US 1906251 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 2, 1933- '.J. A. DIENNER 1,906,251 l INTERNAL CoMBUsTIoN ENGINE Filed June 12, 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 May 2, 1933. J. A. DIENNER INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed June 12, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 2, 1933. '.1. A. DIENNER 1,906,251
INTERNAL COMBUSTI 0N ENGINE Filed June 12, 1930 s sheets-sheet s El 9,2 53 l'l'l Il Patented May 2, 1933 sri-Es orIN A. nInNNnR, or vnvnNsrroN, ILLINoIs. AssIeNoRl or oNnfIrALr 'ro ,HERBERT E.'
' i BUCKLEN, OF ELKHART, INDIANA INTERNAL coIvIisUs'rIoN ENGINE Y Application lec'l .Tune 12,1930. Serial No. 460,597.
lvy invention relates to internal combustion engines and is more particularly conc-erned with a novel intake valve and the method of operation thereof.
llhile the specific engine herein shown and described is, in the preferred form, an injection engine of the Diesel type, the in` vention is netto be considered as limit/ed to this type, its utility in internal combustion engines generally being readily understood by those skilled in the art from the following detailed specification and claims, taken `in connection with the drawings hereto attached.
Early internal combustion engines were provided with' automatic intake valves, opened by suction (that is, the decrease in pressure in the cylinders) and closed by springs. Such valves are slow and noisy and also they cause a loss in volumetric eliif ciency bca-use of the pressure drop occasioned by the closingv springV of the valve; that is to say, it took a certain diiference in pressure to open the valve and this :interfered with complete filling of the cylinder. Hence, as engines were further developed for greater efficiencies and particularly for higher speed, mechanically actuated valves were developed.
The usual structure of a mechanically actuated valve comprises a poppet valve, closed by a spring and opened by a cam. While this provides a positive and controllable mode of operation it has certain drawbacks. First is the noise of the mechanism. This is particularly noticeable on larger cylinders, where large size and heavy valves are required. The heavier the valve the greater is the inertia thereof and the stiifer the spring must be in each case to provide the required speed of closing.
Seond, there is the limited rate at which a valve can be opened by a'cam shaft. lt is, of course, desirable to keep the cam shaft as small and light as is consistent with strength.
" Also, on a four stroke cycle engine the cam shaft operates at half crank shaft speed Aand this, together with the small diameter of the cams, limits very decidedly the rate of opening and closing of the valves. The sharpness of timing is also diificult to control.v In a multi-cylinder engine this is particularly important.
There are also sleeve-valve actions, such yas the Knight type of engine'. They are generally quiet and have been well exploited, but they are, by comparison with ymy .present intake valve construction, complex and eX? pensive. They also lack in sharpness of timing. yThey introduce a complication in cooling the combustion chamber and the leas deficiency in lubrication isl fatal. t
The 'intake valve of invention is, in the preferred form, a lpiston ring serving on the compressiomNv expansion and exhaust strokes to provide a gas seal betweenrthe cylinder wall and the working piston, and serving, upon theisuction stroke, to open an inlet passageway for the working fluid, which may bear ,all or `any part of the. combustibleconstituents, or may be air only, in the case of a fuelinje'ction engine. l
The inlet valvestructure and -'ts mode of operation isessentially the same in a stationarg.T cylinderengine, or in a whirling cylinder engine such as VVat presentv is employed for airplanes and the like.
New the preferred form of embodying the invention, Ywhich will be illustrated and described in detail, comprises the provision of a piston .ring ofthe double lapped inlet type, or any other suitable type which will seal off the gas both ways, that is, endwise of the ring and radially of theA ring, which ring is disposed in a *groove in the piston. The groove'is wider than the ring by an amount great enough to provide a suitable inlet passageway.- This play between groove'V and ring need not be at all great, for if one considers the peripheral length of the passage.- way soformed (approximately 3 1/7 times the diameter) Vit will be seenthat the valve lift, that is, the playbetween'thering and the groove, need not be at?. all great.. Y
The groove is also deep enough radially to forma continuation of the intake passage way back of the ring. From that point the intake passagewaymay be continued toa point within the cylinder, either byholes or slots or the like, extending from Nthe clearance in the back of the piston ring to the eef ' the end of the downward stroke occurs.
inside of the cylinder. The upper wall of the slot is not employed as a seal but serves as a mechanical restraining element for the ring, by means of which it is pulled downwardly during the suction stroke.
