US 1904686 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 18, 1933.
H. H. HUMFHREYS COOLING SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 'f'isl- I ,3
Filed March 19. 1928 April 18,1933. H. H. HUMPHREYS COOLING SYSTEM Filed March 19. 1928 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Ala April 18, 1933.
H. H. HUMPHREYS COOLING SYSTEM Filed March 19. 1928 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 A ril 18, 1933'. H. H. HUMPHREYS 0 COOLING SYSTEM 7 Filed March 19. 1928 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 April 18, 1933.
H. H. HUMPHREYS 1,904,686
COOLING SYSTEM Filed March 19. 1928 5 Sheets-Sheet 5' gwuentoz H. H. HUMP/Mfrsaa W/W Patented Apr. 18, 1933 HOXIE H. HUIPHBEYB, OI PHOENIX, ARIZONA COOLING SYSTEM a lication filed Iarch 19, 1028. Serial 1T0. 262,803.
. The present invention relates to a cooling and ventilating system of a type especially adapted, for example, to the cooling and ventilating of an enclosed space, such as a 5 room, or a building, of any description.
One object of the invention is to provide such a cooling s stem which is marked by a high chilling e ciency and ease of installation.
A further object of theinvention is to provide a cooling system of the kind'described, wherein the amount of chilling may be readily regulated as desired- A still further object of the invention is to 5 provide means whereby atmospheric air is subjected to a series of chilling operationsto bring the said air to a desired cooling temperature before it is introduced into the room or building which is to be cooled.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description of the invention, which description is to be regarded as illustrative only, as the specific form of the invention is "obviously capable of 5 wide modifications and changes without departing from the conception and scope of the invention.
,It is well known that in climates where summer temperatures are high, that it is de- 0 sirable to cool rooms and buildings, especially where public gatherings are held, or where large numbers of persons are housed, as in modern apartment buildings, so that the outdoor temperatures will not become oppressive on the inside of the'room or building. Cooling systems are already widely employed in auditoriums, theaters, and other places of public meeting, but all of thesesystems are open to the disadvantage that the' cooling is not efliciently done, and if the air inside of the room or building is cooled to a suflicient extent to be comfortable, the cost of operation of the systems becomes excessive. The system of the present invention provides a means for thoroughly refrigerating the cooling air at a relatively low cost of installation and operation, and the system can also be readilv produced in any desired size, so that any kind of building, large or small, may receive it. i
Briefly outlined, the invention comprises an inlet for atmospheric air, and means for cooling this air, either in a single stage or in a series of distinct stages or steps, wherein the cold is successively increased, the temperature of the final stage being brought, if desired, substantially below the freezing int of water, the amount of chilling bemg regulatable inaccordance with the temperature of the air in the space to be cooled. The invention will be more clearly understood from the following description, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal diagrammatic sectional view of one form of the installation, where the cooling is carried out ina sin le stage,
'g. 2 is a section taken Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is an enlarged diagrammatic horizontal section of one of the intermediate cooling units of a multi-stage installation,
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic sectional view through the unit of Fig. 3, along the line 44 of Fig. 3, but on a reduced scale, m
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic plan view of one form of a complete assembly of a multi-stage installation,
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic sectional view of the installation of Fig. 5, taken along the line 6-6 of Fig. 5,
Fig. 7 is a plan view of the final refrigcrating unit of a multi-stage installation,
Fig. 8 is a sectional view of the unit of Fig. 7, taken alongthe line 8-8 of Fig. 7,
Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 8, but taken at right angles thereto, along the line 99, Fig. 7 and indicating, diagrammatically, the complete assembly of the refrigerating means of the final unit of a multi-stage installation, t
Fig. 10 is a view similar to Fig. 1, the cooling means being omitted.
