US 1903881 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1933- o. SANDER ET AL 1,903,881
7 WALL STRUCTURE AND BUILDING BLOCK USED THEREIN 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 9, 1931 MSW; W/ Y 15% fans 4 Wfli M41 W I April 18, 1933. o. SANDER ET AL WALL STRUCTURE AND BUILDING BLOCK USED THEREIN Filed Feb. 9, 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 In vemors: 2.
Patented Apr. 18, 1933 UNITED STATES,
o r'ro SANDER AND msrnn. mime, or GASSEL', GERMANY, ASSIGNORS To mm.
BAUWEISE G. M. B. H., OF GASSEL,
GERMANY, A GERMAN COMPANY WALL STRUCTURE AND BUILDING BLOGKIJ'SED THEBEIN Application filed February 9, 1931, Serial No.
This invention refers to a stone binding, particularly for chimney stacks, reserv oirs, towers or other curved or straight masonry which has to resistacids, lyes, salts and similar substances, as well as their vapours and gases."
With such building work it has been usual hitherto to construct the towers and chimney stacks, for example, in the ordinary way, and
19 then to provide the innerwall with, an acid and lye resisting lining. Acid resisting metal reservoirs were provided with an inner lining' of fire brick and acid resisting cement to resist lyes and acids. With this method the 1.5 outer jacket was the supporting one and the inner one was intended simply-as a protec- I tive measure. This method of construction is not only expensive, but does not offer the necessary security, as the lining, which is also i .20 subjected to all the stresses, cannot withstand the tensile and bending stresses which occur. In particular with structures for holding acid andlye substances or gases, security must be given against the formation 7 of cracks, particularly in the joints.
In contra-distinction to this the shaped stones forming the bonds in the present invention also take the bending stresses, as in reinforced concrete, so that the finished struc- 3139 tures, towers, silos, chimney stacks and the like are statically firm in themselves, and are able to withstand internal pressures, wind loading and other stresses with comparatively thin walls without any reinforcement, the mortar being subjected only to compressive stresses and not to any tensile stress. According to this invention this result is obtained by providing grooves and ridges, dowels, mortise pieces, 'etc., in the joints of the shaped stones engaging with one another by means of wedges, dovetails and thelike. The combined effect of the shape of the stone materiahgrooves and ridges, dowels and the like, gives bodies, which are t in themselves rigid and statically firm, as
514,e54, and in Germany February 17, 1930.
opposed to the known bonding of shaped stones. v l
Should the structure formed according to this invention be subjected to high .internal bands from thestone bond may also be adjusted by suitable "dimensions of the blocks or intermediate pieces. Finally, the retaining .bands may themselves be additionally protected by lye and acid resisting coverings.
.In the drawings a number of stone bonds formed according to this invention are shown as examples, as follows I Figure 1 shows several constructional examples of such shaped stones and bonds in elevation. 1
' Figure 2 a section on line IIII of Figure 1. V
Figure 3 a section of areservoir constructed in accordance with this invention, with retaining bands.
Figure 4 aside view of part of the cover Figure 5 a section of a stonewith retaining bands. .7 v
Figures ,69 further stones with retaining bands in .various constructional forms. 1
In the-construction of'thestone bonds as shown in the upper half of Figure 1' and in Figure 2, stones a, b, and r, 8 having their ends thickened and formed '1 into dovetails, are arranged perpendicularly to one another in such a way that the end surface of one stone hes The side and end surfaces of the stones may consist. of smooth and partly broken surfaces as in the construction shown in Figure 1 (right upper half), but they may also be formed as curved surfaces, as in the construction shown in Figure 1 (left upper half). \Vith the last mentioned construction the end surfaces of the stones lie, with the adjacent side surfaces of the dowel stones, in a curve, which corresponds to the curve of the side surface of a stone. The dowel stones may be made circular (68), square (0), or also square with broken, smooth (6), or curved surfaces 2 The sides of the dowel stones may also, as shown on the right of Figure 2, be made sloping, in which case wedge pieces are fitted in the resulting gaps. They may also, again as shown in Figure 2, contain recesses 2' at the edges of the sides, to permit the application of jointing material.