The meansl by `which the ring is shifted, or its shifting controlled for governing the opening and closing of the intake passageway, is two-fold, namely, ring friction on the one hand and pneumatic pressure differential on the other.
To visualize this and explain the principle of operation, assume that the intake valve is at the top of its stroke, the piston having just completed an exhaust stroke and being at the top of its motion. The piston now starts to move downwardly. The ring, which is Aalso a valve, tends to remain because of its friction with the cylinder wall, and the piston moves down with respect to the ring, opening the intake passageway and keeping itl open to the end of the downward stroke. For the brie-f part of the rotation of the crank shaft corresponding to a vert-i# cal dimension equal to the play between the ring and the groove, the piston moves with r-espect to the ring, but as soon as the piay is taken up--that is, the ring rests against the top wall of the groove-the'ring is drawn down with the piston. l/Vhatever suction is caused in the cylinder by the descent of the piston assists the valve in opening and remai ning open to the end of the stroke.
Then assume that the piston starts on its up-stroke to compress the contents of the cylinder. The ring having come to rest at the end ofthe down stroke, tends to remain stationary and lags behind as the piston moves upwardly. The valve thereby closes off the passageway just as soon as the piston has raised an amount equal to the play between the ring and the groove. Thereafter, on the upward motion, the ring friction and the internal pressure upon the ring hold it closed during the entire compression stroke.
The explosion and expansion stroke then occurs.
Now, whereas at each reversal heretofore, the valve has shifted its position at the end of the stroke, it does not now do so because the pneumatic pressure which is encountered at the upper end of the compression stroke and throughout the explosion stroke, exceeds the .ring friction. As a result, so long as said pneumatic pressure exceeds the ring friction, the valve remains closed and de-l scends with the piston. l
The exhaust valve, which may be of any known or preferred construction, opens towards the end of the expansion stroke and permits exhaust to occur.
Obviously, if the explosion and expansion pressure exerted on the ring valve is less than the ring friction, the valve may open before In an injection engine it may well be so arranged, particularly upon lighter duty, but in an engine of the type where the fuel is fed in the shape of a mixture under throttle control, the design may easily be such as to prevent opening until the end of the stroke.
Assuming that the end of the expansion stroke is reached and the valve has not shifted, it remains closed upon the next upward, or exhaust stroke. This is because the combined effects of ring friction and remaining gas pressure in the cylinder work together to hold the valve closed during the expulsion, or exhaust stroke. Thus the cycle is completed.
The exhaust valve may be of any type desired, for example, poppet type, sleeve type, or any other suitable or preferred type.
The exceedingly quick and sharp opening of my valve will at once be apparent. If the play between the ring and the end walls of the groove is, for example, 6, the valve will be completely closed in such an angular motion only as is required to raise the piston 6. This is far sharper and quicker than that of any known type of valve. Also, the amount of opening provided is exceptionally large. Higher volumetric efficiency-is possible and greatly increased power and speed are also possible.
The invention is Vnot to be limited to Diesel or injection engines, nor to constant speed engines, as the intake valve of my invention maybe used where combustible mixture is supplied under throttle control or otherwise to secure variable speed and/or variable power. For suoli engines it permits of a new design, requiring less width in the valve pocket of the exhaust valve and permitting a muchbetter design of combustion chamber, and a better cooling arrangement of th-e exhaust valve seat and associated parts.
Now, in order to acquaint those skilled in the art with the manner of constructing and operating a device embodying my invention, l
I shall describe in connection with the accompanying drawings a specific embodiment of the same. In the drawings:
Figure l is a vertical sectional view through a cylinder of a Diesel type ofengine ofthe rotary, or whirlwind type, wherein the cylinders rotate;
Figure 2 is a vertical transverse section taken on the line 2-2 of Figure l;
Figure 3 is a similar transverse section taken ony the line 3 3 of Figure l;
Figure isv a fragmentary sectional view showing a modified form of intake valve;
Figure 'is a vertical cross-section through an engine of the variable speed, throttle controlled type embodying my invention;
Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of the intake valve and valve passage; and
Figure 7 is a fragmentary longitudinal sec tion of a modification of the intake valve con- CII struction, for use in an internal combustion engine or gas compressor. y
Throughout this specification like reference numerals refer to like parts.
ln Figures -1 to 3 l have shown a Diesel type of engine, that is, an engine of the high compression, fuel injection type. Vfhile this specific engine is designed to have the cylinders rotate about the crank shaft it fs to be understood that obviously, by holding the cylinders stationary and permitting the crank shaft to rotate, the engine will operate equally well. The cylinders need not be disposed radially around the'crank shaft; they may be disposed sideby sidealong the length of the crank sha t, particularly for stationary engine, whether of the Diesel type or any other type. While. I have shown only one cylinder it is to be understood that the invention is equally applicable to multicylinder engines.