Referring more particularly tothe drawings, the installation of Fig. 1 is a simple means of cooling atmospheric air, and for introducing the cooled air into the space to be cooled. The installation of Fig. 1 is a single stage cooling arrangement. In the figure, a
on the lme 22, 70
pipe of a size indicated by the probable necessities of the installation, indicated at 10, serves as the air intake for the room or build ing. This pipe is of any convenient shape, and is illustrated as having an upturned inlet end portion 11 forming a stand pipe the inlet being sufliciently high above the grade line 12 to prevent undue admission of dust to the pipe 10, this pipe being also non-rusting, for reasons hereafter apparent. The delivery end of the pipe 10 is conveniently shaped to deliver air, cooled in its passage through the pipe 10, into the room or building to be cooled. The delivery portion of the pipe 10 is generally indicated at 13,
' which is shown as entering a room or building through the partition 13a. The pipe 10 is surrounded over substantially all of its length with a porous water absorbent material, preferably of a permanent character, such as sand, charcoal, coke, etc., this material being applied with a cementing material as a hinder, or it may be molded in place, or secured in any other convenient manner to prevent accidental displacement from the pipe. This layer of material is indicated at 14, and is of sufiicient thickness to absorb a substantialy quantity of water while permitting the ready evaporation of the same, as
"will; be hereafter pointed out. The end 13 may be provided with a heat insulating portion, or layer, similar to the layer 14, of required extent and thickness, but being wholly optional, is not shown on the drawmgs.
Surrounding the pipe 10 is a second pipe 15, the pipe 15 being spaced from the pipe 10 to form an annular space 16 between the two pipes. As shown, the pipes 15 and 16 are similar in shape, and are conveniently concentrically placed. The pipe 15 is made of non-rusting material, such as rust-proofed sheet metal, or terra cotta, or any other suitable non-rusting material. The outer surface of the pipe 15 is covered with a layer of porous materiahsuch as porous concrete, or absorbent material such as is used in filters. This layer of material is held in place by any desired means, but perforated non-rusting sheet metal is preferred for this. purpose. The layer of absorbent material is indicated at 16a.
'It will be noticed from the drawings that the intake end 17 of the pipe 15 is conveniently adjacent the discharge end of the pipe 10, and that the delivery end 18 of the pipe 15 conveniently opens into the open air adjacent the inlet end 11 of the pipe 10. This arrangement permits a circulation of a cooling medium between the two pipes in a direction opposed to the direction of flow of air in the pipe -10. This cooling medium may conveniently be air exhausted from the space or room being cooled. Any arrangement giving this effect will be satisfactory, and the pur ose thereof will be indicated below.
T e pipe 15 opens into a supply of relatively dry air, either, as at 19, through the foundation work of the building and into the cellar thereof, or the pipe 15 may be apertured, as at 20, to receive the air passageway 21 opening into the open air, or into the space being cooled or ventilated. A fan or other type of blower 22,is provided adjacent the intake end of the pipe 15 to draw air through the said intake and to expel it from the delivery end 18. Similarly, there is provided in the delivery end 13 of the pipe 10, a fan or blower 23 to draw air through the pipe 10 and to discharge the said air 'intothe space to be cooled.
Within the space 16 between the pipes 10 and 15, therefjs placed the spray or drip pipe 24, perforated in such a way that it sprays or drips a liquid (water) upon the absorbent material 14 in a quantity suflicient to keep the material damp or wet at all times. Dry air, blown through the space 16 by the fan 22 and over the wet surface of the absorbent material 14, causesa rapid evaporation of the liquid contained in the material 14, thus causing a marked cooling of the pipe 10.
It will be seen that the system is preferan eflicient heat insulating layer. The layer 16a about the pipe 15 is entirely optional, but it may be advantageous where there is moisture present in the ground, as the layer 16a would absorb and retain some of the moisture close to the pipe, and assist in cooling the entire system.
