US 1905851 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April z5, 1933.
252 22 l z 25 1 2@ 4L .4 V26 Z6 mf 27 l I u u 3/ fg -f /7 57 /6 l l 34 40 1 o l l f D. GREEN 1,905,851
SURGICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 30, 1930 INVENTOR. 0a/5 0, Hifi/y A TTORNEYS.
Patented Apr. 25, 1933 UNITED STAT-Es LOUIS n. GREEN, on SAN FRANcIsoo, loar.Iro'rtNIA sURdrAr. INSTRUMENT i Application. inea april so,
This invention relates .to surgical instruments and is particularly adaptable to i'nstruments havingV a rotatable tool for performing certain operations. on the eye.v
In devices of this character, it is desirable that the hand of the loperator. be unimpeded by cords, flexible rotating shafts, or other connections extending from the instrument.y Such extensions-render the instrument diilicult to control and not only do they present an obstacle to a successfuloperation, but occasionally they are the direct cause of a serious accident, even in the hands of a skilled operator.
It is one object of this invention to devise a surgicall instrument of this type in which themotive power is contained within the instrument, thereby obviating the necessityv of external connections. i
. Another object is to devise a surgical instrument of the character described which is compact and convenientto handle.
Still another object is to devise. meansfor easily and quickly controlling` theapplication of power to therotating parts ofan i11- strument of thischaracter.
A further object is to deviseaniinstrument of this type in which a spring is employed as the motive force forrotating the tool. and in which convenient means is provided for winding the spring.- f. f Other obj ects will become apparent to those skilled in the art as the detailed description of one embodiment of my invention proceeds.
Referring to the drawing: I 1 Fig. 1 is anelevational view partly in section of one form of a surgical instrument embodying the invention. v;
Fig. 2 is a cross section-` taken on the line 4L02-2 of Fig. 1. n -r Fig. 3 is a cross section taken on the-line 3 3 of Fig. .1.
Fig. 4 is a cross of Fig. 1. I
Fig. 5 is a cross section taken on line -5--5 ofFig.1. 1.
Fig. .6 is a cross section taken on liney 6-'6 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 7 is a detail view section'taken onV line 4-.4
i partlyin section showing the stop mechanism.
-end vof the instrument.
1930. serialV No. 448,607.1
Fig. Sis an elevation ofthe device. l. Briefly, the embodiment ofthe invention illustrated in ,the accompanying drawing -comprises 'asurgical instrument having a pencil-like form.l A rotatable tool is 'mount- 55 `shown an instrument comprising a casingA 16,
preferably of cylindrical form, within which a spring 17 is disposed. Spring 17 is Woundr .by a turning movement of lcap 18 on the end ofy therinstrument and the energy thus stored up is employed to rotate tool 19 at the other 7o Cap 18 is provided with a milled or knurled periphery and is mounted on a central. hub 15 from which a reduced portion extends forming a stud l20 which is journaled in a plate -21 'covering the end of casing 16. A'stem-22 75 is secured .to lstud 2()l to rotateftherewith.
Stem 522 is preferably square in cross section and fits loosely into a square opening `in a vcollar 23sin a manner which prevents relative rotational movement between these parts but 8o which allows movement to a limited extent of collar-23 in a longitudinal directionalong stem22. One face of collar 23 is provided with a plurality of ratchet teeth24 which are yadapted to engage complementary teeth in a stationary collar 26 fixed to plate 27. i YA com- Ipressio'nspring 25 extends between collar 23 andplate'21 for resiliently urging collar 23 'against collar 26. For spacing plates 21and '27 a'plurality of spacer rods 28ar`e provided 90 lhaving reduced end portions which engage suitable openings in the respective plates.'y
" Stem 22'passes ythrough collar 23 and vis preferably integral with a circular portion 29 journaled in plate 27 and portion 29 has se- 95 cured thereto an enlarged'end portion 31 to` which one end of spring 17 is connected. The other end of spring 17 is connected to a shaft 34 which is mounted for rotation relative Eto member 31 and for this purpose itis provided '-100 fthe,V casing.
with a stud 36 which is journaled in a bearing 37 in the end of member 31.
When cap 18 is wound to wind spring 17, collar 23 ratchets over the teeth in collar 26. The teeth on collars 23 and 26 are so shaped that they engage one another to prevent rotation in theopposite directionand in this `manner prevent spring 17 from unwinding.
The bottom end of shaft 34 is journaled in plate 39 and fixed to this shaft is acgear 41. Spacer rods 40 are provided which serve to maintain plates 27 and 39 in spaced relation. Gear 41 meshes with a pinion 42 'fixed to a spindle 43 which carries 1a gear'44. -Grear 44 meshes with a pinion 46 on shaft 47 and a gear`48fi-Xed to shaft 47 meshes withfa inion 49 'on shaft 51. vgear 52 mountec on shaft 51 meshes with a -pinion 53 whichdrives shaft V54-and tool 19. Pinion 53 vcauses rota- -tionof gear 56 which meshes witha pinion v57 and pinion 57 ycauses rotation of the gear 58 which meshes with pinion 59. A. gear 61 on.