The cylinder 1 is provided with cooling lins 2 which, in this case, are adapted for the transverse motion of the air with respect thereto. At its upper end the cylinder 1 has a flange 3, to which is clamped the flange el of the head 5. The head 5 is provided with a dome shaped combustion space, or chamber 6, formed to receive fuel injection into the coinpressed air from the fuel injector 7 which may be of any known or preferred type. It is to be understood. that the engine here illustrated operates preferably, but not necessarily, on the four stroke cycle principle and that the injection of fuel occurs at the en d of a coinpression stroke, the fuel being ignited by the heat of the compressed gas and serving to make the power stroke thereafter.
rlhe cylinder head 5 has an exhaust passageway 8 terminating in a port which is governed Vby the exhaust valve 9. Thefexhaust valve 9 has a stem l() extending through a guide 12 and the valve is normally held closed by the spring 13 which bears against the collar 14; secured upon the outer end ofthe stein 10. rlhe rocker arm-15, the end of which is shown in Figure 1, serves, under the operation of a suitable exhaust valve cam (not shown) to open the exhaust valve 9 towards the end of the explosion trol/:e and to hold the saine open until the exhaust, or expulsion stroke is completed.
rl`he acting valve 7 is supplied with suitable fuel under pressure. The injector has a valve provided with the stern 16 normally held closed by a spring 1'? and adapted to be opened at the beginning of the power stroke by a rocker arm 18 which raises the valve to open the saine. against the pressure of the spring 17. This rocker arm is controlled by aY suitable Cain not shown) but which is well known to those skilled in the The `cylinder 1 has a cylindrical bore 19 in its upper portion for defining the working chamber and it has a cooperating piston 2O,
of which the upper part, lor head,.together with the flange 22, containing the groove 23 and ring 21 comprises the pneumatica-ily active portion of the piston. The lower part of the piston 2O comprises a tubular skirt adapted to play and be guided in the extension 24 ofthe main cylinder-1, the extension 24 being separated from thefmain cylinder 1 by the annular arched wall 25 which denes the intake passageway 26. lThis annular intake passageway c-onimunicates'with a flanged intake opening shown in Figure 1. The bore 27 of the lowerV portion or extension 24 is preferably of the same diameter and configuration as Athebore 19, so thatpthe piston 20, particularly the guiding portion thereof, may pass freely lfroin'the extension 27 into the cylinder 19, particularly for the purpose of transferring lubricant from the walls of the bore 27 to the walls of the bore 19'."
The cylinder extension 27 is provided with a flange 28 by which the same is mounted upon a crank case or frame 29, which may be of known construction. In the case of a rotaryl or whirl-wind type of engine the case 29 rotates with the cylinders about the crank case. In the case of a stationary cylinder the crank case 29` is secured to the'frarne or foundation and the crank shaft is rotated. Y Below the flange 22 of the piston 201 provide a'circumferential groove 30 which, in
effect, forms a manifold connection for the vertical passageways 32-32,here1n'shown as four in number, extending from below the flange 22 down to the lower end of the skirt of the piston where these passageways 32 tere minate above the rings`33 and 34, While four vertical grooves in the piston are shown and these all communicate with the annular in'- take passageway 26,` the design may be simplified by reducing the passageway 26to a mere pocket andV using a single groove32 in the piston in register wita such intake pocket. The rings 33 and 34 serve Va double purpose. First, they serve to seal off the vertical grooves or passageways 32from the interior of the crank case 29, and second, they scrive to distribute and scrapeofl' excessive lubrication that is depositedupon the walls of the bore 27. V
The piston is provided with a suitable wrist-pin 35, to which is connected the up`d per end of the' connecting rod 36, the lower end of the connecting rod l36 having a crank bearing upon the crank pin of the crank shaft (not shown). l
The crank shaft is geared to a cam shaft in the usual one to two ratio to cause the exhaust valve, which is operated by the cam shaft, to be opened in accordance with a predetermined cycle, above mentioned. Where the cylinders rotate about the crank shaft the same relation of valve operation for opening and closing the exhaust valve is maintained through any of the known or preferred modes of operating the exhaust valve. Y 1
'I have not illustrated the cam shaft and its connection to the'exhaust valve, as this is a matter of common knowledge in engines of both the Vstationarycylinder type and of the rotating cylinder type.