Instead of employing dry air circulation around the pipe 10, cold water may be employed, by sealing the end 19 by means of a door or other medium, and introducing cold water through the inlet 21. The water would be discharged through an outlet, not shown, in pipe 15,.placed at the grade line. If water circulation be employed, the layer 14 is preferably omitted. Water may be conveniently suppliedfrom the final unit of the system I pipe 15 connecting at27 with further cooling 12 prqvisions, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Here is provided a chamber, preferably a basement room, designated as 28, which may be of any required size and of any convenient configuration. Around the sides of this room a pipe 26, of water proof material, is laid, coil upon coil, until the room has been filled or until the desired length of pipe has been laid. The coil 26 is spaced from the walls 28, as shown, and adjacent each side of the coil there is placed a metal screen or perforated sheet metal members, indicated as 29. The space between these members is filled with an absorbent material 30, conveniently of the same material as described above. Inside of the inner screen member 29, and at any desired distance therefrom, there is situated a wall 31 of air and water proof material, and
forming an air and water impervious connec-' tion with the floor of the chamber 28. It will therefore be seen that spaces for cooling fluid are provided on both sides of the coil 26, these spaces being indicated by 32 and 33, which spaces are in communication with each" other. The circulating cooling fluid may be air, introduced by a blower which may be of a type similar to 22 in Fig. 1 and located in housing 34 through the inlet 35, and forced through the spaces 32 and 33 around the coils 26, and out through the outlet 36 thence to the open air, as by the space -16 in Fig. 1. This air may conveniently be taken from the space or room being cooled.
Instead of air, water may be employed as the cooling medium, where convenient, similarly as described in connection with the device of Fig. 1. When water is so employed,-
it may be admitted through any convenient inlet, not shown, at the bottom of the chamber- 28, and allowed to flow out of the top of the chamber, or vice versa, as the individual installation may require. 'When the installation is in a basement below the grade line, it is preferred tO admit the air being cooled at the top of the coil 26, passing it downwardly through the turns of the pipe to the bottom of the coil, where it leaves the cooling unit and goes directly to the distributing head, thence to the room or rooms to be cooled. As it is introduced into the coil 26, the air being cooled is several degrees warmer than the cooling fluid, which is heated by the warmer air in the coil, and as the cooling fluid leaves the unit, it is relatively warmer than when it entered. In this manner,'the cooling medium is coldest at the bottom where the cold air is leaving the coil 26, thus assuring the maximum of cooling efliciency. If desired,
. baflies 37 and 38 may be placed within the spaces 32 and 33 to cause eddies and whirls in the cooling medium, thereby facilitating the cooling action through increasing the area of contact. The cold water may be conveniently supplied from the refrigerating unit next to be described, and if water is employed as the cooling medium, the blower housing 34 and its enclosed blower are omitted, and circulation of water established between this unit 28 and the refrigerating unit now to be described.
chamberthereis provided a pit or a tank 44,
and at the bottom of this there is provided a sump hole 45. In this sump hole there is placed a water supply pipe 46, which extends horizontally through the wall of the' chamber 43 from the pump 47 to a point directly over the sump hole 45. From this point it extends downwardly to a point near the bottom of the sump hole, terminating in a screened foot valve 48. The pipe 46 supplies water to the pump 47, from which it is orced through pipe 48 to the spray head 49. Water is placed in the tank 44, and it therefore circulates through the pipe 46 to the pump 47, through pipe 48 to spray head 49, where it is sprayed over the coil 41, thus cooling the air passing through this coil to the distributing head 42. In practice a brine solution is usually placed in the tank 44, instead of pure water, since lower temperatures can be obtained with brine without freezing.
This brine solution may be cooled artificially, either by placing blocks of ice in the tank 44, or preferably by placing a coolingunit of a commercial electric refrigerator therein. This unit is represented at 50, and any unit of the standard makes of electric refrigerator may be employed. The unit 50 is connected to its refrigerant compressor 51, placed out-' side of the chamber 43, in any desired manner. typified by the pipes 52 and 53.
