with one form of the invention is susceptible of use with other illustrated forms, said feature is to be regarded as though particularly disclosed in connection with the said other forms. The naterial of which the nipple is made is rub- I claim: l. A rubber nipple comprising a thick, upwardly tapering, relatively stili breast portion non-collapsible under pressure to which loosely in the mouth of the bottle to hold the nipple against lateral displacement while the attaching lange is being rolled down into engagement with the bottle.
In testimony whereof, I alix my signature.
it will ordinarily be subjected in use while e applied to a bottle, a flexible elastic mouth piece extending from the top of the breast portion, a iiexible elastic attaching flange at the base of the breast portion, and a flexible elastic connecting portion between the iiange and the base of the breast portion, the attaching ange being sulliciently thin to be rolled up against the breast portion preparatory to applying the nipple to the bottle, the breast portion being non-collapsible under the pressure exerted thereon while the attaching flange is being rolled up and while it is being rolled down into engagement with the bottle.
2. A rubber nipple comprising a thick,'up wardly tapering, relatively stiff breast p0rtion non-collapsible under pressure to which it will ordinarily be subjected in use while applied to a bottle, a flexible elastic mouth piece extending from the top of the breast portion, a flexible elastic attaching flange at the base of the breast portion, a iexible elastic connecting portion between 'the flange and the base of the breast portion, the attaching ange being sufficiently thin to be rolled upagainst the breast portion preparatory to applying the nipple to the bottle, the breast portlon being non-collapsible under the pressure exerted thereon while the attaching flange is being rolled up and while it is being rolled down into engagement with the bottle, the base of the breast portion extending inwardly beyond the connecting portion, and a shallow positioning rib carried by the base inwardly of the connecting portion and adapted to it