The piston ring and inlet valve 21 is disposed in the groove 23, which groove 23 is wider than the ring 21 axially of the cylinder. That is to say, the ring 21 hasa certain amount of endwise play in the groove 23.
As shown in enlarged section in Figure 6 this cndwise play 38 provides aninlet passageway which extends under the ring 21 and then extendsV through the radial clearance 39 between the back of the ring 21 and the bottom of the groove 23.' rThis radial clearance 39 communicates by way of av series of openings 40 such as drill holes shown in plan view in Figure 2 with the interior of thecylinder. The top and bottom surfaces of the ring 21 are faced od in parallel planes, likewise the end walls'of the groove 23 are faced oil in parallel planes. The ring21, which is of the endless type, sealed against both the longitudinal passage of gas and the radial passage of gas therethrough, is adapted to form a tight seal between the cylinder wall 1 and the piston by flat engagement of the bottom of the ring 21 with the endsurface 42 of the groove 23. This occurs upon the compression Ystroke as'the piston 20 is moved upwardly and the friction of the ring 21 with the bore 19 and the pressure of the gas against the top surface of the ring 21 force the ring down to close ofi' the intake passageway. In the position shown in Figure 6 it is assumed that the piston 20 is descending on the intake stroke. During this motion the ring friction of the ring 21 against the cylinder wall 19 holds the ring against the upper wall of the groove 23, permitting air or other gaseous medium to be drawn through the'clearance between the lange L13 formed below the groove`23 and the cylinder wall 1, then up through the annular clearance 38 between the ring and the bottom wall of the groove, then up through the radial clearance 39 and from there through the drilled passageways 40 into the interior of the cylinder above the piston 20.
During the compression stroke'the piston 2O tends to move up with respect to the ring 21, which is retarded by ring friction and the surface 42 seats against the bottom of the ring 21. This closes otl the intake passageway and subjects the top surfaceof the ring 21 to the pressure of gas within the cylinder. l/Vhatever gas pressure prevails in the cylinder assists in seating the ring which serves as the intake valve and holding the same seated during the explosion and expansion stroke.
The cycle of operations is, therefore, as follows Assuming that the parts are in the position shown in Figs. 1 and 6 and that the intake stroke has just been completed, the cylinder being filled with air, thereupon the piston begins to rise from the bottom of its stroke, the ring valve 21 closing olf the intake passageway, as soon as the piston has risen the small distance represented by the clearance 38; thereupon the compression stroke begins. The piston rises to the top of the stroke, whereupon the injection valve 7 is opened and fuel is injected into the charge of highly compressed air contained in the combustion space 6. The pressure which is retained in the combustion space and in the cylinder holds the valve 21 closed as the piston 20 descends. The exhaust valve 9 is opened towards the end of the expansion stroke and the pressure in the cylinder is relieved. The piston descends to the bottom of its stroke and then begins to rise, expelling the products of combustion out past' the exhaust valve 9 through the passageway 8. TWhen the piston has expelled the products of combustion the valve 9 is closed at substantially the top of the stroke of the piston 20. During the expulsion, or exhaust stroke, the ring 21 closes the intake passageway, since both ring friction and whatever residual pressure is contained in the cylinder act together to hold the same closed.
As the piston 20 then begins to descend, the valve 9 being closed, a suction stroke is made. The ring 21, as it stops at the end of its motion, always tends to seize the walls of the piston for at the point of reversal the valve 21 becomes stationary with respect to the wall of the cylinder 1 and thepiston 20 begins to move down while the ring 21 tends to remain stationary. The play between the groove and the ring is thereupon taken up and the upper flange 14 engages the ring 21 and drags the same downwardly, with the result that intake passageway 38 is opened and air flows through the same into the cylinder. When the piston 2() reaches the bottom of its stroke the ring 21 is for an instant again stationary, as the motion of the piston is reversed, whereupon it tends to seize the walls of the cylinder, and as the piston 2O rises the intake valve is closed olf by relative motion between the piston and the ring and the compression stroke proceeds as previously described. i
It will now be seen that the valve 21 operates differently on the two downward strokes, due to the difference in pneumatic pressures upon its two sides. The ring friction is, in each case, substantially the same, but the .closing of the valve 21 or its retention in closed position during the explosion stroke is secured by the fact that the internal pressure is higher than the ring friction.