en ice is used, sufficient brine solution is placed in the tank 44 to float the ice. When a refrigeration system is employed, sufiicient brine should be placed in the tank 44 to submerge the refrigerating unit 50. The cold brine naturally cools the entire chamber 43 to. a very considerable extent, which of course cools the coil 41; and this cooling action is hlghly accentuated by the fact that the re rigerated brine is spray head 49 and is thus distributed over the coils, returning to the tank by gravity. The
an being admit-ted to the space to be cooled is therefore made as cold as desired, since the temperature of the refrigerating coils is thermostatically controlled, as is customary with electric refrigerators of standard'make, and the freezing point of the brine solution is controlled by its concentration. The brine (or water) may be employed as the cooling agent in the other units of the system, if desired, it being circulated therethrough and means of introducing this liquid may be applied also to chamber 28 in like manner,
In Fig. 6 it will be seen that the refrigerating liquid may be pumped from the refrigerating tank, 44,- through the pipe, 54, by means of pump and "ntroduced over the coil 26 as through a spray head 56, although any other employed.
The brine is circulated back into the chilling tank 44, being withdrawn through the pipe 57, pump 58, and into the tank 44 J then the refrigerating brine being cooled by ice or through-the orifice 59. The pumps are, of course, independently operative from any suitable source of motive power.
It will therefore be seen that the installation just described subjects the air to be cooled to a series of successive cooling steps of progressively increasing intensities, and it will also be obvious that the amount of cooling in any stage or stages may be regulated at will.
Obviously also if there be convenient a constant source of cold water this may be employed as the cooling agent for the air, and elements described may be dispensed with by permitting water to flow throu h the chamber 43 and around the coils 41, either entering the chamber at the top and leaving it-at the bottom, or preferably 1 entering at the bottom and leaving at the top. 7
Also the circulating system described here may be omitted, if desired, the cooling effect then being obtained by filling the chamber with brine until the coil 41 is immersed, the
by the refrigerating unit, as above set forth. v
If it is considered that only a relatively slight degree of cooling is desired, the simple installation of Fig. 10 isadaptable. This is simply the arrangementof Fig. 1 with the outside pipe and spray omitted. It consists of the pipe 54, shaped conveniently as shown, with the intake at 55 and the outlet at 56, the pipe entering the room or building through the partition 57, and being provided with a fan or blower .58 to draw atmospheric air through the pipe and to discharge it into the spaceto be cooled. In Figs. 1 and 10 the ends of the pipes exposed to the atmospheric air areprotected by the cover 59. I
The fans and blowers described in connection with the system are desirableas they assure a positive-circulation of air through the system. However, when the building to be cooled and ventilated is properly provide with registers at proper places, and with proper exits at the top of the building through which hot air can escape, and the cooling elements are properly installed, the air will flow freely throughthe cooling syssyphon principle.
conduit and spaced therefrom,
means for holding absorbent material against.
tem of its own accord, induced by the thermo- The hot air in the building will escape therefrom, and cold air will come through the cooling system to replace the hot air.
' It will be further understood that while the respective .units of the system are shown" as being installed below rade line, the system, or any element thereo used separately, will give equally as good results above ground when installed in a properly insulated room bewhether it be on the ground floor or in the top story of a modern sky-scraper.
It is understood that the above illustrations are examples only of suggested forms of the system and units thereof, as obviously many modifications thereof are possible without departing from the inventive concept, and it is desired to comprehend within the scope of this invention any changes necessary to adapt it to varying conditions and uses.
What is claimed is:
l. A multi-stage refrigerating system comprlsing the combination with an intake conduit, of a cooling conduit substantially surrounding the intake conduit, and spaced therefrom, a porous absorbent wrapping for the intake conduit, liquid spraying means be-. tween the conduits, means in each conduit for circulating air therethrough in counter-currents, means for continuing the intake conduit unbrokenly into each succeeding unit of the system, and means for circulating the refrigerating fluid in a continuous closed cycle through each unit.
2. A multi-stage refrigerating system comprising a conduit, walls on either side of the reticulated the conduit, means for circulating a cooling fluid between the walls and over the conduit, and baflles adjacent the walls and conduit adapted to assure maximum surface contact between conduit. 1
3. In a cooling system, the combination with a continuous air passage, of a plurality of'cooling units distributed along the said passage, means comprising a cooling fluid for subjecting air in the said passage to progressively increasing cold as the said air passes through each unit, and means for circulating the coolin fluid in a closed cycle from the coldest unit through each of the remaining units, there being a sharp temperature gradient between the successive units of the system produced by substantial temperature differences between the successive units.