the shaft lof pinion 59 meshes wit-'h a pinion -62onshaft :63. y `Mounted on shaft63 is a`weight64 adapted Ntovrotate therewith. k'Weight v64 acts as a fly- Wheel and serves to moderate the speed of the rotating parts and-tends to keep the speed substantially uniform. A fan 66 is also fixed to shaft '63 which serves as a retarding memiber tofurther moderate the speed of the parts. VShaft 63 normallyrotates ata relatively high speed. Fan 66 places a load on this shaft and retards it somewhat while weight 64, by its inertia, tends to eliminate possible fluctuations in the velocity of the shaft. By placing a load of this character on the last gear in the gear train and driving toolu 19 by lan intermediate gear in the train,-the speed of tool19 remains substantially constant'under .normal conditions. Any departure from constant speed in shaft63 is greatly minimized in its effect on the rotation of tool 19 -on acycount of the relatively slower velocity yof the the opening in; this sleeve shaft 54 extends. A `collar 72 on shaft 54-and preferably integral therewith abuts against one end of sleeve 71.
Extending beyond collar 72 is a screw 73 secured to shaft 54 forming a screw connection for tool 19. This type of `connection forms a convenient means for replacing tool 19 at will. A'tapering portion 76 secured in any suitable manner to casing 16 surrounds sleeve 7l and gives the instrument the general rappearance of a pencil.
A set screw 77 passing through casing 16 and engaging one of the plates, such as plate 27, serves `to secure the entire assembly within When screw 77 is loosened the entire assembly may be bodily removed through the top of the instrument.
For starting and stopping the rotation of tool 19 I have shown a pin 81 mounted on one leg of a bifurcated member 82 positioned for convenience between plates 39 and 67. Pin 81 extends through anaperture `83 in plate 67 and engages fan66. A suitable finger button 84 `passing through casing 16, when depressed, causes movement of pin 81 out of the pathof fan 66,`thereby allowing the train ofgears to set tool 19 in motion. A compression spring 86 extending between a Vstop -87 and a projection`88 on bifurcated member 82 normally urgespin 81 into the path of fan 66; Preferably, button 84 extends V`through vthe casing at a point which is near -one of the operators lingers when the instrument is grasped in the manner in which a pencil is lheld. By positioning button 84 in this .location it -is apparent that but one hand is required vto opera-te the instrument Vand that the instrument may be immediately started or stopped without releasing the hold and without mov-ing the instrument. It is tobe understood that, instead of fan 66, any one of the other rota-ting parts of the gear train can 4be stopped by 'a'suitable projection extending from button84.
Tool 19 is 4provided with an annular cutting edgef86 .and in order to determine the de th at which this vedge is cutting Ipr'ovid'e a s oulder87 yon tool 19. Shoulder 87 `serves to limit the depth ofthe cut and by watching the distance between shoulder 87 and the surface the operator can tell at a glance how far the instrument has penetrated.
1 fW-hileI have shown and descr-ibeda cer- -tain'embodiment of my invention, I do not wish to be limited thereto, since the invention as defined in the appended claims can 'be embodied-:in a plurality of forms.
1. In a surgical instrument for performing operations on the human eye, a rotatable tool having an annular cutting edge, a shoulder on said tool for indicating the depth at which the tool is operating, a helical spring .for storing energy to rotate said tool,` a gear train interconnecting said spring and said -tool,isaid tool being driven byV an intermediate gear insaidgear train, a rotatable shaft driven by said gear trainat a'higher rate of speed lthan said. tool, -a `fan on said shaft for retarding the rate of rotation Yof said tool,
a y-wheel on `said lsha-ft for 4maintaining the rate of rotation relatively constant, an elon- :gated casing having the general form of a pencil for supporting said tool, said gear `train and said spring Vin general alignment and with said tool extending from one end 'of the casing, a capion the oppositerend of said casing for winding said spring", a finger button projecting through said casing for controlling the rotation of said tool,-said finger button being disposed at a position which is adjacent the forefinger when the instrument is held between the thumb and foreiinger in the manner by which a pencil is held, and a set screw for securing said casing in proper position about the gear train and spring, all ofthe operating parts of the device including the spring being removable through one end of the casing for inspection upon removal of said set screw.
2. In a surgical instrument, an elongated mounting, a shaft extending from one end of the mounting for connection with a tool, a journal for said shaft carried by the mounting, a helical spring carried by the mounting and alined with respect to the axis of said shaft, gearing carried by the mounting and positioned between one end of the spring and said journal, said gearing serving to connect the spring to said shaft, speed governing means likewise carried by the mounting, a cap disposed adjacent the other end 0f the mounting, ratcheting means to enable tensioning of the spring by rotation of the cap,
a pencil-like casing enclosing the mounting and extending from the cap to said journal,
said casing having an endl portion in which said journal is socketed, and a release member projecting thru one side wall of the shell to control rotation of the shaft.
3. In a surgical instrument, a rotatable tool, a spring for storing energy to rotate said tool, a gear train interconnecting said spring and tool, means for governing the rate of rotation of said tool, common mounting means for the tool, the spring, and the gear train, an elongated pencil-like casing enclosing the Vsides of the instrument with the tool extending fromone end of the casing, a rotatable cap on the opposite end of the casing for winding the spring, a finger button projecting thru one side oi the casing for controlling rotation of the tool, and a member for securing the casing in proper position about said common mounting,
whereby upon removal of said member said mounting together with the parts connected thereto, can be removed from the casing.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set m hand.
y Louis D. GREEN.