The herein described mode of operation is adequately attained through the use of a single piston ring, but if desired a plurality of rings may be employed, as indicated in the fragmentary sectional viewof Figure 4, in which the piston 20 is shown as provided with two rings, Ql-A and 21-B. These rings are held in corresponding grooves 23-A and`23-B, the grooves having clearance Vsufficient to provide the passageway for the ent-ry of. gas, that` is to say, serving as intake passageways in serieswith each other. There are three flanges between' the rings, namely, the flanges 44, 43-A and 43-B. The upper flange 44 is drilled to provide the series of passageways between the radial clearance SQ-A and the interior of the cylinder. rihe center flange 43-A is drilled with a series of passageways 45 extending therethrough and having their upper ends adapted to be sealed by the bott-om face of the ring l-A'and having their lower ends communicating with the radial clearance 39B, between the ring 21--13 and its groove.
The operation of this form of valve mechanism is Ysubstantially identical with that desired in connection with Figs. l and 6, the two valves being, however, in series. Normally, one valve is sufiicient to maintain a proper degree of sealing between the piston and the cylinder wall and to serve as the intake valve, but where unusually high pressures are carried, as in theDiesel type of engine, the two rings may be provided, the second ring serving in case of any appreciable leakage ofV the first ring to be held against its corresponding flange 43-7-B to form a secondary seal. rlhe clearance fory the two rings in their grooves may be the same, but
l preferably the upper ring is given a slightly greater clearance than the lower, so as to insure seating of the bottoni ring in advance of the upper, in order to secure the full benetit of both rings.
In Figure 5 l have shown the invention as applied to the suction type of variable speed v engine-such as is supplied with a combustible mixture,vi0'nited by a spark or the like.
In other words, Figure 5 shows the inven- Y -tion as embodied in an automobile engine.
In this structure the cylinder has a suitable water jacket 52 and hasy a guiding extension 53 for guiding the piston54. rlhe cylinder 50 has a bore 55 and the guiding cylinder 53 has a continuation of the bore 55 as shown at 56, of the same diameter. The two cylinders 50 and 53 are cast integrally but are,
y in effect, interrupted vby an intake passagethe lower part of the cylinder 54.
`Vway 57 which preferably entends completely about the cylinder wall, although this kintake passageway may extend only far enough to provide communication with one or more of the grooves 58 which extend vertically along grooves communicateV at their upper end with a circumferential groove 59 and terminate at their lower ends above the sealing rings 60-60, which `serve the same function as heretofore described connection with Figure 1. The piston 54 has a suitable intake valve construction,"which is identical with that describedin Figuresl and 6. Also, it
may employ the modification shown inl Figure 4.
TheV intake trunk or manifold 57 communica tes `with intake passageway 62 which may be connected through a suitable manifold or the like crdirectly Vconnected toa carbu-` retor orother Vmeans for'supplying a combustible mixture. f l f The piston 54 has a wrist-pin` 63 which is connected by a connecting rod 64 tothe crank The crank pin 65 of the vcrank shaft '66. Y shaft 66 is connected to a `gear 67 which drives the Vcam shaft gear 68, operating the cam shaft 69, bearing the exhaust valve cam 70. A tappet, or push rod 72 cooperates with the cam 70, this push rod or tappet being guid- Y ed in a suitable guide y7 3 mounted on the frame of the engine, and serves to operate the `exhaust valve 7 4,'wh'ich has the usual stem 75, guided in a valve guide 76-and provided` which is formed in the head 82. l The head 82 is provided with a water jacketV and is bolted upon the upper endl ofthe cylinder 50. It has the combustion space 8() of the well known .Ricardo type, orany oth-er preferredA type for securing a high degree of turbulence to facilitate rapid combustion. -A suitable spark-plug 83 is provided for igniting the v charge at predetermined points in the cycle,
a means for .securing the timing andformation of the spark being omitted for the` sake of clearness. v y
The combustion chamber 8O need be wide enough only to embrace the single valve 74 and hence maybe given a more desirable shape rthanl has heretofore been, possible,
where the intake valve and exhaust valve have Y been placed side byside and covered by the combustion space 80. Due to the fact that the vexhaust valve 74'alone need be mounted as shown, the Awater jacketing of the valve seat andthe cooling of the valve stem maymore easily and readily be accomplished. 'In other words, this construction provides a greater freedom of design than has heretofore been possible where the necessity for providing the two valves of the same Ytype has, been a controlling factor. v l y' Y l Y The operation of this embodiment is like that previously described, except that a combustible` mixture is vdrawn into the cylinder and ignition is secured by spark'instead of fuel injection ignitedby high temperature of the charge.` Assuming vthat the piston 54, as shownin Figure 5,'l'is at the bottom of the in- Hguiding cylinder.