4. A'multi-stage cooling system comprisd ing a series of interconnected refrigerating increasing cold, the the series comprising within the chamber units of progressively last of the said units of a chamber, a cooling coil A and leading unbrokenly through the remaining units of the system, a tank member comthe said" cooling fluid and the said final unit of t municating with the chamber, a sump communicatin with the tank, a spray pipe leading from t e sump and adapted to spray refrigerant over the said coil, pumping means for circulating the said refrigerant from the said tank through the said spray pipe, means for imparting relatively intense cold to the said refrigerant, and means for circulating the refrigerant in a closed cycle through the preceding units of the system. 5. A multi-stage cooling system, which comprises the combination with'an initial cooling unit, of a second unit connected therewith, the said second unit comprising a casing, a coil within the casing, a fluid absorbent medium within the casing surrounding the coil, means for countercurrently circulating refrigerating fluid through the casing around the coil, means for maintaining maximum surface contact between the coil and cooling fluid, and means permitting the continuous circulation of a fluid to be cooled from the initial cooling unit through the coil of the said second unit, the said fluid to be cooled sharply and abruptly differing in temperature between the successive umts of the system, thereby producing a sharp temperature gradient between the units. 6. A multi-stage cooling system, comprising a series of interconnected refrigerating units of progressively increasing cold, the final unit of the series comprising a cooling coil for cooling air, a cooling medium for the coil, means for refrigerating the said cooling medium, a chamber adjacent the refrigerating unit, a cooling coil in the chamber leading directly into the coil of the refrigeratin unit, means for maintaining a cooling flui in intimate contact with the coil, an intake conduit directly connecting with the said coil, and means for circulating in a closed cycle the refri erated cooling medium from the final unit t rough each of the preceding units.
7. A multi-stage cooling system, comprising a series of interconnected refrigerating units of progressively increasing cold, the e series comprising a chamber, a cooling coil within the chamber, a tank portion communicatin with the chamber, a refrigerating meanswithin the tank, a sump communicatlng with the tank, and means for spraying cold liquid from the sump over the cooling coll.
8. A multi-stage cooling system, comprising a series bf interconnected refrigerating units of progressively increasing cold, the last of the said units of the series comprising a chamber, a coohng coil within the chamber, a tank member communicating with the chamber, a sum with the tank, refrigerating liquid within the tank and sump, a spray pipe leading from the sump and adapted to s ray refrigerating liquid over the said 00' pumpcommunicating ing means for circulating refrigerating liquid from the said tank through the said spray pipe, and means for imparting relatively intense cold to the said refrigerating liquid.
9. A multi-stage cooling system, which comprises the combination with an initial coolmg unit, of a second unit connected therewith and adapted to impart a progressively increasing degree of cold to a fluid stream passing through the units to an enlarged space to be cooled, the said second unit comprising a casing, a cooling coil within the casing, a liquid absorbent medium surrounding the coil, means adapted to countercurrently circulate refrigerated cooling fluid around the coil and thence through the initial unit of the system, the temperature of the cooling fluid progressively decreasing between the units of the system, means tween the said refrigerated fluid and cooltinuous and free circulation of fluid to be cooled from the initial cooling unit, and thence through the coil of the said second unit.
10. A multi-stage refrigerating system comprising a conduit defining a cooling coil, walls on either side of the coil and spaced therefrom, absorbent material surrounding, the coil, :1 screen for holding absorbent material against the coil, means for circulating a cooling fluid between the walls and over the cooling coil, and means adjacent the walls and conduit for breaking up the flow of cooling fluid into swirls and eddies to assure maximum surface contact between the coolin fluid and the conduit.
n testimony whereof I affix my signature this 8th day of March, 1928.
HOXIE H. HUMPHREYS.
adapted to increase the surface contact bea