A mutual sideways displacement of the individual stones of the stone bond is prevented by the grooves and ridges 7, 9, (Figure 2 left). The grooves and ridges in addition effect a good sealing.
Figures 3 and 4 show a reservoir constructed in accordance with the invention, with iron retaining bands. These iron retaining bands enable specially high internal pressures or filling materials or bodies to be withstood. The iron retaining bands may be formed of flatiron bands 1), as in Figures 36, round iron 11 (Figure 7), .angle iron 42 (Figure 8), U-iron o (Figure 9), or other similar material. The retaining bands 4;, '0 v '0 are held by means of lugs w, w, 10 10 fixed on the stones 0 at a predetermined distance from the outer wall of the reservoir, and are supported by projections 00, 03 00 m of these stones 1' corresponding to the section of the bands. Between the individual lugs w w 'w the iron retaining band can be further separately protected by U-shaped stones 3 (Figure 6) of acid and lye resisting material placed over them. Naturally the retaining bands may also be covered at the free parts in any other manner with suitable substances.
In the reservoirs shown in Figures 3 and 4, iron retaining bands are provided in every second layer. The bands are then supported in each layer on every second stone.
In the stone bonds of Figure 1 (lower half) the dowel stones are arranged in the recesses of the dovetail projections of the separate stone layers, all the layers being thus firmly clamped together.
In the constructional form shown in Figure 1, (left lower half) anchor shaped stones 1 and stones 1/ with thickened dovetailed ends are used. The bonding is obtained by means of dowel stones 2.
In the constructional form shown in Figure 1 (lower half, centre) only anchor shaped stones gfi and dowel stones 2 are used.
In this construction of the stone bond by means of the dowel stones 2 two superimposed stones layers are clamped together.
Finally, in the construction of the stone bond as shown in Figure 1 (lower half right) stones 3 are used which have at one side a dovetail projection and at the opposite side a dovetail recess. The bonding of the separate stone layers occurs here by means of the dowel stones 2 lVhat we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. A wall structure comprising a plurality of building blocks each having an elongated central portion and an enlarged end portion the sides and ends of the blocks being alternately formed with grooves and ridges adjacent blocks being disposed in said wall in perpendicular relation to each other with an end of one block abutting the central portion of the adjacent block and with the ridges of one block entering the grooves of an adjacent block said disposition of said blocks resulting in a plurality of spaces unoccupied by sald blocks, the margins of said spaces being defined by said end portions of said blocks, and a plurality of dowel blocks disposed in said spaces and substantially completely filling said spaces.
2. A wall structure comprising a plurality of building blocks each having a central portion and enlarged end portions the maximum width of said end portions substantially equal to the length of said central body ortion and the sides and ends of the block being alternately formed with grooves and ridges, adjacent blocks being disposed in said wall in perpendicular relation to each other with an end of one block abutting the central body portion of the adjacent block, and with the ridges of one block entering the grooves of an adjacent block, said disposition of said blocks resulting in a plurality of spaces between the side faces of said end sections of said blocks, and a plurality of dowel blocks formed with grooves and ridges disposed in said spaces and substantially completely filling said spaces, the grooves and ridges of the dowel blocks oo-operating with the grooves and ridges of the building blocks.
3. A building block comprising a central section and an end section, said central section having two opposite parallel faces lying in planes parallel to the longitudinal axis of said block, and opposite parallel sides perpendicular to said faces having interlocking means extending the length of said faces said end section having two opposite faces lying in the parallel planes of the faces of the central section and constituting extensions of said two opposite parallel faces thereof, said end section having two sides lying in surfaces substantially perpendicular to said parallel plane of the faces of the central section but flaring outwardly with respect to the longitudinal axis of said block, said outwardly flaring sides having interlocking means extending the length thereof. 4. A building block as claimedinclaim 3, having an outwardly projecting portion adapted to support a metal retaining band. 5. A wall structure as claimed in claim 1 including in combination a metal retaining band mounted on outwardly projecting portions of the building blocks. 7
r OTTO SANDER.