` the valve 21 remains' open. i operations is then completed.
take stroke, the valve 74 closing `the exhaust passageway, the piston lnextrises on the compression stroke. As the piston rises it closes off the space 38, thereby sealing off the contents of the cylinder, the ring 21 acting as an intake valve which is closed by a very small degree of angular motion ofthe crank shaft.
, As the, compression stroke proceeds towards its limit, the charge is lired by the spark plug 83. The crank shaft passes over center and the piston 54C begins to descend under the pressure of gas in the combustion space and the top ofthe cylinder. This internal pressure holds the ring 21 to its seat during the downward stroke until the exhaust valve 74 opens towards the lower end Vof the stroke. Infact, the .internal pneu matic pressure which prevails in the cylinder after the valve is opened retains the ring 21 .against the Hange 13 to the rbottom of the stroke and the exhaust valveneed not be opened until substantially the full stroke is completed. VThe cam holds the valve Tl open during the next stroke, which is a rising stroke of the piston 54, which is inade with the valve 2l held closed both by ring friction and by any residual pressure inthe cylinder.
When the exhaust or expulsion stroke has been completed the valve 74C is closed and the ring 21 is opened by ring friction and also by the diiference in pressure between the intake passageway and the suction prevailing in the thegroove59. Likewise, it cannot be drawn along the walls of the cylinder because of the interruption ofthe circumferential trunk or Y passageway 57. However, the wiping of the lower or guiding portion from the lower cylinder 53 'into the upper cylinder 50, provides ample lubrication for 'the ring 21, the
. major part of the guidingfvfunction being cylinder, for the development of power.
carried at all times by the lower, or cylinder l extension which forms the guide, and the upper, or working cylinder 1 or 50, Figure 5, serves mainly as the pneumatic or working The ring 21 requiresV very little lubrication and sincev the upper end of the `piston does not bear against the cylinder walls of 4the working cylinder, a minimum of lubrication is required. The engine may, therefore, well be operated rwith air cooling only.
While I have shown in Figure 5 the conventional water aoket it is to be understood that this is not essential, but that the gasoline engine shown in Figure 5 may well be provided only with cooling fins, as shown in' Figure 1.
Also, the gasoline engine may be provided with a valve in the head as shown in Figure 1, instead ofthe L-head valve shown in Fig# ure 5. Tn the form of engine in which aironly vis drawn into the cylinder, the exhaust valve in ay be opened a considerable distance before the end of the stroke and scavenging during the remainder of the stroke will octrunk under pressure, scavenging begins Vas soon as the pressure in the cylinder has dropped to a value at, or slightly below the pressure in the intake passageway. Hence,
by supplying air to the intake trunk 26 undei' pressure and shortening the expansion stroke-that is, timing the exhaust valve to open before the end of the stroke and to close shortly thereafter-it is possible to oplcur. In fact, if air is supplied to the inlet` crate the engine vshown in Figure 1 as a twostroke cycle engine, having a vpower stroke for each rotation of the crank shaft.
The injector, of course, must be timed t correspond.
The intake valve of my invention is pe-` culiarly applicable to two stroke cycle engines. Byproviding an individual crank chamber for each cylinder and connecting the same to the corresponding trunk or pocket 26 of the cylinder and interposing a check: i
valve in the inlet, as is. well known to those skilled in the art, the working fluid' may be supplied under pressure. Thereby, scavenging may be secured or two stroke cycle operation may be arranged.
By Y providing drilled passageways 60V through the wall o f the piston, as shown in Figure 7, such passageways terminating in ports under and adapted to be closed `and opened by the ring valve 21, the air or com bustible mixture may be taken 'through the .crankcase and the 'necessity for 'providing a trunk or passageway 26 and vertical grooves 321s eliminated. This is also quite desirable for two-stroke cycle operation employing an f.
overrunning exhaust port in the lowerv end of the upper cylinder portion 19. Y l
Numerous modifications will at once'be apparent to those skilled in the art.
I do not intend to be limited to the details shown and described, as I believe that a valve of this type in internal combustion engines is broadly new and I believe Athat I am the first to operate an intake valve partly by ring frictionV and partly by pneumatic pressure to secure diderent modesof operation on different strokes lof the engine, or other device. 'Y T claim: y
1. An internal' combustion engine comprising a ct linder, a piston, an exhaust tvalve,
for the cylinder, and an intake valve carried by the pist-on, said valve sealing theclearance between the piston and the cylinder throughout the compression stroke of Jthe engine.
2. An internal combustion engine cornpiising the combination of a working cylinder having an exhaust valve, a. piston having a head, and an intake valve the actuation of which is controlled directly by movement of Vthe piston in the cylinder, said valve comworking cylinder, a piston, and a piston ring carried by said piston sealing the piston in the cylinder for compression and serving as van intake valve for' said cylinder, during the intake stroke. Y
5. In an internal combustion engine a lworking cylinder, a cooperating piston having a` groove serving as an intake passagewayT and a piston ringin the groove serving as an intake valve for said passageway, said groove being coniined to travel wholly within the working cylinder.
ln combination, a cylinder, an exhaust valve therefor, a piston, cam means for opening the valve at the end of the power stroke of the piston and holding the valve open during the exhaust stroke of the piston, and an intake valve cooperating with the piston, said valve comprising a piston ring opening only upon reversal of motion of the piston, by friction with the walls of the cylinder.V
7. ln aii internal combustion engine, a cylinder, an exhaust valve therefor, ignition means for firing a charge in the cylinder, a piston and a piston packing ring serving as an inlet valve for admission of combustible mixture to the cylinder.
8. In an internal `combustion engine, a working cylinder having a guiding extension, a piston having a. packing ring disposed'in the working cylinder and having a guiding portion disposer in the guiding extension, means for vadmitting a charge of Working fluid past said ring during the suction stroke of the piston, and an eXh aust valve timed to `open attlie end of the power stroke of the in combination working cylinder having a guiding extension, a pistonhavingaV piston packing and valve ring carried thereby in the working cylinder and having a guiding trunk or crosshead mounted in the` guiding extension, means providing an intake passage connected to said cylinder there being a longitudinally extendingclearance on the piston .to provide communication between said intake passage and the ring, a crankshaft, a connecting rod connecting'the crankshaft and the piston, an exhaust valve, and eam'means periodically operated to open the exhaust valve at the end of a power s troke of the piston.
10. An internal combustion engine coinprisiiig a cylinder having a working portion and a guiding portion of substantially the saine diameter, a piston for the cylinder, said piston comprising a working portion cooperating with the working portion ,of the cylinder and a guiding portion cooperating with the guiding portion of the cylinder, means providing a suction passageway at the junetion oi said cylinder portions, piston packing rings at each end of the piston, thering at the end of the working portion serving asan intake valve, an eirhaiist valve for the working portionof the cylinder and means for actuating the said exhaust valve at the end Yof the power stroke of the piston.
ll.V ligas engine piston comprising an upper or working portion anda lower or guiding and sealing portion, said piston having a peripheral channel adjacent its upper end, and having a longitudinally extending channel, a piston ring sealing the lower end of the latter channel, the upper end `of-said longitudinal channel communicating with the peripheral cliannel,the upper end `of the piston having a ring groove and a piston ring in said groove, said groove being wider and deeper than the ring to provide an intake assafewa around the rin Y the cylinder, an exhaustvalve for the cylinder, a piston packing ring inlet valve carried by the working portion of the piston, an'
intake passageway communicating at all times with the inlet valve and means for delivering working fluid to said intake passage when the exhaust valve is opened.Y
13. A cylinder Jfor an internal combustion' engine, comprising'a working portion and a guide portion, said portions being oi substantially the saine bore, the said portions being separated by a circumferentially extending groove providing an intake passage, a' `suction connection in communication with said passageway, said working portion having a head and an exhaust valve at said head,
saidy valve kcntroiling the discharge et lexhaust gases from the cylinder.
lll. ln a motor operating upon a working liuid and having a piston packing ring forining an intake valve, the niethodof retaining the valve closed' during the power stroke which comprises applying Huid pressure `.Vto'
the-ring in' excess of the friction of the ring against the cylinder walls.
15. -In an internal combustion engine, a piston, a cylinder, aV piston packing ring carried by the piston, said piston providing an intake passageway controlled by the ring, the ring being adapted to engage frictionally the cylinder wall to hold it against movement by the piston, said ring being moved against friction by the internal pressure in the cylinder during the power stroke.
16.V In combination, a pneumatic cylinder, a piston therefor, said piston having a plurality of grooves, rings narrower and shallower than the grooves for providing an intake passageway controlled by said rings in series. Y
17. In combinatioma pneumatic cylinder, a piston therefor, said piston having flanges providing a plurality of grooves between them, rings of less depth and less width than the grooves disposed in the grooves, the flanges being of 'smaller diameterthan the inner bore of the cylinder, the upper and interinediate flanges being perforated to provide an intake passageway which is controlled by said rings.
18. A piston for an internal combustion engine comprising a ring groove, a piston ring therefor, saidy groove being wider and deeper than the ring to provide endwise and radial clearance respectively, thepiston having intake passageways opening into the endwise clearance between ring and groove, said passageways being closable by endwise engagement of the ring and the wall of the groove.
19. A piston for anv internal combustion engine comprising a ring groove, a piston ring therefor, said groove being wider and deeper than the ring to provide endwise and radial clearance respectively, the piston having intake passageways opening into the endwise clearance between ring and groove, said passageways being closable by endwise engagement of the ring and the wall of the groove, saidintake passageways extending through the wall of the piston and opening into the interior thereof. y
20. In an internal combustion engine a cylinder, anl eXhaustvalve for-the cylinder, a piston for the cylinder, said cylinder having an inlet port intermediate its ends, said iston having a packing ring cooperating l with the cylinder to effect a seal between the piston and cylinder throughout the compression stroke of the cylinder and an inlet passageway formed between thepiston and cylinder extending from said inletport to said packing ring, said Vring controlling communication between said passageway and the compression space in the cylinder.
' 21. In an internal combustion engine a cylinder having avworking portion and a guiding portion, an inlet port disposed substantially between said portions of the cylinder, a piston having a head portion and a guide portion, the head portion traversing the working portion of the cylinder only, a
packing ring sealing the space between the Pi head portion and the working portion of the cylinder, the guide portion of the piston having a sealing ring cooperating with the guide portion of the cylinder, the piston between said rings having a reduced portion to f" provide a space continuously in communicationwith the inlet port, said upper ring comcylinder, an intake passageway between said port and the working cylinder formed in the piston and including said groove, and a piston packing ring in said groove controlling said intake passageway.
23.1441 internal combustion engine coin-' prising a working cylinder, a piston reciprocable in the same, said piston having a peripheral ring Vgroove traveling wholly inside the working cylinder, there'being an intake passageway leading to the inside of the work-r ing cylinder formed in the piston and includingsaid ring groove, and a piston packing ring, disposed in said groove and controliing said intake passageway.
24. In an internal combustion engine, a`
cylinder, a crank case, a piston between the crank chamber and cylinder, said piston having a groove, a ring in said groove sealing the clearance between the piston and cylinder,
said groove having greater width than the width of the ring, there being a passageway through the wall of the piston cominunicating with the said groove and being controlled by the said ring to close olf the passageway upon the compression stroke of the piston. Y
v25.V In an Vinternal combustion engine a cylinder, a piston therefor, said piston having a yring groove, a packing ring in said groove, sani-groove being wider than the ring, a passageway` from the groove back of the ring to the spacein the cylinder above the piston, said ring being capable of relative movement with respect to the groove by ring friction with the cylinder walls, said ring being subject to pressure within the cylinder andbeiiig kept from relative niove-inent in the groove upon the outward stroke of the piston by the internal pressure of gas in the cylinder. In witness whereof, I hereto subscribe -iny name this 7th day of June, 1.930.
JOI-IN A. DIENNER.